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date: 27 June 2022

Whistler, James Abbott Mcneillfree

Whistler, James Abbott Mcneillfree

Updated in this version

updated 20 January 2016; updated 19 September 2014; updated 02 October 2012

American, 19th century, male.

Active in England and in France.

Born 10 July 1834, in Lowell (Massachusetts); died 17 July 1903 , in London.

Painter, pastellist, watercolourist, etcher, draughtsman, lithographer, decorative designer, writer, collector. Genre scenes, portraits, landscapes.

Japonisme, Aesthetic movement.

James Abbott McNeil Whistler, photograph, 245×190 mm (Frick Art Reference Library Archives)

James Abbott McNeill WHISTLER: signature or monogram

James Abbott McNeill WHISTLER: signature or monogram

James Abbott McNeill WHISTLER: signature or monogram

James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s father, Major George Whistler, came from an old Dutch family. As a military engineer, he accepted a job that took him to Russia to work on the St Petersburg-Moscow railway line, and his son, still a child, went with him. George Whistler remained in Russia until his death in 1849, after which his widow, Anna McNeill (who was of Scottish origin), returned to the United States with her son. Whistler devoted himself to drawing, while at the same time working to enter West Point Military Academy; he succeeded in 1851, but he was of an independent nature and it was not long before he decided to give up a military career. He found employment as a draughtsman for the US Coast and Geodetic Survey in Washington, DC, and it was at this time that he executed his first etchings. Here too, however, the constraints of bureaucracy sat ill with him, and he resigned his position in 1855 to open a studio in Washington. He then left the United States and settled in Europe, working in London and in Paris. In 1856, he joined Charles Gleyre’s studio, where he was a fellow pupil and friend of Edgar Degas, Alphonse Legros, Félix Bracquemond, and especially Henri Fantin-Latour.

Whistler had learnt printmaking for practical reasons, and his first publication in France in 1858 was a series of etchings printed by Delâtre and offered for sale for 50 francs apiece. Toward 1859, he brought out a series of etchings of the Thames in a print run of 100. Create link: XR

In 1859, Whistler submitted a work to the Salon for the first time; At the Piano was rejected by the Paris jury but accepted the following year by the Royal Academy in London. Gustave Courbet, whom Whistler visited twice in Trouville in 1864 and 1865, liked this painting and gave the young painter some advice on Realism. His 1860 submission, Symphony in White, No. I: The White Girl, was also rejected by the jury but exhibited at the historic Salon des Refusés. Whistler, who had previously divided his time between London and Paris, took these two successive rejections to heart and settled in England as a consequence. In 1877, he sent his Nocturnes to the first Grosvenor Gallery exhibition. The value and interest of what Whistler had attempted in these works was not, apparently, clearly perceived by his audience, and the critics were frankly hostile: Speaking of the near-abstract painting Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, John Ruskin wrote, ‘I...never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face’. Such a comment from no less a pen than that of Ruskin, whose reputation as an art critic was formidable, was enough to place an artist in real peril; Whistler realised this and sued the writer for 1,000 pounds in damages and interest. After a lengthy trial, Whistler won the action but was awarded only a farthing in damages. The costs of the trial bankrupted Whistler, and his ‘White House’, designed for him by E. W. Godwin, was auctioned. He took revenge for this partial failure in a satirical work, Art and Art Critics. In 1879, Whistler left London and went to work in Italy, where he executed a number of works of particular luminosity, including 40 etchings of Venice, a large number of pastels, and a few paintings.

On his return to England, Whistler was made a member of the Royal Society of British Artists, and he began his career as a portraitist that composed such a remarkable part of his work. In 1872, he revealed his talent as a portraitist in the portrait of his mother exhibited at the Royal Academy that year. Adapting the theory of Rembrandt van Rijn and Georges de La Tour, Whistler said, ‘It is for the artist...to put on canvas something more than the face the model wears for that one day...a woman’s dignity comes before her dress and does not depend on it’. During the course of the following years, Whistler further established his skill and reputation with the portraits Carlyle, Miss Alexander, Theodore Duret, and Comte Robert de Montesquiou Fezensac, among others. In the meantime, he executed the decoration of Frederick Leyland’s dining room, where he placed his Princess from the Land of Porcelain, painted 10 years previously, over the mantelpiece. While a member of the Royal Society, Whistler enjoyed the highest reputation as a portraitist, and he was its president from 1886 to 1888.

In 1888, he married the actress Beatrix Godwin. He lived in London until 1896, when his wife died, after which he moved to Paris, where he was now well received. He was a particularly close friend of Degas and a number of professional writers, including Jean Lorrain and especially Stéphane Mallarmé, who translated the lecture that Whistler delivered in 1885 in Oxford and Cambridge, ‘Mr Whistler’s “Ten O’Clock”’, into French for La Revue indépendante ( Independent Review, Paris, 1888). Whistler was awarded a number of prizes in France: a third-class medal in 1883, a gold medal at the 1889 Exposition Universelle, and the Grand Prix at the 1900 Exposition Universelle. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur in 1889 and an Officer in 1891. In 1903, he received an honorary degree from Glasgow University.

Whistler contributed drawings to a number of publications, including Scribner’s and Good Works, as well as illustrations for works such as Passages from Modern English Poets and Walter Thornbury’s Historical and Legendary Ballads and Songs.  Create link: XR

Several influences can be distinguished in Whistler’s work, including that of Diego Velázquez, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the Impressionists, and Japanese art. From Velázquez, he took the purity of sweeping lines and the precise art of using tonalities of white and grey; from Rossetti, he took the charm and fascination of women depicted with their ‘eyes bright with immortal sorrow’. To the Impressionists he owed his skill with colour values and finely nuanced atmosphere. Speaking of his debt to them, Whistler said that ‘Nature contains the elements, in colour and form, of all pictures, as the keyboard contains the notes of all music. But the artist is born to pick, and choose, and group with science, these elements, that the result may be beautiful – as the musician gathers his notes and forms his chords, until he brings forth from chaos glorious harmony’. In 1877, with his Nocturnes, Whistler wanted to ‘omit forms, and by means of colours rival the musician who, for his part, makes use of sounds’. This notion was manifest even in the very names of his compositions – Notes, Harmonies, Arrangements, Symphonies – titles that clearly indicated Whistler’s affinity, in intention, at least, with the Impressionists. He also studied Japanese art with passionate interest and applied himself to reproducing both its characteristic restraint and its lively energy that he described as ‘the fantastic balancing of forms, and irregular spaces, the arbitrary choice of viewpoint and the faded splendour from which the symbol of the spiritual emerges’. But Whistler did not merely reformulate what he admired; his technique was always very much his own.

Whistler died of influenza during a visit to London. In 1908, the house where he was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, became the Whistler House Museum of Art. The Centre for Whistler Studies at Glasgow University houses the artist’s correspondence, while the university’s Hunterian Gallery has a major collection of his works following the gift of his estate (works, furniture, personal archives) by Whistler’s sister-in-law Rosalind Birnie Philip in 1935, 1954, and 1958. In 1940, the US Postal Service issued a stamp with a portrait of Whistler in his honour.

Group Exhibitions

1860, 1863, Salon des Refusés, Paris, France

1860, 1870, 1872, 1876, 1880, 1884, Royal Academy, London, United Kingdom

1867, Exposition Universelle, Paris, France

1871, Dudley Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1879, 1882, 1888, Grosvenor Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1882, 1885, Salon, Paris, France

1883, 1887, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, France

1884, Les XX, Brussels, Belgium

1885 – 1887, Society of British Artists, London, United Kingdom

1897, English and German Watercolours, Museum of the Stieglitz School, St Petersburg, Russia

1898 – 1899, 1901, 1904, 1908, International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, London, United Kingdom

1910, Austellung Amerikanischer Kunst, Köningliche Akademie der Kunst, Berlin

1938, Three Centuries of Art in the United States (Trois Siècles d’art aux États-Unis), Musée du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France

1949, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, CT

1954, Sargent, Whistler, and Mary Cassatt, Art Institute of Chicago, IL; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

1963, Westmoreland County Museum of Art, Greensburg, PA

1977, Whistler and His Influence in Britain, Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1982, Whistler and His Contemporaries: Prints from the University Art Collections, University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson, AZ

1984, A New World: Masterpieces of American Painting, 1760 – 1910 (Un Nouveau Monde: chefs d’oeuvre de la peinture Américaine, 1760 – 1910), Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, France; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1986, Whistler and His Circle: Etchings and Lithographs from the Collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada

1989, 200 Years of American Painting. The Wadsworth Atheneum Collection (200 Ans de Peinture Américaine. Collection du Wadsworth Atheneum), Galeries Lafayette, Paris, France

1990, Haden, Whistler, and Pennell: Three Master Printmakers in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1995, Rodin, Whistler et la Muse, Musée Rodin, Paris, France

1999, Town and Country: American Artists, 1870 – 1920 (Ville et campagne: les artistes Américains, 1870 – 1920), Musée d’Art Américain/Terra Foundation for the Arts, Giverny, France

2000, Rivers and Shores: American Artists 1850 – 1900, Musée d’Art Américain/Terra Foundation for the Arts, Giverny, France

2000, 1900: Art at the Crossroads, Royal Academy of Arts, London, United Kingdom, and Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, France

2001, Whistler and Holland: Watercolours and Prints by Whistler, Rembrandt, James McBev, D. Y. Cameron, and Others, Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

2002, Whistler to Freud, Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

2002, Japonisme in America: Works on Paper (Le Japonisme en Amérique: oeuvres sur papier), Musée d’Art Américain/Terra Foundation for the Arts, Giverny, France

2003, The Origins of Abstraction (1800 – 1914) (Aux origines de l’abstraction (1800 – 1914)), Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

2003, After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA

2004, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada

2004, The Edwardians: Secrets and Desires, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra (travelling exhibition)

2006, Americans in Paris 1860 – 1900, National Gallery, London, United Kingdom; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

2008, Coming of Age: American Art 1850 – 1950, Paintings from the Addison Gallery of American Art, Massachusetts, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, United Kingdom

2008, Portrait of a Lady: Paintings and Photographs of American Women in France 1870 – 1915, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, France

2008, Like Breath on Glass: Whistler, Inness, and the Artist Painting Softly, Sterling and Francine Clark Institute, Williamstown, MA

2009, Impressionismus und Japanmode: Edgar Degas, James McNeill Whistler, Städtische Galerie, Überlingen, Germany

Solo Exhibitions

1874, Flemish Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1877, 1878, Grosvenor Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1880, 1895, Fine Arts Society, London, United Kingdom

1884, 1886, Dowdeswell’s Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1892, Goupil Gallery, Paris, France

1894, Exposition Universelle, Antwerp, Belgium

1904, Copley Society, Boston, MA

1905, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France

1907, 1968, Art Institute of Chicago, IL

1912, National Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1914, 1919, 1920, 1922, Knoedler and Company, New York

1934, Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD

1960, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, United Kingdom

1963, The Whistlers, Cincinnati Art Museum, OH

1969, Nationalgalerie Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany

1971, From Realism to Symbolism: Whistler and His World, Columbia University, New York, NY; Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

1980, James Abbott McNeill Whistler: A Retrospective Exhibition of the Artist’s Lithographs, Hom Gallery, Washington, DC

1983, Arrangement in White and Yellow: A Centennial Celebration, Wunderlich and Company Gallery, New York, NY (commemorating the 100th anniversary of Hermann Wunderlich’s exhibition of Whistler’s engravings)

1983, A Cultivated Taste: Whistler and American Print Collectors, Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT

1984, Drawing Near: Whistler Etchings from the Zelman Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA

1984, Whistler Pastels and Related Works in the Hunterian Art Gallery, Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom

1994, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom; Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France (major touring retrospective exhibition, including paintings, watercolours, pastels, drawings, engravings, illustrations)

1999, James McNeill Whistler: Graphic Works in the Hamburg Prints Collection, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Germany

2003, Whistler Collection; Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1: Portrait of the Painter’s Mother, Whistler’s Mother; Beauty and the Butterfly: Whistler’s Depictions of Women; Anna Matilda Whistler, A Life; Copper into Gold: Whistler and 19th-Century Printmaking; Whistler and Scotland, Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (a series of exhibitions of Whistler’s works and personal possessions)

2003, Whistler, Women and Fashion, Frick Collection, New York, NY

2003, Fine Arts Society, London, United Kingdom

2004, James McNeill Whistler: Uneasy Pieces, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond

2004, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

2005, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra

2006, Whistler and Russia, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

2011, The Search for Beauty: Whistler and His Time, Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, ME

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Amsterdam (Rijksmuseum): Arrangement in Yellow and Grey: Effie Deans (1876 – 1878)

Boston (Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.): Harmony in Blue and Silver: Trouville (1865, oil on canvas)

Boston (MFA): The Last of Old Westminster (1862, oil on canvas); Nocturne in Blue and Silver: The Lagoon, Venice (1879 – 1880, oil on canvas)

Chicago (AI): Grey and Silver: Old Battersea Reach (1863, oil on canvas); The Artist in His Studio (1865 – 1866, oil on paper mounted on panel); Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Southampton Water (1872, oil on canvas)

Chicago (Terra Mus. of American Art): Flower Shop, Dieppe (c. 1885, watercolour over graphite); Beggars (c. 1892, etching with drypoint on off-white paper); The Beach at Marseilles (c. 1901, oil on wood); Upright Venice (1879 – 1880, etching and drypoint); Shipping Boats, Venice (1879 – 1880, etching and drypoint on buff laid paper); Bead-stringers (1879 – 1880, etching, drypoint); Note in Red: The Siesta (1882 – 1883, oil on panel); Spring (1893 – 1894, chalk, pastel); A Brittany Shop with Shuttered Windows (c. 1893, watercolour/illustration board)

Cincinnati, OH (Taft MA): At the Piano (1858 – 1859, oil on canvas)

Detroit (IA): Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875, oil on panel)

Dublin (Hugh Lane Municipal AG): The Artist’s Studio (1865, oil on cardboard)

Glasgow (Hunterian AG): important body of works and personal archives

Glasgow (Kelvingrove AG and Mus.): Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 2: Portrait of Thomas Carlyle

Hartford, CT (Wadsworth Atheneum): Coast of Brittany (Alone with the Tide) (1861, oil on canvas); prints

London (Tate Collection): Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge (c. 1872 – 1875, oil on canvas); Harmony in Grey and Green: Miss Cicely Alexander (1872 – 1874, oil on canvas)

Lowell, MA (Whistler House MA): important collection of engravings

New Britain, CT (Mus. of American Art): The Beach at Selsey Bill (c. 1865, oil on canvas)

New Haven, CT (Yale Center for British Art): Nocturne in Blue and Silver (1872 – 1878, oil on canvas)

New York (Frick Collection): Arrangement in Brown and Black: Portrait of Miss Rosa Corder (1876 –1878, oil on canvas); Arrangement in Black and Gold: Comte Robert de Montesquiou-Fezensac (1891 –1892, oil on canvas)

New York (Metropolitan MA): Arrangement in Flesh Colour and Black: Portrait of Theodore Duret (1883, oil on canvas)

Paris (Mus. d’Orsay): Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1: Portrait of the Painter’s Mother (1871, oil on canvas); Variations in Violet and Green (1871)

Philadelphia (MA): Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks (1864, oil on canvas); Arrangement in Black (The Lady in the Yellow Buskin) (c. 1883, oil on canvas)

Portland, ME (AM): Portrait of Miss Florence Leyland (1871 or 1876 – 1877)

Washington, DC (Freer Gal. of Art): Rose and Silver: La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine (c. 1865); important collection of works

Washington, DC (NGA): Wapping (1860 – 1864, oil on canvas); Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl (1862, oil on canvas); Grey and Silver: Chelsea Wharf (c. 1864 – 1868, oil on canvas); drawings, numerous prints

Worcester, MA (AM): Sketch for Rose and Silver: Le Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine (1863 – 1864, oil/panel)

Auction Records

Paris, 1894: Nocturne, FRF 4,000

London, 10 Feb 1894: The Music Room, FRF 4,975

Paris, 24 March 1900: Naval Review at Southampton (watercolour) FRF 950

Paris, 3 May 1902: The Child, FRF 14,100

Paris, 3 – 4 June 1920: The Conversation (watercolour) FRF 3,000; Sleeping Woman (pencil) FRF 570

Paris, 26 – 27 May 1924: The Sleeper (drawing) FRF 2,500

London, 28 July 1924: Mr Beaumont, GBP 136

London, 24 April 1925: Venetian Canal (drawing) GBP 609; On the Lagoon (drawing) GBP 378

Paris, 5 – 6 June 1925: The Thames, FRF 2,450

London, 2 July 1926: Chelsea Rags, GBP 567

New York, 25 – 26 March 1931: Notes in Rose and Silver (watercolour) USD 2,150; Gold and Brown (watercolour) USD 1,100; White and Silver (watercolour) USD 1,100

London, 5 April 1934: Almond Tree in Bud, GBP 483

New York, 15 Nov 1935: Nocturne, USD 1,200

London, 16 June 1936: Nocturne in Blue and Gold, GBP 945

London, 28 May 1937: Young Girl Dancing (drawing) GBP 183

London, 7 July 1939: At the Piano, GBP 6,045; Symphony in White, GBP 3,465; Nocturne in Blue and Gold, GBP 682

New York, 17 Oct 1942: Mr Graves, USD 1,750

New York, 25 Feb 1943: Lady A. Campbell, USD 900

New York, 2 April 1943: Market Place, Dieppe (Variations in Violet and Grey – Market Place, Dieppe) USD 625

London, 25 April 1945: Milman’s Row, Chelsea, GBP 350

New York, 18 Oct 1945: Seascape, USD 1,450

New York, 13 Dec 1945: The Thames, USD 2,700

New York, 28 March 1946: Canal in Venice (watercolour) USD 1,400

New York, 21 March 1947: Beach Scene (watercolour) USD 800

London, 28 July 1950: Three Figures, GBP 700

Paris, 28 June 1951: The Port of Amsterdam (drawing in black lead) FRF 6,800

New York, 13 Dec 1958: The Thames from Battersea Bridge, USD 4,500

New York, 18 Feb 1960: Archway, Venice (pastel) USD 1,700

London, 4 May 1960: Study for the Head of a Young Girl, GBP 600

New York, 25 Jan 1961: Venice at Sunset (pastel) USD 2,700

London, 21 Nov 1962: A Canal in Venice (pastel) GBP 1,900; Girl in Black, GBP 2,600

New York, 23 April 1964: View of the Lagoon in Venice at Sunset (pastel) USD 1,200

London, 5 March 1965: The Beach at Pourville, Gns 2,700

London, 14 July 1965: Harmony in Yellow and Gold: ‘The Gold Girl’ – Connie Gilchrist (drawing) GBP 2,600

London, 1 May 1968: La Mère Gérard, GBP 1,100

London, 8 Nov 1968: Harmony in Gold and Brown (pastel) Gns 1,000

London, 21 Nov 1969: Boats in an Estuary (watercolour) Gns 1,150

London, 20 March 1970: View of Chelsea (watercolour) Gns 1,200

London, 11 Dec 1970: A Young Girl of the Streets, Gns 10,000

New York, 28 Oct 1971: Zuyder Zee (watercolour) USD 8,000

New York, 18 Oct 1972: Grey and Gold: The Golden Bay, USD 15,000

New York, 19 Dec 1972: Return of the Fishing Boats (watercolour) Gns 3,800

Paris, 1 Dec 1973: Reading to the Invalid, FRF 45,000

New York, 23 May 1974: The Mule, Ajaccio (watercolour) USD 2,000

New York, 29 April 1976: Seascape with Figures (oil on wood, 5 × 8½ ins/12.5 × 21.5 cm) USD 9,250

New York, 7 May 1976: Nocturne (etching and drypoint, 8 × 12 ins/20.1 × 29.6 cm) USD 3,000

New York, 28 Oct 1976: Blue and Silver: Forget-me-not (watercolour, 9¾ × 7 ins/25 × 17.8 cm) USD 4,500

London, 17 June 1977: Arrangement in Black, No. 3: Sir Henry Irving as Philip II of Spain (oil on canvas remounted/panel, 12¼ × 7½ ins/31 × 19 cm) GBP 2,400

New York, 28 Oct 1977: Blue and Violet – Iris (pastel, 10¾ × 7 ins/27.4 × 17.7 cm) USD 8,250

New York, 11 Nov 1977: Nocturne (1878, lithotint/chine appliqué, 6¾ × 10¼ ins/17 × 26 cm) USD 1,200

New York, 10 May 1979: The Beggars (engraving and drypoint, 12 × 8¼ ins/30.5 × 21 cm) USD 3,000

New York, 7 June 1979: Self-portrait (black chalk/brown paper, 6¾ × 5½ ins/17 × 14 cm) USD 10,000

London, 13 June 1980: Figures Before a Porch (watercolour, 4¾ × 8¼ ins/12 × 21 cm) GBP 3,000

London, 6 Nov 1981: Drawing Room Scene (pen, 3 × 2½ ins/7.6 × 6.1 cm) GBP 1,000

New York, 4 June 1982: Portrait of Miss Amy Brandon Thomas (c. 1890, oil on canvas, 20 × 12 ins/50.5 × 30.5 cm) USD 27,000

New York, 3 June 1983: View of Venice (c. 1880, pastel/grey paper, 6¼ × 11 ins/15.6 × 27 cm) USD 40,000

New York, 3 May 1984: Nocturne (1879, brown etching, 8 × 11¾ ins/20.1 × 29.8 cm) USD 12,000

New York, 21 Sept 1984: Woman at the Fountain, Heidelberg (pencil, 5½ × 7¾ ins/14.1 × 19.8 cm) USD 3,200

New York, 8 May 1985: Rotherhithe (1860, etching and drypoint, 10¾ × 8 ins/27.6 × 20.3 cm) USD 5,500

New York, 6 Dec 1985: Green and Gold: The Dancer (watercolour/card, 10¾ × 7¼ ins/27.5 × 18.2 cm) USD 140,000

New York, 28 May 1987: Variations in Violet and Green (oil on canvas) USD 2,585,000; Variations in Violet and Green (1871, oil on canvas, 24 × 14 ins/61 × 35.5 cm) USD 2,350,000

New York, 30 Sept 1988: Portrait of a Woman (pencil/paper, 5½ × 4¼ ins/14 × 10.8 cm) USD 4,950

New York, 24 May 1989: Grey and Rose: Draped Model Holding a Fan (pastel and watercolour/paper, 10¾ × 7 ins/27.3 × 17.9 cm) USD 38,500

New York, 23 May 1990: Blue and Gold: The Schooner (oil on panel, 3½ × 5¾ ins/8.7 × 14.8 cm) USD 176,000

New York, 24 May 1990: View Over the Lagoon (pencil and pastel/paper, 9 × 7¾ ins/22.8 × 19.7 cm) USD 31,900

New York, 27 Sept 1990: Mère Gérard (oil on panel, 10 × 6¾ ins/24.5 × 17.3 cm) USD 33,000

New York, 29 Nov 1990: Harmony in Blue and Pearl: The Sands, Dieppe (oil on panel, 9 × 5½ ins/22.9 × 14 cm) USD 231,000

New York, 22 May 1991: The Shop Windows (oil on panel, 5¼ × 8¾ ins/13.2 × 22.3 cm) USD 220,000

New York, 6 Dec 1991: Courtyard of a Venetian Palace (charcoal and pastel/grey paper, oil on canvas, 11¾ × 8 ins/30 × 20.2 cm) USD 22,000

Munich, 26 May 1992: Drouet (1859, etching, 8¾ × 6 ins/22.5 × 15 cm) DEM 1,322

New York, 25 Sept 1992: The Cadets of West Point (ink/paper, 7¼ × 4½ ins/18.4 × 11.4 cm) USD 4,675

New York, 3 Dec 1992: Note in Opal – The Sands, Dieppe (watercolour/paper, 8½ × 5 ins/21.3 × 12.4 cm) USD 49,500

New York, 27 May 1993: Grey and Blue: The Giudecca – Winter (chalk and pastel/paper, 8 × 11¾ ins/20.3 × 29.8 cm) USD 54,625

Paris, 11 June 1993: Newspaper Stall, Rue de Seine (etching, 3¼ × 7¾ ins/8.2 × 19.7 cm) FRF 4,200

Paris, 3 Feb 1995: The Music Room (etching, 5¾ × 8½ ins/14.5 × 21.5 cm) FRF 4,000

New York, 14 Sept 1995: Spring (chalk and pastel/card, 11 × 6¾ ins/27.9 × 17.1 cm) USD 431,500

New York, 22 May 1996: Under the Frari (1879 – 1880, chalk and pastel/paper, 11¾ × 5 ins/29.8 × 12.7 cm) USD 129,000

Paris, 21 Nov 1996: La Piazzetta (1879 – 1880, etching, 10 × 7 ins/25.6 × 17.9 cm) FRF 25,500

New York, 5 Dec 1996: Young Greek Slave (pastel/paper, 10¼ × 7 ins/26 × 17.8 cm) NLG 222,500

New York, 6 – 7 March 1998: Speke Hall, No. 2 (1870) USD 6,325

New York, 26 May 1999: Corte del Paradiso (chalk and pastel, 12 × 6 ins/30 × 15 cm) USD 460,000

New York, 2 Nov 1999: Balcony, Amsterdam (etching and drypoint, 11 × 7 ins/27 × 17 cm) USD 55,000

New York, 24 May 2000: Sotto Portico San Giacomo (chalk and pastel, 12 × 6 ins/30 × 14 cm) USD 170,000

New York, 25 May 2000: Harmony in Grey: Chelsea in Ice (oil on canvas, 18 × 24 ins/45 × 61 cm) USD 2,600,000

New York, 8 May 2001: Fish Market, San Barnaba (1879, chalk and pastel, 8 × 12 ins/20 × 30 cm) USD 200,000

New York, 29 Nov 2001: Green and Silver – Bright Sea, Dieppe (watercolour and gouache, 10 × 7 ins/25 × 18 cm) USD 540,000

New York, 2 May 2002: Palaces (etching and drypoint, 10 × 14 ins/25 × 36 cm) USD 18,000; Two Doorways (etching and drypoint, 8 × 11 ins/20 × 29 cm) USD 24,000

New York, 31 Oct 2003: Nocturne (etching, 8 × 11 ins/20 × 29 cm) USD 52,500; Nocturne (1878, lithograph, 7 × 10 ins/17 × 25 cm) USD 57,500

London, 23 March 2004: Street Scene in Chelsea (pen and ink, 6 × 4 ins/15 × 10 cm) GBP 26,000

New York, 28 April 2004: Early Morning (lithotint, 7 × 10 ins/17 × 26 cm) USD 36,000

New York, 29 Oct 2004: The Duet (1894, lithograph, 9 × 6 ins/22.9 × 15.2 cm) USD 30,000

New York, 19 May 2005: Note in Rose and Silver: Dordrecht (1884, watercolour on paper, 8 × 5 ins/20.3 × 12.7 cm) USD 350,000

New York, 31 Oct 2005: Weary (1863, etching, 8 × 5 ins/20.3 × 12.7 cm) USD 52,000

New York, 2 Nov 2006: The Siesta (1896, lithograph, 6 × 8 ins/15.2 × 20.3 cm) USD 210,000

New York, 30 Nov 2006: Mother and Child (1890 – 1892, pastel on paper on board, 11 × 7 ins/27.9 × 17.8 cm) USD 470,000

New York, 1 May 2007: Square House, Amsterdam (1889, monotype/etching, 9 × 7 ins/22.9 × 17.8 cm) USD 220,000

New York, 28 Nov 2007: Blue and Opal: Herring Fleet (1884, oil on panel, 5 × 8½ ins/12 × 21.6 cm) USD 361,000

New York, 21 May 2008: Figures in a Doorway (c. 1897 – 1899, watercolour on paper, 9½ × 5¾ ins/24.1 × 14.6 cm) USD 517,000

New York, 22 May 2008: Study for ‘The Tall Bridge’ (1878, charcoal and chalk on brown paper, 11 × 7 ins/27.9 × 17.8 cm) USD 385,000

New York, 30 Apr 2009: San Biagio (Kennedy 197) (1879 – 1880, etching, 8 × 12 ins/20.5 × 30 cm) USD 17,500

Dedham, 7 Dec 2009: The Dyer (etching on laid paper, 12 × 19½ ins/30.5 × 49.5 cm) USD 115,000

New York, 28 Oct 2010: Nocturne (1879 – 1880, etching and drypoint on Japanese paper, 8 × 11¾ ins/20.2 × 29.5 cm) USD 282,000

New York, 29 Oct 2010: Nocturne: Palaces (K.202) (1879 – 1880, etching on laid paper, 12 × 8 ins/30 × 19.8 cm) USD 98,500

New York, 19 May 2011: A White Note (1861, oil on canvas, 14½ × 12½ ins/36.8 × 31.8 cm) USD 290,500

Philadelphia, 4 Dec 2011: Blue and Opal – The Photographer (c. 1885, watercolour, 5 × 8½ ins/12.4 × 21.6 cm) USD 469,000

New York, 9 May 2012: White and Pink (The Palace) (chalk and pastel on paper, 8 × 12 ins/20 × 30 cm) USD 650,500 (premium)

New York, 29 Nov 2012: Women and Children outside a Brittany Shop (c. 1888, watercolour on linen laid on board, 5 × 8½ ins/13 × 22 cm) USD 134,500 (premium)

New York, 22 May 2013: Portrait of a Child (c. 1885 – 1895, oil on canvas, 21 × 11½ ins/53 × 29 cm) USD 341,000 (premium)

Nice, 12 June 2013: Green and Silver – The Three Clouds (c. 1885, watercolour, 8 ¾ × 5¼ ins/22 × 13.5 cm) EUR 260,000

New York, 6 March 2014: Quiet Canal, from Twenty-Six Etchings (1879 – 1880, etching and drypoint, 9 × 6 ins/23 × 15 cm) USD 65,000 (premium); Old Putney Bridge (1879 – 1889, 8 × 12 ins/20 × 30 cm) USD 10,000 (premium)

New York, 19 Nov 2014: Howth Head, near Dublin (1900, oil on panel, 7¾ × 11¼ ins/19.7 × 28.5 cm) USD 245,000

London, 4 March 2015: Street at Saverne, from Twelve Etchings of Nature (1858, etching, 8¼ × 6¼ ins/20.9 × 15.9 cm) GBP 812

New York, 5 March 2015: Fruit Stall (1879 – 1880, etching and drypoint, 9 × 6 ins/22.7 × 15.1 cm) USD 10,625

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