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date: 28 June 2022

Ruysdael, Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob or Ruisdaelfree

Ruysdael, Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob or Ruisdaelfree

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Born 1628 or 1629, in Haarlem; died 1682, in Amsterdam, buried 14 March in Haarlem.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver (etching). Landscapes, winter landscapes, seascapes.

Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob RUYSDAEL: signature or monogram

Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob RUYSDAEL: signature or monogram

Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob RUYSDAEL: signature or monogram

Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob RUYSDAEL: signature or monogram

Jakob Isaakszoon van or Jacob RUYSDAEL: signature or monogram

Jakob Ruysdael's master is not known: it has been said to be his uncle Salomon van Ruysdael, or Allardt van Everdingen, or Wynans, or Jan Cornelisz. Vroom. It has also been said that his father, a frame dealer, was a painter, and taught his son. However it seems probable that Ruysdael taught himself by studying nature and his immediate surroundings, which would explain a sometimes naive and experimental approach. He entered the Haarlem Guild in 1648 and went to Amsterdam in 1657, obtaining citizenship in 1659, but his work met with little success. During his time there he may have met Rembrandt. He visited Westphalia, Guelder and Hanover in 1650, but it seems that he never went to Norway even though he painted Scandinavian landscapes, probably after those of Allart van Everdingen who had been there. He was fascinated by the austere and tormented wilderness and perpetually dark vegetation.Ruysdeal's will indicates that he must have suffered from 'chronic melancholy' from which he may have wanted to cure himself; this is sometimes perceived as the reason why he took up medicine and was received as a doctor at the University of Caen in 1676. It seems that he returned to Haarlem in poverty in 1681 and died there in hospital.

Ruysdael's first works were etchings such as Landscape with Trees, 1646. In 1647 he painted Sandy Track in quite a thick medium, which he made more fluid from 1650. From 1657, and this change may be attributed to the possible influence of Rembrandt in Amsterdam, Ruysdael subjects his landscapes to a meticulously detailed, carefully planned composition. He is above all restrained in the means he employs; his use of colour avoids anything eye-catching or bright, and red, amongst other colours, is banished. Only occasionally do figures - added at the request of purchasers and often painted by other artists - break the perfect unity of the work. Hobbema may have been one of his pupils at the end of his career. His paintings were also embellished with figures by van Ostade, V. Berchem, Philippe Wouverman, Br. D'Helst, J. Vecton, and J. Vonck.

Deeply attached to his native country, Ruysdael did not paint landscapes in the Italian style like those of Jean Both and others; the light effects which often appear in his paintings are characteristic of the Zuider Zee. He also painted a large number of dramatic seascapes: the Louvre has one in which the colour of the water turns yellow with the approach of a storm, depicting apprehension at the prospect of the storm rather than the storm itself. At a time when so many painters emphasised the picturesque aspect of the countryside, Ruysdael was pursuing the elusive spirit of nature itself. Each element of the landscape was included more for its symbolic value than for its actual appearance. A constant reminder of the inevitability of death is also present in his Vanitas still-lifes as the changing appearances of things in light and darkness. In the years 1660-1670, Ruysdael painted two versions of the Jewish Cemetery. In these works he created a realistic vision of the ruined tombs in the Jewish cemetery in Amsterdam dominated by imaginary ruins. In one of the works a storm is looming; in the other, a rainbow reconciles earth and sky.

Ruysdael's work imposes an entirely subjective point of view, and he is often perceived as the inventor of picturesque landscape, in contrast to the Classical style of Poussin and Claude Lorraine. His body of work is considerable and includes the famous Mill at Wijk, near Duurstede which even at its most peaceful is subject to an underlying anxiety. A pantheist, Ruysdael fuses the actual reality of the landscape with the divine essence of things. Johann Wolfgang Goethe saw in him a painter of "visionary landscapes". For Ruysdael landscape painting is a reflection of a state of mind.

Group Exhibitions

2001, Two Golden Ages: Masterpieces of Dutch and Danish Painting (Twee gouden eeuwen: schilderkunst uit Nederland en Denemarken), Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

2005, A Celebration of Painting, Dutch and Flemish Painting from the 16th to the 18th Century, Stiftung Museum Kunst Palast, Düsseldorf

2006, From Rembrandt to Van Gogh: Dutch Drawings from the Morgan, Morgan Library and Museum, New York

Solo Exhibitions

2002, Jacob van Ruisdael or The Revolution in Landscape Painting (Jacob van Ruisdael Oder die Revolution der Landschaft), Kunsthalle, Hamburg

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Aachen: Landscape in the Dutch Plain; Landscape with Field of Corn

Aix-en-Provence: Landscape

Amsterdam (Rijksmus.): View of Haarlem; Corner of a Wood; Sandy Track (1647); Mill at Wijk, near Duurstede (c. 1670, two landscapes); Waterfall; Rocky Site; Winter Landscape; The Castle at Bentheim; View of an 'Overboom'; Track in the Wood; Ford

Angers: Landscape

Antwerp: Landscape; Waterfall in Norway; Storm at Sea

Avignon: Undulating Landscape

Beaufort: Landscape

Bergamo (Accademia Carrara): Landscape

Berlin: Rough Sea; Ruins of a Convent; Landscape; Forest; Hills; Haarlem Seen from the Dunes near Overveen; The Damplatz in Amsterdam; Extended View of the Dunes near Overveen; Village on the Side of a Hill; Oak Forest; Wooded Banks of a River; Landscape with Farm

Besançon: Seascape; Pond under a Cloudy Sky

Bonn (Rheinisches Landesmus.): Thick Forest; Farms on a Mountain Slope

Bourg: Forest Bisected by a River Where Cattle Have Just Drunk

Bremen: View of a Castle (uncertain attribution)

Brunswick: Waterfall with a Castle

Brussels: two landscapes; Flock Beside the Forest; Haarlem Lake; Clearing

Budapest: Pond near a Forest; Landscape with Brook; Waterfall (uncertain)

Carcassonne: Landscape

Chantilly: Beach and Dunes at Scheveningen

Cologne: Landscape

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): Stream; Waterfall; Track through the Thicket; Oaks beside the Pond

Darmstadt: Landscape in the Forest

Detroit (IA): Jewish Cemetery (1660-1670)

Dijon: Forest Track; Landscape

Dresden (Gemäldegal.): Hunt, Landscape; Ford; Monastery; Waterfall in front of a Castle; Waterfall and Wooded Hillside (two works); Oaks on a Hill; Track in the Forest; Waterfall and Pines; Jewish Cemetery (1660-1670); Village in Woodland behind the Dunes; Canal

Dresden (Gemäldegal. Alte Meister): Jewish Cemetery; Castle at Bentheim; Waterfall in front of a Wooded Hill

Dublin: Forest Landscape; Forest Scene near The Hague (figures and animals by Th. de Kayser)

Edinburgh: Riverbanks; Forest Scene

Épinal: Forest Interior with Footbridge

Florence (NG): Landscape after Rain

Florence (Palazzo Pitti): Landscape

Fort Worth (Kimbell AM): Rough Sea at a Jetty (c. 1650, oil on canvas)

Frankfurt am Main: Wooded Landscape; Wooded Hills (two winter landscapes); Waterfall; Dunes; Seaside

Geneva (Mus. Ariana): Winter Landscape, Desolate Country Ravaged after a War; Rough Sea; Landscape with Figures

Genoa: Landscape

Glasgow: View of the Town of Kativyk; Landscape with Figures; Castle at Brederode; Wooded Landscape; Landscape, River, Sheep and Figures

Haarlem: Dutch Dunes; Landscape

Hamburg: Forest Pond; Mountain Chapel; Track near a Lake in a Forest; Wooded Higher Slopes; Winter Landscape; Peasant House; Group of Trees on a Higher Slope; Landscape; Hut; Sunny Landscape; Castle on the Higher Slope

Hanover: two landscapes; Dunes and Seaside; Oak Forest; Beech Forest

Helsinki: Sunlit Hill, Ford; Huts in the Dunes; Wood Hill with Church Tower; Forest Interior, Fishermen and Shepherds

Karlsruhe: Watercourse in the Forest

Kassel: Wooded Landscape; Waterfall; Beach and Dunes

La Fère: seven landscapes

Le Mans: Landscape

Leipzig: Landscape with Wood

Lille: two landscapes

London (Dulwich Picture Gal.): A Waterfall (late 1660s, oil on canvas)

London (NG): A Bleaching Ground in a Hollow by a Cottage (1645-1650, oil/wood); A Cottage and a Hayrick by a River (1646-1650, oil/wood); Two Watermills and an Open Sluice at Singraven (1650-1652, oil on canvas); A Ruined Castle Gateway (1650-1655, oil/wood); A Rocky Hill with Three Cottages, a Stream at its Foot (1650-1660, oil on canvas); A Landscape with a Ruined Building at the Foot of a Hill by a River (c. 1655, oil/wood); Vessels in a Fresh Breeze (1660-1665, oil on canvas); A Landscape with a Waterfall and a Castle on a Hill (1660-1670, oil on canvas); A Waterfall in a Rocky Landscape (1660-1670, oil on canvas); A Waterfall at the Foot of a Hill, near a Village (1665-1670, oil on canvas); A Torrent in a Mountainous Landscape (1665-1670, oil on canvas); A Road leading into a Wood (1655-1660, oil on canvas); A Landscape with a Ruined Castle and a Church (1665-1670, oil on canvas); The Shore at Egmond-aan-Zee (c. 1675, oil on canvas); other paintings

London (Wallace Collection): Rocky Landscape (c. 1650s, oil on canvas); Landscape with Waterfall (c. 1660s, oil on canvas); Landscape with a Village (c. 1650-1655, oil on canvas); Sunrise in a Wood (c. 1670s, oil on canvas)

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): Two Watermills and an Open Sluice (1653, oil on canvas)

Lugano (Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection): Seascape

Lyons: Brook; Norwegian Site; Sun Effect after the Storm

Madrid: Hunting; Wood with Lake and Boats

Mainz: Forest

Montauban: Landscape

Montpellier: Waterfall; Storm; Landscape

Montreal (Learmont): Waterfall

Moscow (Rumiantsev Mus.): Fallen Trees in the Forest

Mulhouse: Forest Entrance

Munich: Sandy Hill, Trees, Path; Forest Landscape at the Approach of the Storm; Marshy Landscape; Mountain Landscape with Triple Waterfall; Forest with Oaks and Beeches, Pond with Duck and Water Lilies; Village during the Thaw; Oak Tree, Beech Trees, Stream; Landscape with Waterfall

Nancy: Two Oaks; Hut

New York (Metropolitan Mus. of Art): Track through the Corn Fields

New York (Morgan Library and Mus.): Sun-Dappled Trees on a Stream (black and grey wash over traces of black chalk)

Orléans: Landscapes

Paris (Louvre): Forest; Country Road; Storm by the Dutch Dykes; Landscape called The Bush (1647); Landscape called Sunlight; Landscape; Entrance to a Wood

Paris (Mus. Jacquemart-André): Ruin of a Castle in a Plain

Poitiers: Landscape

Rotterdam: Cornfield; Sandy Track; View of the Dam, Taken from the Damrak

Rouen: Stream; Landscape with Figures

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Country Road at the Edge of a Wood; River in a Wood (four landscapes); Small Houses in a Wood; Farm; Landscape in Norway; Near Groningue; Marsh

Stockholm: Road through a Clump of Trees; Small Dutch Town on the Dunes

Strasbourg: Mills; Rough Sea

The Hague: Waterfall; Haarlem Seen from the Dunes at Overveen; Beach; The Nigverberg at The Hague

Vienna: Waterfall; Wooded Landscape

Vienna (Akademie der Bildenden Künste): Pond in the Forest; Landscape

Vienna (Czernin'sche Gemäldegal.): Storm at Sea (two landscapes with waterfalls)

Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus.): Great Forest

Vienna (Schönborn-Buckheim): Landscape, Pasture and Cows; Bentheim Castle

Warrington: Landscape with Waterfall

Weimar: Summer Landscape; Watermill

Worcester, MA (AM): View of the IJ on a Stormy Day (c. 1660, oil on canvas)

Wroclaw: Forest Clearing

Zurich (Kunsthaus): Panoramic View of Haarlem

Auction Records

: Dunes, FRF 37,000; Pond, FRF 25,500

Paris, 1772: View of Scheveningen; Seashore Bordered by Dunes (collection) FRF 1,701

Paris, 1777: Landscape, FRF 1,200

Paris, 1786: Ruins in a Flat Landscape, FRF 2,300

Paris, 1795: Bridge, FRF 4,331

London, 1802: Landscape: View of the Castle at Bentheim, FRF 7,870

Paris, 1816: Wood Crossed by a Lake (figures by van den Velde) FRF 10,000; Landscape, FRF 5,000

Paris, 1826: Landscape, Evening Effect, FRF 8,700

Paris, 1828: Peasants and a Flock, FRF 10,335

Paris, 1841: Waterfall, FRF 16,000

Paris, 1843: Waterfall: Storm Effect, FRF 25,000

London, 1852: View of a Forest, FRF 18,370

Brussels, 1861: Stream, FRF 38,000; View of Holland (figures by Adrien van den Velde) FRF 19,000

Paris, 1865: Stream, FRF 12,500; Landscape, FRF 30,100

Paris, 1868: Dunes at Scheveningen, FRF 60,000

Amsterdam, 1872: Norwegian Landscape, FRF 53,550

Paris, 1873: Norwegian Chapel, FRF 37,100

London, 1876: Mill, FRF 46,000; Woodland Scene with River, FRF 30,450

Paris, 1888: Waterfall, FRF 30,000

Paris, 1890: Lock, FRF 37,000

Paris, 1893: Mills in Ruins, FRF 44,620; Landscape: Old Cottage under a Clump of Trees, FRF 31,500

London, 1893: View of the Town of Mayden, FRF 44,620; View of Scheveningen, FRF 76,080

Paris, 1896: Ruins, FRF 26,100

London, 1899: Area around Haarlem, FRF 22,100

Paris, 26-29 April 1904: Old Oak, FRF 8,500

Paris, 16 May 1904: Stream, FRF 9,500

Brussels, 12 and 13 July 1905: Wooded Bank of a Watercourse, FRF 12,000

New York, 22 and 23 Feb 1907: Waterfall, USD 3,300

Paris, 28 May 1907: Track Coming Down from the Hill, FRF 33,000; Footbridge over the River, FRF 18,000

New York, 9 and 10 April 1908: Mountain in Norway, USD 4,300

London, 18 Feb 1910: Rocky River Bank, GBP 1,260

New York, April 1910: Landscape, FRF 10,500

Paris, 21 April 1910: Stream in Norway, FRF 9,600

Paris, 17 June 1910: Stream, FRF 15,800

London, 22 July 1910: River with Waterfall, GBP 267

London, 10 Dec 1910: River Bank, Peasants, Sheep and Goats, GBP 2,370

London, 11 Feb 1911: Seascape, GBP 357

London, 3 April 1911: Wooded Road near a River, GBP 168

London, 19 May 1911: Wooded Landscape with Figures, GBP 220

Paris, 9 June 1911: Valley, FRF 41,000; Stream, FRF 34,000; Flood, FRF 60,000; River in the Forest, FRF 42,000; Hillock, FRF 40,500

Paris, 2-4 May 1912: Stream, FRF 8,500

Paris, 16-19 June 1919: River, FRF 117,100

Paris, 8-10 June 1920: Dutch Landscape (pen) FRF 15,400

London, 31 March 1922: Edge of a Wood, GBP 210

London, 31 March 1922: Watermill, GBP 2,625

London, 26 May 1922: Landscape with Stream, GBP 304

London, 14 June 1922: Dutch Landscape, GBP 200

London, 13 April 1923: Landscape with Castle and Waterfall, GBP 525; Landscape with Watermill, GBP 2,415

London, 4-7 May 1923: Landscape with Houses, GBP 1,890; Harvest Landscape, GBP 1,102; Rough Sea, GBP 892

Paris, 11 May 1923: Pond Fishing, FRF 42,000

London, 6 July 1923: Forest Landscape, GBP 945; Waterfall, GBP 714

Paris, 22 May 1924: Watermills, FRF 59,500

Paris, 2 June 1924: Laundries at Brederode, FRF 51,000; Track to the Village, FRF 130,000

London, 20 June 1924: Forest Scene, GBP 472

London, 1 May 1925: Town on a Frozen River, GBP 315

London, 22 May 1925: Waterfall, GBP 1,417

London, 12 June 1925: Forest Landscape, GBP 787

Paris, 27 and 28 May 1926: Hillock, FRF 145,000; Little House on a Hill, FRF 27,000

Paris, 12 June 1926: Pond, FRF 20,000

London, 8 July 1927: Rough Sea, GBP 1,050

London, 17 and 18 May 1928: Sunlight, GBP 6,300

London, 7 June 1928: View of the Dunes at Overveen, GBP 1,520

London, 15 June 1928: River Scene and Waterfall, GBP 1,155; Waterfall, GBP 1,417; Seascape, GBP 189

London, 2 Aug 1928: Fishing Boats on the Estuary of a River, GBP 183

London, 13 March 1929: Landscape with Washerwomen, GBP 880

Paris, 13 and 15 May 1929: Old Castle (drawing) FRF 21,000

New York, 25 March 1931: Cottages, USD 925

New York, 20 Nov 1931: Romantic Landscape, USD 7,000

Paris, 14 Dec 1933: Sunny Meadow, FRF 180,000

London, 23 March 1934: River Lined with Houses, a Church and Trees, GBP 1,050

Berlin, 29 and 30 May 1934: Ruin in a Forest, DEM 7,800

Geneva, 9 June 1934: Landscape, CHF 4,100

Geneva, 28 Aug 1934: Landscape with Waterfall, CHF 2,500

Stockholm, 7 and 9 Nov 1934: Landscape, DKK 1,460

London, 21 Nov 1934: Winter Landscape, GBP 500

Stockholm, 11 and 12 April 1935: Wooded Landscape, DKK 1,700

Geneva, 25 May 1935: Landscape, CHF 3,550

Lucerne, 2-7 Sept 1935: Winter Landscape, CHF 8,500

London, 5 March 1937: River Scene, GBP 756

London, 30 April 1937: Wooded Landscape near Muiderberg, GBP 5,460

London, 28 May 1937: Landscape at Harvest Time, GBP 1,050; Storm on the Dutch Coast, GBP 892

London, 18 June 1937: Winding Stream, GBP 1,522

London, 2 July 1937: Wooded Landscape, GBP 1,102; Norwegian Landscape, GBP 735

London, 22 July 1937: Entrance to the Old Meuse, GBP 780

Munich, 28 Oct 1937: Large Landscape, DEM 18,000

London, 27 May 1938: Quiet Stream, GBP 399

Amsterdam, 15 Nov 1938: Amsterdam, NLG 12,200

London, 18 Nov 1938: Garden of a House in the Country, GBP 1,680

New York, 20 Jan 1945: Three Old Oaks, USD 5,000

London, 12 July 1946: Watermill, GBP 2,730

London, 11 Oct 1946: Wooded Landscape, GBP 1,470

Amsterdam, 21-28 Jan 1947: Landscape, NLG 12,000

Stockholm, 31 Jan 1947: Landscape, DKK 14,000

Brussels, 30 April 1947: Uprooted Tree, BEF 26,000

Paris, 25 May 1949: Winter Landscape, FRF 3,200,000

London, 21 Oct 1949: River Scene, GBP 2,100

New York, Jan 1950: Landscape with Waterfall, USD 2,400

London, 17 Feb 1950: Seaside near Scheveningen, GBP 6,195; River Passing under Trees, GBP 3,360

Amsterdam, 11 July 1950: Lock, NLG 6,200

London, 19 July 1950: Wooded Landscape Crossed by a Stream, GBP 650

Lucerne, Nov 1950: Flock at Pasture (1657) CHF 1,250

Cologne, 3 Nov 1950: Stream, DEM 9,000

Amsterdam, 21 Nov 1950: Flock at the Edge of a Forest, NLG 2,100

Paris, 7 Dec 1950: Panoramic Landscape (attributed) FRF 160,000

London, 19 Jan 1951: Bridge, GBP 2,635

Paris, 23 Feb 1951: Landscape (school of J. I. R.) FRF 47,000

Amsterdam, 13 March 1951: Path under Trees with Figures, NLG 1,150

Paris, 25 April 1951: Waterfall, FRF 750,000; Stream, FRF 690,000

London, 4 May 1951: Flock in a Landscape with Waterfall, Dusk, GBP 630

Paris, 5 Dec 1951: Marsh, FRF 2,000,000

New York, 18 April 1956: Landscape with Waterfall, USD 2,600

Copenhagen, 11 Feb 1957: Wooded Landscape, DKK 23,500

London, 24 Oct 1958: River Landscape Lined with Trees, GBP 2,730

London, 8 July 1959: Wooded Landscape, GBP 1,100

Paris, 3 Dec 1959: Landscape with Waterfall, FRF 1,600,000

London, 1 April 1960: Castle at Kostverloren, near Amsterdam, GBP 8,400

London, 21 June 1961: Wooded Landscape, GBP 5,300

London, 23 Nov 1962: Landscape with Numerous Figures, Gns 9,000

London, 27 March 1963: Town in Winter, GBP 8,500

London, 30 Nov 1966: Landscape with Birch, GBP 9,500

London, 10 July 1968: Landscape with Field of Corn, GBP 13,000

London, 3 Dec 1969: Wooded Landscape with an Estuary, GBP 20,500

London, 30 June 1971: Landscape with Castle and Waterfall, GBP 23,000

London, 6 Dec 1972: Landscape with River, GBP 64,000

London, 29 June 1973: Landscape with Fields of Corn, Gns 110,000

London, 29 March 1974: River Landscape with Waterfall and Old Mill, Gns 55,000

Amsterdam, 26 April 1976: Wooded Landscape (oil on canvas, 20¼ × 23 ins/51.2 × 58.4 cm) NLG 310,000

Amsterdam, 9 June 1977: Boats in a Heavy Sea (oil on canvas, 18 × 25¼ ins/46 × 64 cm) NLG 200,000

London, 1 Nov 1978: Cornfield (etching, 4 × 6 ins/10.4 × 15.2 cm) GBP 9,000

New York, 11 Jan 1979: Norwegian Landscape with Waterfall (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21 ins/65 × 53.5 cm) USD 90,000

London, 1 July 1980: Track beside a Marsh (etching, 7¼ × 10¼ ins/18.4 × 26.1 cm) GBP 4,200

New York, 9 Jan 1981: Wooded Landscape with Flock beside a Road (oil on canvas, 15 × 20 ins/38 × 51 cm) USD 22,000

New York, 7 June 1984: Steep Wooded Landscape (c. 1650, oil on canvas, 38¾ × 49½ ins/98.5 × 125.5 cm) USD 470,000

New York, 9 May 1985: Wooded Landscape with Waterfall (oil on canvas, 20¾ × 23½ ins/52.6 × 59.6 cm) USD 280,000

London, 11 April 1986: Wooded Landscape with Cottage and Peasants beside a Stream (oil on canvas, 24¾ × 31 ins/63 × 78.5 cm) GBP 90,000

New York, 3 June 1988: Landscape with a Stream (oil on canvas, 26¼ × 21 ins/66.5 × 52.5 cm) USD 77,000

Heidelberg, 14 Oct 1988: Cottage on a Hill (etching, 7½ × 11 ins/19.3 × 27.7 cm) DEM 2,400

New York, 11 Jan 1989: River Landscape with a Rider on a Track and Haarlem in the Background (oil on panel, 20½ × 26¾ ins/52 × 67.8 cm) USD 440,000

New York, 2 June 1989: Wooded Mountain Landscape (oil on canvas, 38¾ × 49½ ins/98.5 × 125.5 cm) USD 297,000

Paris, 27 June 1989: Three Fishermen in a River Landscape (canvas, 33¼ × 38½ ins/84.5 × 98 cm) FRF 2,000,000

London, 8 Dec 1989: Peasant, His Son and a Dog Moving Towards a Wooden Bridge under a Large Oak, under a Dark Sky (oil on panel, 21 × 26½ ins/52.5 × 67.5 cm) GBP 71,500

Monaco, 15 June 1990: Wooded Landscape with a Traveller Seated beside a Track (1647, oil on panel, 12¼ × 15¾ ins/31 × 40 cm) FRF 466,200

London, 13 Dec 1991: Wooded Landscape with a Peasant on the Track across the Dunes (oil on panel, 18¾ × 25 ins/47.6 × 63.7 cm) GBP 20,900

London, 15 April 1992: Wooded Landscape with a Couple of Herdsmen Chatting near a River (oil on canvas, 20¼ × 24 ins/51.5 × 61.2 cm) GBP 180,000

London, 8 July 1992: Wooded Landscape with Figures near a Stream (oil on canvas, 25¼ × 32 ins/64.2 × 81.2 cm) GBP 44,000

London, 8 Dec 1993: Figures on a Vast Beach with Dunes and a Tower in the Background (oil on canvas/panel, 21½ × 27 ins/54.7 × 68.5 cm) GBP 45,500

New York, 19 May 1994: Wooded Landscape with a Large Oak and Two Fallen Birch Trees (oil on canvas, 26¾ × 30¼ ins/67.9 × 76.8 cm) USD 68,500

London, 6 July 1994: Wooded Landscape with Figures Resting beside a Track (1647, oil on panel, 25½ × 24 ins/65 × 61 cm) GBP 102,700

New York, 11 Jan 1995: Wooded Mountain Landscape with Cottages beside a Stream and a Dead Tree in the Foreground (1653, oil on canvas, 26½ × 32½ ins/67.3 × 82.6 cm) USD 552,500

London, 6 Dec 1995: Dunescape with a Peasant and His Dog on a Path Leading to a Village (1647, oil on wood panel, 27¼ × 35¾ ins/69.3 × 91 cm) GBP 419,500

New York, 11 Jan 1996: River Landscape with a Waterfall (oil on canvas, 27 × 21 ins/68.6 × 53.3 cm) USD 772,500

Amsterdam, 7 May 1996: Stream at the Foot of the Castle at Bentheim, with Travellers on a Footbridge (oil on canvas, 26½ × 20 ins/67.3 × 50.8 cm) NLG 460,000

Paris, 28 June 1996: View of Hooge Lock from the River Amstel (lead pencil and grey wash, 5¾ × 8¼ ins/14.5 × 21 cm) FRF 1,000,000

London, 3 July 1996: Landscape with a Stream at the Edge of a Wood and Travellers on a Road (oil on canvas, 22 × 24½ ins/55.6 × 62.3 cm) GBP 73,000

London, 3 July 1997: Wooded Landscape with Cattle Crossing a Stream in the Background (c. 1655, oil on canvas, 41 × 51½ ins/103.2 × 130.5 cm) GBP 89,500

London, 3 Dec 1997: Scandinavian Landscape with a Mill (oil on canvas, 40¼ × 34½ ins/102.2 × 87.6 cm) GBP 47,700

London, 3-4 Dec 1997: Wooded Mountain Landscape with Figures on a Track near a Watercourse (oil on canvas, 42¼ × 50½ ins/107 × 128.5 cm) GBP 95,000

New York, Jan 1998: Winter Landscape with a Frozen Canal, Farms and Windmills Behind (oil on canvas, 15½ × 17¼ ins/39.4 × 43.8 cm) USD 1,322,500

New York, 29 Jan 1999: River Landscape with Waterfall, Rustic Cottage beyond (oil on canvas, 21 × 24 ins/53 × 60 cm) USD 1,000,000

Amsterdam, 9 Nov 1999: Man Leading Two Dogs outside a Cottage (black chalk, grey wash, pen and black ink, 6 × 8 ins/15 × 20 cm) NLG 90,000

New York, 27 Jan 2000: Wooded Landscape with Traveller Resting on a Path (oil on panel, 16 × 21 ins/40 × 53 cm) USD 480,000

London, 6 July 2000: Wooded Landscape with Shepherd and Shepherdess Resting with Their Flock by a River (oil on canvas, 20 × 24 ins/51 × 61 cm) GBP 350,000

New York, 24 Jan 2001: Two Oak Trees in an Extensive Landscape with Deer Leaping beyond (black pencil, black chalk, brush, grey ink and grey wash with framing lines, 8 × 13 ins/20 × 32 cm) USD 42,000

London, 12 July 2001: Dune Landscape with Two Figures by a Fence (1647, oil on panel, 13 × 17 ins/32 × 44 cm) GBP 290,000

London, 10 July 2002: Landscape with Torrent at the Margins of a Wood and Figures on a Road (oil on canvas, 22 × 24 ins/56 × 62 cm) GBP 75,000

Lucerne, 20 Nov 2002: Farmstead in a Winter Landscape under a Cloudy Sky (oil on canvas, 11 × 13 ins/28 × 33 cm) CHF 155,000

Zurich, 19 Sept 2003: Extensive Landscape with Figures (oil on canvas, 19 × 23 ins/48 × 58 cm) CHF 38,000

Berlin, 27 Nov 2003: Hillside Huts (etching, 7 × 11 ins/19 × 28 cm) EUR 8,000

London, 6 July 2004: Landscape with Farmhouse by a River (black chalk, brush and ink wash, 4 × 6 ins/9 × 14 cm) GBP 10,000

Zurich, 22 Sept 2004: View of the Castle at Bentheim (oil on canvas, 14 × 17 ins/35 × 42 cm) CHF 58,000

Bibliography

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  • Dutuit, Eugène: ‘Manuel de l'amateur d'estampes. Écoles flamandes et hollandaises’ in 3 vol., A. Lévy, Paris, Dulau, London, 1881-1885 (G. W. Hissink, Amsterdam, 1970-1972).
  • Cundall, Frank: The Landscape and Pastoral Painters of Holland: Riusdael, Hobbema, Cuijp, Potter, London, 1891.
  • Wurzbach, Alfred von: ‘Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon’ in 3 vol., Halm und Goldmann, Leipzig, Vienna, 1906-1911.
  • de Hofstede de Groot, Cornelis: ‘Verzeichnis der Werke. Holländische Maler’ in 10 vol., P. Neff, Esslingen, 1907-1928.
  • Rosenberg, Jakob: Jacob Van Ruisdaël, Bruno Cassirer, Berlin, 1928.
  • Simon, K.E.: Ruisdaël, Berlin, 1930.
  • Riat, G.: Ruysdaël, Laurens, Paris, 1935.
  • Hollstein, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich: ‘Ruysdaël’ in Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts, ca. 1400-1700 vol. II-XVI, Menno Hertzberger, Amsterdam, 1949-1974.
  • Levey, Michael: Jacob van Ruisdael and Other Painters of His Family, National Gallery, London, 1977.
  • Walford, John E.: Jacob van Ruisdael and the Perception of Landscape, Yale University Press, 1991.
  • Gibson, Walter S.: Pleasant places: The Rustic Landscape from Bruegel to Ruisdael, University of California Press, 2000.
  • Slive, Seymour: Jacob van Ruisdael: A Complete Catalogue of His Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings, Yale University Press, 2001.