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date: 24 January 2021

Greece, ancientlocked

  • Thomas Braun,
  • Christopher G. Simon,
  • David W. J. Gill,
  • Alison Burford,
  • Anastasia N. Dinsmoor,
  • William B. Dinsmoor jr,
  • I. Leventi,
  • Georges Roux,
  • Margaret Lyttleton,
  • Thomas Noble Howe,
  • J. J. Coulton,
  • Frederick Cooper,
  • F. E. Winter,
  • Barbara Tsakirgis,
  • Lothar Haselberger,
  • Marie-Christine Hellmann,
  • John Onians,
  • R. A. Tomlinson,
  • Darice Birge,
  • Wolfram Hoepfner,
  • Reinhard Stupperich,
  • Kalinka Huber,
  • Susan Woodford,
  • Andrew F. Stewart,
  • Sheila Adam,
  • Carol C. Mattusch,
  • Olga Palagia,
  • Jane Burr Carter,
  • Jeffrey M. Hurwit,
  • Gregory V. Leftwich,
  • Elizabeth Bartman,
  • Ann Thomas Wilkins,
  • B. A. Sparkes,
  • Tom Rasmussen,
  • Joseph Veach Noble,
  • Alan Johnston,
  • Henry R. Immerwahr,
  • Nicolas Coldstream,
  • Robert Cook,
  • Mary Blomberg,
  • Maria Pipili,
  • Elizabeth Moignard,
  • J. M. Hemelrijk,
  • John H. Oakley,
  • Pascal Leblond,
  • Ian McPhee,
  • Irma Wehgartner,
  • Susan I. Rotroff,
  • Nancy Thomson de Grummond,
  • V. von Graeve,
  • Paolo Moreno,
  • Martin Robertson,
  • Jaimee Uhlenbrock,
  • A. M. Snodgrass,
  • Ian Carradice,
  • Virginia Webb,
  • Stephan Steingräber,
  • David Whitehouse,
  • Reynold Higgins,
  • Imma Kilian-Dirlmeier,
  • Donald M. Bailey,
  • Nancy L. Klein,
  • Anne Pearson,
  • Alexandra Bounia
  •  and Thomas Mannack


Term referring to the lands and civilization of the ancient Greeks, a culture that represents a pinnacle of achievement in art and architecture, literature and philosophy. It had its origins in the Bronze Age cultures of the 2nd millennium bc and reached its peak between the 8th and 4th centuries bc with the flowering of the city states, especially Athens; it survived their loss of independence and continued to pervade the eastern Mediterranean long after the Roman Empire was established. It spread far beyond the Greek homeland (which was not quite as extensive as modern Greece), reaching Cyprus as early as c. 1200 bc and many parts of the Mediterranean and Black Sea littoral from the 8th century bc onwards (see fig. ). Alexander’s conquests extended it across the Middle East to India. Western Europe is its heir, indirectly through Rome and directly through the revival of Greek studies in the Renaissance and the rediscovery of Greek art by travellers and archaeologists from the 17th century ...

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Enciclopedia universale dell’arte, 15 vols (Rome, 1958–67); Eng. trans. as Encyclopedia of World Art (New York, 1959–68)