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date: 02 December 2022

Istanbul [Turk. İstanbul; anc. Byzantium, Gr. Byzantion; formerly Constantinople, Gr. Konstantinoupolis, Arab. and Ott. Quṣṭantiniya, Turk. Konstantiniye]locked

Istanbul [Turk. İstanbul; anc. Byzantium, Gr. Byzantion; formerly Constantinople, Gr. Konstantinoupolis, Arab. and Ott. Quṣṭantiniya, Turk. Konstantiniye]locked

  • Anthony Cutler,
  • Walter B. Denny
  •  and Paul Magdalino

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Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1954–)