Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Oxford Art Online. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 29 June 2022

Monet, Claudefree

Monet, Claudefree

Updated in this version

updated

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 14 November 1840, in Paris; died 6 December 1926, in Giverny.

Painter. Landscapes, figures.

Impressionist group.

Claude Monet in his garden with Martin A. Ryerson and unidentified male, photograph, 190×194 mm, c. 1882–4 (Frick Art Reference Library Archives)

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude MONET: signature or monogram

Claude Monet’s parents settled in Le Havre in 1845. At the age of 15, he began to execute caricatures and portraits of acquaintances. In 1856, he met Eugène Boudin, who introduced him to plein-air (outdoor) painting. He left for Paris in 1858–1859 and registered at the Académie Libre Suisse (named after the owner, Charles Suisse). There he met Camille Pissarro, who introduced him into the Parisian literary and artistic milieux. In 1861, he was called up for military service, and he enrolled with the Chasseurs d’Afrique (African Hunters). Algeria made a great impression upon him; however, illness forced his return to Le Havre in 1862. During the summer, he painted with Boudin and met Johan Barthold Jongkind, with whom he struck up an enduring friendship. Having bought out his remaining military service, he returned to Paris, where he frequented the studio of Charles Gleyre and met Frédéric Bazille and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, with whom he went to paint in the Fontainebleau forest. In 1863, their group was very much excited about Édouard Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe), exhibited at the Salon des Refusés.

In 1865, Monet exhibited his Entry to the Seine at Honfleur (L’Embouchure de la Seine à Honfleur) at the Salon. In the summer, he stayed in Chailly-en-Bière, where he painted sketches and fragments for his own Luncheon on the Grass. The work remained unfinished after Gustave Courbet, who was passing through, discouraged him from continuing it. In 1866, he painted Lady in the Green Dress, a portrait of his mistress, Camille Doncieux. In autumn of that same year, he returned to Normandy and painted Terrace in Ste-Adresse. In 1867, his son Jean was born. Louis-Joachim Gaudibert, the collector from Le Havre, bought several of his paintings and commissioned a portrait of his wife (1868). Monet rented a house in 1869 in St-Michel near Bougival. He was not far from Renoir, and both painted Bathers at La Grenouillère. Though he had been accepted at the Salon in 1868, he was refused in 1869 and 1870.

Monet married Camille, who had served as a model in Monet’s circle, including for Courbet, in 1870. On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, he went to London with Pissarro, who introduced him to the dealer Paul Durand-Ruel, and where both artists discovered John Constable and J. M. W. Turner. In 1871, he learned of the death of his father. In the course of his return to France, he stopped in the Netherlands, painting views of Amsterdam and Zaandam. Upon arriving in Paris, Manet helped him find a house in Argenteuil. In 1872, on his way to Le Havre, he painted another view of the port, Impression, Sunrise. That same year, he met Gustave Caillebotte, an amateur painter and rich collector, who began to give him financial help. In Argenteuil in 1873, he set up a studio-boat, which enabled him to paint on the Seine itself.

In 1874, the Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors and Engravers (Société Anonyme des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs et Graveurs), consisting of Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Monet, Pissarro, Berthe Morisot, Alfred Sisley, Renoir, and several others, exhibited their work together in the rooms of the photographer Félix Nadar. It was on this occasion that an art critic, referring to Monet’s Impression, Sunrise, ironically coined the term ‘Impressionism’. Though the public shared in the critic’s derision, the artists involved decided to appropriate the term as the basis for their movement. Until then, apart from several as yet undefined principles, they had only sought to distinguish themselves from official Academicism. Subsequently, they would refine the principles that brought them together, giving rise to the birth of Impressionism.

From 1875 to 1878, Monet painted mostly in Argenteuil and was interested in the chromatic phenomena analysed by the physician and chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul in his work on ‘simultaneous contrasts’. In 1877, in Paris, he painted the short but crucial series on the Gare St-Lazare, in which what came to be the essential features of his work were first constituted. In the summer of 1877, the banker Ernest Hoschedé invited him to his castle in Montgeron and bought several of his paintings. Monet immediately fell in love with Alice, the banker’s wife. In 1878, he was obliged to leave the house in Argenteuil in order to flee his creditors. The Monets moved to Paris, and Camille gave birth to their second child, Michel. Hoschedé then went bankrupt. In the autumn of 1878, the Monets and Hoschedés went to live together in Vétheuil where, in 1879, Camille died after a long illness. That winter, Monet painted the extraordinary scene of the Seine frozen over. In 1880, he exhibited at the Salon for the first time. In 1881, after having returned to paint on the coast of Normandy, he moved to Poissy with Alice Hoschedé and their children. In 1883, he painted in Le Havre and at Étretat, and the Galerie Durand-Ruel mounted a solo exhibition of about 50 of his works. He then left Poissy, moving into a small house in Giverny.

Monet went with Renoir on a trip to Liguria; he stayed on alone in Bordighera, and brought back about 50 landscapes. In 1886, he made a short trip to the Netherlands in order to paint the fields of tulips. In 1888, he went to work on the Côte d’Azur and, in 1889, the Creuse region. This also marked the beginning of Monet’s friendship with the journalist Gustave Geffroy, who published a long article on the little house in Giverny, describing Monet’s collection of his friends’ paintings, as well as those of Eugène Delacroix and Camille Corot, and his collection of Japanese prints. This period also marked the end of Monet’s difficulties with his creditors.

In 1889, 12 years after the brief series on the Gare St-Lazare, Monet painted the Haystacks series, officially the first of several successive series over 35 years. He acquired the house and property of Giverny in 1890 and built the pond for his water-lilies. The banker Hoschedé died in 1891, and Monet married Alice. At the end of 1891, he returned to London to paint. Later, he took a room opposite the cathedral in Rouen and began painting a series of that title, this time in a room off to the side, until 1894. In 1895, the Galerie Durand-Ruel brought together 20 of the 30 variations that Monet had painted, and he travelled and painted on the outskirts of Oslo. In 1899, and over the next three years, he made several trips to the Savoy Hotel in London, where he painted a series of Views of the Thames. In the years immediately following 1900, and after an illness, Monet’s eyesight became considerably reduced. In 1908, he went to paint in Venice. For several years, he had already been working on his ‘secret cycle’ of Water-lilies from the pond in Giverny. Monet was both gardener and designer of the garden, before becoming its painter and interpreter. In 1911, Monet experienced the deaths of his second wife, Alice, and his elder son, Jean, who had married Blanche Hoschedé.

Georges Clémenceau, the prime minister both during and after World War I, held a great admiration for Monet and encouraged him in his enormous paintings of the Water-lilies. Some of these were intended for a pavilion in the future Musée Rodin but would finally end up after 1921 in the Orangerie des Tuileries, which had been especially renovated for the purpose according to Monet’s own instructions. It would not be until 5 December 1926, after Monet’s death, that the paintings would be installed and then opened to the public on 22 May 1927. In the space of a few years, Monet had painted about 50 paintings, whose proportions averaged 6½ to 16½ feet (2 to 5 metres), in diptychs and triptychs, forming a total of about 14 compositions. In his eighties, he had built a new studio in his garden at Giverny measuring 39¼ feet (12 metres) in width and 75½ feet (23 metres) in length, and in which he worked on rolling easels. His eyesight continued to deteriorate, and in 1923, he consented to an operation that enabled him to partially recover his sight. In 1924 and 1925, he was still working on the great panels of the Water-lilies, which represent the crowning achievement of his work and one of the points of departure for 20th-century painting.

Most of Monet’s fellow Impressionists died well before him: Manet in 1883, Vincent van Gogh in 1890, Sisley in 1899, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec in 1901, Pissarro and Paul Gauguin in 1903, Cézanne in 1906, Degas in 1917, and Renoir in 1919. Monet, still working after 1920, was thus the only Impressionist to have painted an important part of his work – practically the entire Water-lilies cycle – in the 20th century. His legacy influenced the diversification of Lyrical Abstraction, Informal Abstraction, Landscape-Abstraction, and Action Painting.

Monet’s work falls roughly into several stylistic periods. While Boudin introduced him to plein-air painting very early on, and though he had a passionate admiration for Delacroix, Monet’s early work was influenced more by Courbet’s Realism, along with other versions of naturalism, also evident in his brightening of light in the manner of Manet. Examples include Farmyard in Normandy of 1863–1864; Pointe de la Hève, Lighthouse by the Hospice, Boatyard near Honfleur, and Seashore in Ste-Adresse, all dating from 1864; and Entrance to the Seine in Honfleur, Road to Chailly, and Oak in Bas-Bréau in 1865. To these landscapes may be added Lady in the Green Dress (1866), which shows the influence of both Corot and Courbet. Though the sketches and parts of Luncheon on the Grass (Déjeuner sur l’herbe) of 1865 remained unfinished, they prefigure the work to come by their scattered touch, by their dissociation from the ‘local tone’ of the Realists, and by the diffusion of the pools of light and consequent shadows of the foliage. Coloration is composed partly from the local tone, to which has been added the light of the moment and the reflections of the surrounding coloured objects.

In Déjeuner sur l’herbe, it is possible to see the initial act of Impressionism, even though the subsequent paintings might seem to indicate a technical regression, notably in several urban landscapes of Paris and Lady in the Green Dress, until the 1868 Luncheon, influenced by Manet. Though the Women in the Garden of 1866–1867 still generally belongs to the first naturalist period, the unmistakeably coloured treatment of shade, without resorting to black, signals a transition to be confirmed in Terrace in Ste-Adresse, also of 1866. Throughout these years, Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, and Cézanne all met one another and exchanged ideas. Monet also painted with Renoir, their painting developing together by instinct, without the guidance of any particular rules.

The theme of reflection on water emerges in Monet’s The River (By the Water: Bennecourt) of 1868. The inverted image of the landscape is reflected in the water, which has itself become the site of the ephemerality of the passing clouds. Thus, there is a dissociation between the reality of the reflected image and the image of its lapping reflections. The reality perceived through these fugitive but authentic appearances is a departure from the frozen recomposition of the Realists. It is one of the fundamental themes in Monet’s work and in his particular brand of Impressionism. Another was that of dissolving mist, which dominated his paintings from 1868 to 1875: Stormy Weather at Étretat, which still recalls Manet; Bathers at La Grenouillère (1869), a theme painted simultaneously by Renoir; The Thames Below Westminster (1870–1871); the 1871 Dutch series, with Houses on the Zaan River and The Zaan at Zaandam; and Impression, Sunrise of 1872, which immediately followed his discovery of Turner’s work, with its dissolution of form through mist effects, resulting in the diffraction of the local colour. Works showing the maturing process of this Impressionist intuition include Regatta at Argenteuil and Le Bassin d’Argenteuil of 1872 and Boats, Regatta at Argenteuil and Sunset on the Seine of 1874. He did not confine himself to aquatic subjects during this period; other works, including The Luncheon, with his son Jean in the garden in Argenteuil, Poppies in Argenteuil, and Woman with Parasol, date from 1873 – they are almost the last paintings with figures and demonstrate the fragmentation of local tone into its various constitutive elements, thus achieving the progressive dissolution of the anecdotal image into a pictorial subject of and for itself. The strokes of colour function almost autonomously.

Perhaps with Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed in mind, Monet painted the Gare St-Lazare series in 1876–1877, in which he monopolised locomotive steam as an additional obscuring element. Removed from museums and Academicism, he brought painting into the modern world. After the first of this series and for several more years, Monet applied his dissolving vision to a variety of subjects: the steaming tumult of Gare St-Lazare was succeeded by the chromatic cacophony of the Rue Montorgeuil and Rue St-Denis, which had been decked out in flags for the holiday of 30 June; Field of Poppies near Vétheuil (1878) shows a technique of fog that prefigures the Pointillism of Seurat; in Road to Vétheuil, Winter (1879), the snow reproduces the prismatic dissociation of light with crystals; Vétheuil in the Fog (1879–1880) conjugates reflection and fog; Lavacourt, Sun and Snow (1881); and the landscapes of Varengeville of 1882, with which he reintroduces the theme of the sea in a new Impressionist perception, developed in the Étretat seascapes of 1883, 1885, and 1886. The latter are sometimes considered as a second series, even though the points of view are varied. What is clear about the Étretat motif is that Monet is very deliberate in his selection of subject and that he chooses them less for their potential for the picturesque than for their ‘picturality’, their suitability to his specific approach on a theme. The instability of the sea, a vessel for the passage of time that Monet sought to capture, is sumptuously intensified in his storms at Belle-Île, such as Storm at Belle-Île Coast of 1886, and, in another light, in Antibles and Juan-les-Pins in 1888, where the Divisionism of violently coloured strokes counters the surface calm of the Mediterranean.

With his Haystacks of 1889–1991, Monet began what may be truly termed his series period, in which he created successive cycles with only occasional interruptions throughout the remaining 35 years of his life. For the first time, he integrated the time and the season into the title of each variation on the Haystacks theme, thereby underlining that the repetitive motif was merely the pretext for the atmosphere, which became the real subject. In the quest for passing, fleeting time, Monet, having tried previously to capture movement, the wind and waves in the form of a single painting, henceforth replaced the painting with the series. These polyptychs of a sort exhausted the possible aspects of the motif, showing a semblance of the stability of reality while at the same time exploring the credibility of the act of perception. Now the pictorial practice in treating any such negligible theme, in radical contrast to traditional narrative objectives, consisted of developing and multiplying the symphonies of coloured harmonies for themselves.

The contemporary series Poplars, completed in 1891, structured more materially by the verticals of the trees and the horizontal of the water’s surface, compensated for this surplus of reality by exploiting the new perceptive ambiguity of the inverted reflection, which sometimes occupied a greater surface of the painting than the poplars themselves. From 1892 to 1894, Monet developed the Rouen Cathedral series, reducing the Gothic façade to the role of a lighting device. The reality of the cathedral is merely the vehicle for a particular moment for the spectator to share, by approaching the painting to try to recognise the architecture of the façade through the flowing mist, and then stepping back, understanding that this is not the real subject, and instead being overtaken by the coloured symphony and the plenitude of its ‘correspondences’. Arm of the Seine near Giverny and Mornings on the Seine of 1896–1898 followed, and some of the variations on reflection achieve an informal quality. In the final years of the 19th century, Monet began his series on the Water-lilies pond. He would pursue this up to his last moments, progressively and inevitably replacing, in his pictorial logic, the reality of the motif with the reality of the painting. Monet’s garden is in fact the garden of Monet’s paintings, in the same way that the water-lily pond is the pond of the Water-lilies paintings. Monet, in fact, never totally abandoned the motif, in the sense of motivation.

In 1904, the Water-lilies series was interrupted by the series Views of the Thames. It achieved dizzying heights in its suppression of the real motif – for which he nevertheless travelled to London – the intense reds, oranges, and yellows of the setting sun captured and diffused in the London fog and reverberated in the surface of the river. The later Water-lilies, the flowers emerging from the pond reflecting the inverted foliage, are nothing more than a pretext for deploying an ensemble, with neither horizon on top nor bottom, of quivering strokes of colours.

Painting for Monet was, as it was for Leonardo da Vinci, ‘una cosa mentale’, a thing of the mind. The work was not experienced as an irresistible temptation; rather, it was thought out before being acted upon. When, from about 1890 onwards, he painted almost exclusively by series, tirelessly working on the same motif over the months, and each time painting them differently because he was never in the same moment twice, Monet showed that for him, the motif was no longer the subject (or the object) of the painting. Its identity was no longer stable or permanent, but rather the painting had become the purpose in and of itself, and the motif is only the medium, the pretext, almost an alibi. The aim of the painting had become the act of painting itself, no longer only within the space of the canvas, but each time the act was renewed in the dimension of time, wherein the light incessantly changed the appearance of reality.

For Monet, the act of painting largely surpassed the limits of the relative domain of aesthetics to broach the fundamental ontological question of the degree to which appearances may be observed and of the reality of ‘reality’. Throughout the years, Monet’s painting has become more and more identified, not with the mirror held up by Renaissance painters who copied outward reality in all its substance, but with the surface of a pool reflecting the consistency of a memory, an instant in time forever lost.

Group Exhibitions

1865, 1866, 1868, 1880, Salon, Paris

1874, First Impressionist Exhibition, Paris

1876, Second Impressionist Exhibition, Paris

1877, Third Impressionist Exhibition, Paris

1879, Fourth Impressionist Exhibition, Paris

1882, Seventh Impressionist Exhibition, Paris

1889, Manet-Rodin, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris

1910, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Paris

1952, French Paintings from the Molyneux Collection, Museum of Modern Art, New York

1967, Impressionnistes, Galerie Beyet, Paris

1979–1980, Art of the Twenties, Museum of Modern Art, New York

1989, Claude Monet/Auguste Rodin, Musée Rodin, Paris

2000, Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890, National Gallery, London

2000, Monet, Renoir, and the Impressionist Landscape, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa

2003, The Origins of Abstraction (1800–1914) (Aux Origines de l’Abstraction [1800–1914]), Musée d’Orsay, Paris

2004, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (travelling exhibition)

2005, Modern Means: Continuity and Change in Art, 1880 to Now, Museum of Modern Art, New York

2011, Monet/Lichtenstein: Rouen Cathedrals, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

2013, Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, Art Institute of Chicago

2017–2018, Beyond Impressionism – Paris, Fin de Siècle: Signac, Redon, Toulouse-Lautrec and Their Contemporaries, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (also presented at the Columbus Museum of Art)

2017–2019, French Moderns: Monet to Matisse, 1850–1950, Brooklyn Museum, New York (travelling exhibition)

2019, Van Gogh, Monet, Degas and Their Times: The Mellon Collection of French Art, Frist Art Museum, Nashville

Solo Exhibitions

1880, La Vie Moderne, Paris

1883, 1891, 1892, 1895, 1900, 1904, 1909, 1959, 1970, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Paris

1884, 1885, 1886, 1898, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris

1888, Boussod et Valadon, Paris

1889, Goupil, London

1895, 20 Works by Claude Monet, Art Institute of Chicago

1912, Claude Monet ‘Venise’, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris

1921, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris

1927, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

1928, Galerien Thannhauser, Berlin

1931, Orangerie, Paris

1931, 1935, 1937, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York

1936, 1939, Arthur Tooth, London

1941, Knoedler Gallery, New York

1945, 2007, Wildenstein, New York

1952, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague

1952, Kunsthaus, Zurich

1954, Marlborough Fine Art, London

1957, Tate Gallery, London

1957, 1975, 1995, Art Institute of Chicago

1960, Claude Monet: Seasons and Moments, Museum of Modern Art, New York

1962, 1989, Galerie Beyeler, Basel

1973, Municipal Museum, Kyoto

1976, Acquavella Galleries, New York

1977, Monet Unveiled, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

1978, Monet’s Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1980, 2010, Grand Palais, Paris

1983, Claude Monet at the Time of Giverny, Centre Culturel du Marais, Paris

1986, Kunstmuseum, Basel

1988, Monet at Vétheuil, University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor

1989, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

1990, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, Art Institute of Chicago

1992, Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara

1995, Claude Monet: 1840–1926, Art Institute of Chicago

1998, Monet in the 20th Century, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (also presented at Royal Academy of Arts, London)

1999, Monet in Giverny: Masterpieces from the Musée Marmottan (Monet à Giverny: Chefs d’oeuvres du Musée Marmottan), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Montréal

2002, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

2002, Monet. I Luoghi della Pittura, Casa dei Carraresi, Treviso

2002, Claude Monet . . . Up to Digital Impressionism (Claude Monet . . . Jusqu’à l’Impressionism numérique), Fondation Beyeler, Basel

2006, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

2009, Claude Monet: Water Lilies, Museum of Modern Art, New York

2010, Monet and Abstraction, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

2010, Claude Monet: The Late Work, Gagosian Gallery, New York

2011, Monet’s Water Lilies, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford

2018–2019, Claude Monet. The Large Retrospective, Albertina Museum, Vienna

2019, Monet’s Waterloo Bridge: Vision and Process, Worcester Art Museum

2019, Monet: The Late Years, De Young Museum, San Francisco (also presented at the Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth)

2019–2020, Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, Denver Art Museum

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Aachen: Thaw

Algiers: Rocks of Belle-Île

Amsterdam (Stedelijk Mus.): La Corniche of Monaco (1884)

Angers (MBA): Train in the Country

Basel: Snow Effect; Small Sea Port

Berlin (Neue Nationalgal.): St-Germain-L’Auxerrois Church (1866); Houses by the Edge of the Water, Argenteuil (1870–1875); Field in Bezons or Summer (1874); Vétheuil on the Seine (1880)

Boston (MFA): Cap d’Antibes, Mistral (1888); Haystack (Sunset) (1890–1891); Rouen Cathedral Façade and Tour d’Albane (Morning Effect) (La Cathédrale de Rouen, le portail et la tour d’Albane [à l’aube]) (1894, oil on canvas); Morning on the Seine near Giverny (1896); Water-lily Pond (1899–1900)

Bremen (Kunsthalle): Camille Doncieux (Lady in Green) (1866); Park

Brussels (MAM): Étretat, Cliff and Porte d’Aval. Sunset (Étretat, falaise et porte d’Aval. Soleil couchant)

Bucharest (Muz. National de Arta al României): Portrait of Camille; Boats at Honfleur

Cambridge (Fitzwilliam Mus.): Rocks at Port-Coton, the Lion Rock (1886, oil on canvas); The Rock Needle and Porte d’Aval (1885?, oil on canvas)

Cardiff (National Mus. and Gal.): Rouen Cathedral (1892–1894); Dusk, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1908)

Chicago (AI): Beach at Ste-Adresse (1867); On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt (Au bord de l’eau: Bennecourt) (1868, oil on canvas)

Cleveland (MA): The Red Cape (Mme Monet) (La Capeline rouge [Madame Monet]) (c. 1870, oil on canvas); Water-lilies (Nymphéas) (c. 1919–1926, oil on canvas, forming a triptych with the Kansas City and St Louis Water-lilies)

Colmar: The Creuse, Sunset (1889)

Cologne (Wallraf-Richartz Mus.): The Seine (1884–1885)

Columbus (MA): The Mediterranean (Cap d’Antibes) (1888, oil on canvas); The Church of Varengeville and the Gorge of Moutiers Pass (1882, oil on canvas); Seascape at Pourville (1882, oil on canvas); Basket of Grapes (1883, oil on canvas, one of six panels for a door); Weeping Willow (1918, oil on canvas); View of Bennecourt (1887, oil on canvas); A Gust of Wind (The Seine Port-Villez) (1883–1890, oil on canvas)

Dallas (MA): The Pont Neuf (1871, oil on canvas); The Seine at Lavacourt (1880, oil on canvas); Valle Buona, near Bordighera (1884, oil on canvas); Water-lilies (1908, oil on canvas)

Denver (AM): The Water-lily Pond; Waterloo Bridge

Detroit (IA): Rounded Flower Bed (Corbeille de fleurs) (1876, oil on canvas)

Dijon (MBA): Étretat

Dresden: Jar of Peaches; Bank of the Seine near Liancourt

Épinal: Landscape of the Creuse (1889)

Fort Worth (Kimbell AM): Weeping Willow (1918–1919, oil on canvas); La Pointe de la Hève at Low Tide (1865, oil on canvas)

Frankfurt am Main (Städel): Luncheon on the Grass (1865, sketch)

Hamburg: Fruit

Kansas City (Nelson-Atkins MA): Water-lilies (Nymphéas) (c. 1919–1926, oil on canvas, forming a triptych with the Cleveland and St Louis Water-lilies); Boulevard des Capucines (1873–1874, oil on canvas)

Liège: Commercial Dock in Le Havre

London (NG): The Beach at Trouville (1870, oil on canvas); Woman Seated on a Bench (1874, oil on canvas, on loan from the Tate Collection); The Gare St-Lazare (1877, oil on canvas); Lavacourt under Snow (c. 1878–1881, oil on canvas, on loan to the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin, since 1979); Poplars on the Epte (1891, oil on canvas, on loan from the Tate Collection); The Seine at Port-Villez (1894, oil on canvas, on loan from the Tate Collection since 1997); Flood Waters (c. 1896, oil on canvas); The Water-lily Pond (1899, oil on canvas)

London (Tate Collection): Water-lilies (after 1916, oil on canvas, on loan from the National Gallery since 1997)

Los Angeles (LCounty MA): Nymphéas (1897–1898, oil on canvas); In the Woods at Giverny: Blanche Hoschedé at Her Easel with Suzanne Hoschedé Reading (1887, oil on canvas); The Beach at Honfleur (1864–1866, oil on canvas); View of Vétheuil (1880, oil on canvas)

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): Still-Life with Flowers and Fruit (1869, oil on canvas); Sunrise (Marine) (1873, oil on canvas); Wheatstacks, Snow Effect, Morning (1891, oil on canvas); Portal of Rouen Cathedral in Morning Light (Le Portail [effet de matin]) (1894, oil on canvas)

Lyons (MBA): Spring (1882)

Mannheim (Städtische Kunsthalle): Village Street in Normandy (1867)

Morlaix (Mus. des Jacobins): Rain on Belle-Île

Moscow (Pushkin MFA): Luncheon on the Grass (1865, sketch); Boulevard des Capucines (1873); Rocks of Belle-Île (1886); Haystacks (1889–1891)

Munich (Neue Pinakothek): Pont d’Argenteuil (1874)

Nantes (MBA)

New York (Brooklyn Mus.): Church at Vernon (Vernon, soleil) (1894, oil on canvas); Houses of Parliament, Sunlight Effect (Le Parlement, effet de soleil) (1903, oil on canvas); The Islets at Port-Villez (Les Iles à Port-Villez) (1897, oil on canvas); Rising Tide at Pourville (Marée montante à Pourville) (1882, oil on canvas)

New York (Frick Collection): Vétheuil in Winter (1879–1880, oil on canvas)

New York (Metropolitan MA): Garden at Ste-Adresse (1866); La Grenouillère (1869); Vétheuil in Summer (1880); The Manneporte (Étretat) (1883); The Manneporte near Étretat (1885–1886); Customs House, Varengeville, or Fisherman’s House (1896–1897)

New York (MoMA): On the Cliff at Pourville, Clear Weather (1882, oil on canvas); Poplars at Giverny, Sunrise (1888, oil on canvas); Agapanthus (1914–1926, oil on canvas); Water-lilies (1914–1926, oil on canvas); The Japanese Footbridge (c. 1920–1922, oil on canvas)

New York (Solomon R. Guggenheim Mus.): The Palazzo Ducale, Seen from San Giorgio Maggiore (1908, oil on canvas)

Oslo: Rainy Weather near Étretat

Otterlo (Kröller-Müller Mus.): Studio Boat (c. 1874)

Paris (Mus. d’Orsay): St-Denis Quarry; Portrait of Mme Gaudibert (c. 1867); Luncheon on the Grass (1865, two panels); Cart, Road under the Snow at Honfleur (1867); High Sea at Étretat (1868–1869); Train Passing through the Countryside (1870–1871); Portrait of Mme Monet (c. 1871); Field of Tulips (1872); Regatta at Argenteuil (1872); The Luncheon (1873–1874); The Boats, Regatta at Argenteuil (1873–1874); Poppies (1873); Railroad Bridge at Argenteuil (c. 1873); Pont d’Argenteuil (1874); Argenteuil Lake (1875); Men Unloading Coal (1875); Jardin des Tuileries (1876); Gare St-Lazare (1877); Turkeys (1877, oil on canvas); Chrysanthemums (1878); The Seine at Vétheuil, Sun after the Rain (1879); Ice Blocks (1879–1880); Étretat (1883); Villas at Bordighera (1884); Storm, Coast of Belle-Île (1886); Sketch of Figure in Open Air (1888, two paintings of the same title); Rouen Cathedral (1892–1894, several variations); London, Houses of Parliament, Sun Breaking through the Fog (1904); Étretat: Manneporte, Reflections on the Water

Paris (Mus. de l’Orangerie): Water-lilies (1914–1918, then 1920–1926)

Paris (Mus. du Petit Palais): Sunset at Argenteuil (after 1872)

Paris (Mus. Marmottan Monet): Impression, Sunrise (1872); The Tuileries (1876); Water-lilies (1915, a considerable collection of paintings, mainly from the Giverny period up until the last water-lilies)

Philadelphia (Barnes Foundation): Girl in a Garden with a Dog (1873, oil on canvas); Camille Monet Embroidering (1875); Studio Boat (La Barque-Atelier) (1876, oil on canvas)

Philadelphia (MA): Poplars (Peupliers) (1891); Sun Setting over the Seine (1874); View of Amsterdam, the Westerkerk Tower (c. 1880)

Phoenix (AM): Flowering Arches, Giverny (Arches fleuries à Giverny) (1913, oil on canvas)

Pittsburgh (Carnegie MA): Waterloo Bridge, London (1903, oil on canvas); Nympheas (Water-lilies) (1920–1921, oil on canvas)

Portland (MA): The Seine at Vétheuil (c. 1880)

Raleigh: Morning on the Seine (1897)

Richmond (Virginia MFA): Irises by the Pond (1914–1917, oil on canvas)

Rotterdam (Mus. Boijmans Van Beuningen): Spring in Vétheuil (1878–1881); Fisherman’s House in Varengeville (1882)

Rouen: Rouen Cathedral (1894)

San Francisco (Palace of the Legion of Honor): The Grand Canal, Venice (1908, oil on canvas); Sailboats on the Seine at Petit-Gennevilliers (1874, oil on canvas); Water Lilies (1914–1917, oil on canvas); Waves Breaking (1881, oil on canvas)

Santa Barbara (MA): Waterloo Bridge (1900, oil on canvas); Villas at Bordighera (1884, oil on canvas); Charing Cross Bridge (1899, oil on canvas); Evening on the Seine (1897, oil on canvas)

Southampton (City AG): The Church at Vétheuil (1880)

St Louis (AM): Water-lilies (Nymphéas) (c. 1919–1926, oil on canvas, forming a triptych with the Cleveland and Kansas City Water-lilies)

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Field of Poppies (c. 1880)

St Petersburg (MFA): Parliament, Fog (1904, oil on canvas)

Stuttgart (Staatsgal.): Field in Spring (1887)

The Hague (Gemeentemus.): Fishermen’s Nets at Pourville (1882)

Tokyo (National Mus. of Western Art): Morning on the Seine (1898)

Tournai (MBA): Pointe du Cap Martin (1884)

Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus.): Fishermen on the Seine (1882)

Washington, DC (NGA): The Luncheon on the Grass (1865, chalk/paper, sketch); Bazille and Camille (1865, oil on canvas, study for Déjeuner sur l’herbe); The Bridge at Argenteuil (1874, oil on canvas); Banks of the Seine, Vétheuil (1880, oil on canvas); Waterloo Bridge, London, at Dusk (1904, oil on canvas, belongs to the series of Waterloo Bridge); other paintings

West Palm Beach (Norton MA): Gardens at Bordighera (The Moreno Gardens at Bordighera)

Williamstown: Rock Needle and the Porte d’Aval, Étretat (1885)

Worcester (AM): Water-lilies (1908, oil on canvas)

Zurich (Kunsthaus): Waterloo Bridge (1902, oil on canvas); Water-lily Pond with Iris (1915)

Auction Records

Paris, 1873: Still-life, FRF 780

Paris, 1887: Spring, FRF 1,800

Paris, 1892: The Seine at Rouen, FRF 9,200

Paris, 1897: Pont d’Argenteuil, FRF 21,500

Paris, 3–5 May 1902: La Débâcle, FRF 25,000

Paris, 31 May 1906: Cathedral, FRF 20,000; The Seine at Vernon, FRF 18,000

London, 3 June 1910: Snow, GBP 504

Paris, 9–11 Dec 1912: Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil, FRF 27,000

Paris, 1 March 1920: Banks of the Seine at Lavacourt (Snow), FRF 30,000

Paris, 14 May 1920: Needle of Étretat, FRF 79,000

Paris, 8 May 1924: Beach and Cliff of Ste-Adresse, FRF 60,100

Paris, 6 Nov 1924: Rock of the Lion at Belle-Île, FRF 52,000; Cliffs at Étretat, FRF 61,000

London, 24 July 1925: Rocks at Tréport, GBP 483; Bordighera, GBP 882

Paris, 26 June 1926: Road near the St-Siméon Farm at Honfleur, FRF 146,000

London, 29 April 1927: Cliff at Fécamp, GBP 1,522

Paris, 20 May 1927: Ice on the Seine at Bougival, FRF 125,000

Paris, 16–17 June 1927: Flowers in a Vase, FRF 280,000

Deauville, 8 Dec 1928: Boats at Argenteuil, FRF 481,000

Paris, 3–4 June 1929: The Seine near Giverny, FRF 265,000; The Flood, FRF 203,000; Still-life, FRF 281,000

New York, 10 April 1930: Morning Fog, USD 2,600

Paris, 2 June 1932: Cap-Martin, FRF 57,000

Paris, 9 June 1932: Winter Landscape, FRF 60,000; The Seine at Argenteuil, FRF 80,000

Paris, 15 Dec 1932: Shaded Pine Trees, Cap d’Antibes, FRF 111,000; Antibes, View of La Sales Gardens, FRF 205,000; Fishing Nets at Pourville, FRF 122,000

New York, 26 Oct 1933: River with Weeping Willows, USD 3,700; Bank of the Seine, USD 6,500; Rouen Cathedral, USD 7,100

London, 22 June 1934: Charing Cross Road Bridge, GBP 126

Paris, 15 June 1938: Ball-shaped Tree, Argenteuil (1876) FRF 100,000

Paris, 18 Feb 1939: Haystacks, FRF 100,000; Water-lilies, FRF 63,000; Pink Cathedral, FRF 172,000

Paris, 16 Feb 1942: Vase of Flowers, FRF 610,000

Paris, 11 Dec 1942: Belle-Île, the Storm (1886) FRF 530,000

Paris, 3 Feb 1944: Giverny, the Water-lily Pond, FRF 550,000

Paris, 8 Feb 1945: Cliff near Étretat, FRF 910,000

New York, 24 Jan 1946: The Seine at Bougival, USD 11,000

Paris, 20 March 1950: Bridge over the Thames (1903) FRF 675,000

Geneva, 17 May 1951: Horse-drawn Cab, CHF 18,000

Paris, 23 May 1951: Apple Trees (1881) FRF 1,650,000; Bay of Antibes (1888) FRF 1,600,000

London, 14 Dec 1955: View of Lavacourt, GBP 3,000

Paris, 14 June 1957: Spring Landscape at Giverny (1894) FRF 8,200,000; Antibes, Seen from La Sales Gardens (1888) FRF 17,500,000

New York, 7 Nov 1957: Water-lily Pond, Giverny, USD 35,000; Women in a Garden, USD 92,500

London, 26 March 1958: Railroad, GBP 9,000

Versailles, 16 March 1959: Argenteuil (1876) FRF 22,200,000; Lavacourt (1878) FRF 20,000,000

Paris, 23 June 1960: Rouen, the Barges under the Snow (1874, oil on canvas, 22 × 28¾ ins/56 × 73 cm) FRF 147,000

London, 23 Nov 1960: Water-lily Pond, Giverny, GBP 18,000

London, 11 June 1963: Railroad Bridge at Argenteuil, GBP 77,000

Paris, 23 March 1965: View of Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 25 × 31½ ins/63.5 × 80 cm) FRF 205,000

Paris, 15 June 1965: On the Cliff, Mme Monet and Her Son Jean, FRF 2,520,000

Paris, 9 March 1967: Bridge in London (pastel) FRF 31,000

London, 1 Dec 1967: Terrace in Ste-Adresse, Gns 560,000

New York, 9 Oct 1968: Portrait of Mme Camille Monet, USD 500,000

London, 30 June 1970: Bank of the Seine at Argenteuil, Gns 240,000

Paris, 4 Dec 1972: Towboat, Fog Effect, FRF 30,000

Paris, 5 June 1974: Landscape in Giverny, Snow (1878) FRF 400,000

London, 1 July 1974: Banks of the Seine in Argenteuil, Gns 185,000

London, 6 April 1976: Fishing Boat (c. 1864–1866, pastel, 7¾ × 13½ ins/20 × 34 cm) GBP 4,800

London, 28 June 1976: Snow in Amsterdam (1874, oil on canvas, 22 × 28¾ ins/56 × 73 cm) GBP 55,000

Zurich, 25 Nov 1977: The Seine near Giverny (c. 1894, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 32 ins/54 × 81.5 cm) CHF 260,000

New York, 6 Nov 1979: Water-lilies (c. 1919, oil on canvas, 52 × 79¼ ins/132 × 201 cm) USD 650,000

London, 5 Dec 1979: Houses by the Sea (c. 1865, charcoal, 7 × 10¼ ins/18 × 26 cm) GBP 1,800

Paris, 21 Nov 1980: Farmyard in Normandy (pastel, 11 × 9 ins/28 × 22 cm) FRF 84,000

New York, 5 Nov 1981: Boats in Argenteuil (1875, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) USD 1,300,000

New York, 18 May 1983: Water-lilies (c. 1897–1898, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 59¾ ins/130 × 152 cm) USD 2,400,000

Versailles, 8 June 1983: The Hoschédé Children: Jacques, Suzanne, Blanche and Germaine (pastel/canvas, 21¼ × 28¾ ins/54 × 73 cm) FRF 900,000

New York, 15 May 1984: Portal of Rouen Cathedral (1894, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 25½ ins/100 × 65 cm) USD 2,300,000

New York, 16 May 1984: Touques, Small Port near Honfleur (1865, pencil/mounted paper/cardboard, 8¼ × 13 ins/21 × 33.3 cm) USD 34,000

London, 26 March 1985: Clouds (pastel, 9¾ × 15¼ ins/25 × 39 cm) GBP 41,000

New York, 12 Nov 1985: Haystack, Sun in the Fog (1891, oil on canvas, 23½ × 39½ ins/60 × 100.5 cm) USD 2,000,000

Fontainebleau, 25 May 1986: La Gare d’Argenteuil (1872, oil on canvas, 19 × 28 ins/48 × 71 cm) FRF 2,200,000

Paris, 26 June 1986: Camille and Jean Monet in the Garden in Argenteuil (1873, oil on canvas, 51½ × 38¼ ins/131 × 97 cm) FRF 9,800,000

London, 2 Dec 1986: Palazzo Dario, Venice (1908, oil on canvas, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 66 cm) GBP 1,600,000

New York, 10 Nov 1987: Water-lilies (1914–1917, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 59 ins/130 × 150 cm) USD 3,000,000

New York, 12 Nov 1987: Waterloo Bridge (c. 1900–1904, pastel/paper, 12¼ × 19 ins/31 × 48 cm) USD 125,000

Paris, 2 Dec 1987: View near Rouelles (1858, oil on canvas, 18 × 25½ ins/46 × 65 cm) FRF 850,000

London, 28 June 1988: In the Field (1876, oil on canvas, 23½ × 32¼ ins/60 × 82 cm) GBP 14,300,000; Small Islands of Port-Villez (1883, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 36½ ins/65.6 × 93 cm) GBP 1,210,000

New York, 14 Nov 1988: Beach at Trouville (1870, oil on canvas, 18¾ × 29¼ ins/47.6 × 74 cm) USD 9,800,000

Paris, 20 Nov 1988: Field in Étretat (1885, oil on canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/65 × 81 cm) FRF 8,800,000

Paris, 24 Nov 1988: The Seine at Lavacourt (c. 1879, oil on canvas, 17¼ × 23½ ins/44 × 60 cm) FRF 3,560,000

London, 29 Nov 1988: Water-lilies (1908, oil on canvas, 36¼ × 35 ins/92 × 89 cm) GBP 5,720,000

Calais, 26 Feb 1989: Water-lilies (oil on canvas, 9 × 19¼ ins/23 × 49 cm) FRF 300,000

Enghien-les-Bains, 18 March 1989: Charing Cross Bridge and the Houses of Parliament (1899, oil on canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/65 × 81 cm) FRF 33,000,000

Milan, 20 March 1989: The Seine at Port-Villez (oil on paper/cardboard, 6½ × 9 ins/16.5 × 23 cm) ITL 200,000,000

London, 4 April 1989: Santa Maria della Salute and the Grand Canal in Venice (1908, oil on canvas, 28¼ × 35¾ ins/72 × 91 cm) GBP 6,710,000

Paris, 8 April 1989: Amsterdam (1874, oil on canvas, 19¾ × 26¾ ins/50 × 68 cm) FRF 11,400,000

New York, 9 May 1989: Country House on the Banks of the Zaan (the Netherlands) (1871, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 29¼ ins/54 × 74 cm) USD 11,000,000; Alice Hoschedé in the Garden (1881, oil on canvas, 32 × 25½ ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 8,800,000

New York, 10 May 1989: Houses of Parliament at Sunset (1904, oil on canvas, 32¼ × 36½ ins/82 × 92.8 cm) USD 14,300,000

Paris, 17 June 1989: Underbrush, Sun (1878, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 45.5 cm) FRF 4,600,000

Paris, 19 June 1989: Train of Jenfosse (1884, oil on canvas, 23½ × 32 ins/60 × 81 cm) FRF 15,100,000

London, 26 June 1989: Camille and Jean Monet in the Garden in Argenteuil (1873, oil on canvas, 51½ × 38¼ ins/131 × 97 cm) GBP 3,850,000

London, 27 June 1989: Le Pont Routier d’Argenteuil (1874, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 28¾ ins/54 × 73 cm) GBP 3,190,000

New York, 18 Oct 1989: Bank of Argenteuil (1877, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 29 ins/60.4 × 73.4 cm) USD 6,600,000; Edge of the Seine, the Corner of a Bank (1881, oil on canvas, 32¼ × 23½ ins/82 × 60 cm) USD 3,740,000; Haystacks, Morning Snow (1891, oil on canvas, 25½ × 39¼ ins/65 × 100 cm) USD 8,525,000

New York, 14 Nov 1989: Water-lilies (1907, oil on canvas, 39½ × 39½ ins/100.3 × 100.3 cm) USD 11,550,000; Grand Canal (1908, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼ ins/73 × 92 cm) USD 11,550,000; Houses of Parliament in the Sunset (1902, oil on canvas, 32 × 36¼ ins/81 × 92 cm) USD 9,900,000

London, 28 Nov 1989: Bank at Petit Gennevilliers (1875, oil on canvas, 24 × 31½ ins/61 × 80 cm) GBP 3,190,000; Water-lily Pond (oil on canvas, 39¼ × 78¾ ins/100 × 200 cm) GBP 5,720,000

London, 3 April 1990: Walk at Argenteuil (oil on canvas, 20¾ × 28¾ ins/53 × 73 cm) GBP 2,860,000

New York, 16 May 1990: Waterloo Bridge (pastel/paper/cardboard, 11½ × 18¼ ins/29.2 × 46.4 cm) USD 330,000

New York, 17 May 1990: Grand Canal (1908, oil on canvas, 32 × 36½ ins/81.2 × 92.4 cm) USD 9,900,000

Bayeux, 4 June 1990: Pink and Blue Impressions, Haystack (1891, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼ ins/73 × 92 cm) FRF 28,100,000

London, 25 June 1990: Through the Trees, Île de la Grande Jatte (1878, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) GBP 2,310,000

New York, 13 Nov 1990: Water-lilies (1907, oil on canvas, 42 × 28¾ ins/106.7 × 73 cm) USD 9,460,000

New York, 8 May 1991: Haystacks (pencil/paper, 10 × 7¼ ins/25.5 × 18.2 cm) USD 165,000

London, 25 June 1991: Flowers at Vétheuil (1880, oil on canvas, 23½ × 29½ ins/60 × 75 cm) GBP 1,320,000

New York, 6 Nov 1991: Road (1886, oil on canvas, 26 × 32 ins/66 × 81 cm) USD 770,000

New York, 13 May 1992: Landscape at Port-Villez (1883, oil on canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/64.8 × 81.3 cm) USD 825,000

London, 29 June 1992: Charing Cross Bridge, the Thames (1903, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 39¼ ins/73 × 100 cm) GBP 2,145, 000

New York, 11 Nov 1992: Water-lily Pond (1919, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 78¾ ins/100 × 200 cm) USD 12,100,000

London, 30 Nov 1992: Late Afternoon in Vétheuil (1880, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 39¼ ins/73 × 100 cm) GBP 1,100,000

New York, 11 May 1993: La Débâcle (1881, oil on canvas, 24 × 39¼ ins/61 × 99.7 cm) USD 2,202,500

New York, 12 May 1993: Breakwater in Le Havre (oil on canvas, 57¾ × 89 ins/147 × 226 cm) USD 9,682,000

London, 22 June 1993: Woman with Parasol (1890, lead pencil and grattage, 12 × 9¼ ins/30.5 × 23.5 cm) GBP 353,500

New York, 3 Nov 1993: The Flooding Seine at Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/64.8 × 81.3 cm) USD 1,652,500

Paris, 25 March 1994: Underbrush, Sun (Île de la Jatte) (oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/56 × 46 cm) FRF 2,300,000

New York, 10 May 1994: Palazzo da Mula in Venice (1908, oil on canvas, 25 × 35½ ins/63.5 × 90 cm) USD 4,182,500

New York, 11 May 1994: Hunter and His Dog in a Boat, Caricature (pastel/blue paper/cardboard, 23 × 18 ins/58.4 × 45.7 cm) USD 17,250

London, 28 June 1994: Poplars by the Epte, Evening Effect (1891, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 25½ ins/100 × 65 cm) GBP 4,841,500

New York, 9 Nov 1994: Chrysanthemums (1878, oil on canvas, 21 × 24¼ ins/53.5 × 61.5 cm) USD 2,037,500; Water-lilies (1907, oil on canvas, diam. 31¼ ins/79.5 cm) USD 3,302,500

New York, 9 May 1995: View of the Church of Vernon (1883, oil on canvas, 25½ × 31½ ins/64.8 × 80 cm) USD 3,742,500

New York, 7 Nov 1995: Water-lilies (1908, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81.3 cm) USD 5,062,500

New York, 8 Nov 1995: View of Rouen (1872, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 28¾ ins/54 × 73.3 cm) USD 4,512,500

London, 27 Nov 1995: Morning on the Seine (1896, oil on canvas, 28 × 35½ ins/71 × 90 cm) GBP 1,013,500

Paris, 13 Dec 1995: Ice-blocks on the Seine at Port-Villez (1893, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼ ins/73 × 92 cm) FRF 4,800,000

New York, 1 May 1996: Haystacks in Giverny, Morning Effect (1889, oil on canvas, 26 × 36¼ ins/65.1 × 92.1 cm) USD 7,152,500

Paris, 16 Oct 1996: Cows in the Shed (lead pencil, 9½ × 18½ ins/24 × 47 cm) FRF 60,000

New York, 13 Nov 1996: The Artist’s Garden in Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 39½ × 32¼ ins/100.5 × 82 cm) USD 13,202,500; Water-lilies (c. 1905, oil on canvas, 35 × 39¾ ins/89 × 101 cm) USD 13,202,500; Train in the Snow at Argenteuil (1875, oil on canvas, 23½ × 32 ins/60 × 81.5 cm) USD 1,432,500

New York, 14 Nov 1996: Fort at Antibes (1888, oil on canvas, sketch, 23½ × 31½ ins/59.9 × 80.2 cm) USD 299,500

London, 2 Dec 1996: Small Arm of Mousseaux (1878, oil on canvas, 23½ × 32 ins/60 × 81 cm) GBP 529,500

New York, 12 May 1997: Mauve Irises (1914–1917, oil on canvas, 78¾ × 39½ ins/200 × 100.3 cm) USD 3,852,500

New York, 14 May 1997: The Seine at Argenteuil (1875, oil on canvas, 23½ × 31½ ins/59.8 × 79.8 cm) USD 8,362,500; Corner of the Water-lily Pond (1918, oil on canvas, 51¾ × 34¾ ins/131.5 × 88.5 cm) USD 6,712,500

London, 24 June 1997: Corner of the Pond in Montgeron (1876, oil on canvas, 23 × 32 ins/58.5 × 81.2 cm) GBP 441,500

New York, 11 Nov 1997: Waterloo Bridge, Veiled Sun (1903, oil on canvas, 26 × 40 ins/65.1 × 100.7 cm) USD 8,252,000

New York, 13 Nov 1997: Antibes (1888, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65.4 × 81.3 cm) USD 2,037,500

London, 9 Dec 1997: On the Boardwalk in Trouville (1870, oil on canvas, 19¾ × 27½ ins/50 × 70 cm) GBP 4,181,500

New York, 13 May 1998: The Grand Canal (1908, oil on canvas, 32 × 36 ins/81 × 92 cm) USD 11,000,000

London, 30 June 1998: Pool with Waterlilies and Path by the Water (1900, oil on canvas, 35 × 39 ins/89 × 100 cm) GBP 18,000,000

New York, 11 May 1999: Haystack (1891, oil on canvas, 29 × 36 ins/73 × 92 cm) USD 10,900,000

New York, 8 Nov 1999: Waterlilies (1906, oil on canvas, 35 × 37 ins/89 × 93 cm) USD 20,500,000

New York, 8 May 2000: Waterlilies (1906, oil on canvas, 35 × 39 ins/90 × 100 cm) USD 19,000,000

New York, 10 May 2000: The Gate – Sun (1894, oil on canvas, 39 × 26 ins/100 × 65 cm) USD 22,000,000

New York, 10 May 2001: The Houses of Parliament, Sunset (1902, oil on canvas, 32 × 37 ins/82 × 93 cm) USD 13,250,000

London, 26 June 2001: Haystacks in the Last Rays of Sun (1890, oil on canvas, 29 × 36 ins/73 × 92 cm) GBP 9,200,000

London, 24 June 2002: Waterlilies (1906, oil on canvas, 32 × 37 ins/81 × 93 cm) GBP 12,250,000

New York, 5 Nov 2002: Waterlilies (1906, oil on canvas, 35 × 36 ins/89 × 92 cm) USD 17,000,000

New York, 4 Nov 2003: Waterlilies (1914–1917, oil on canvas, 67 × 48 ins/169 × 123 cm) USD 3,700,000

New York, 5 Nov 2003: Waterlilies (1908, oil on canvas, 36 × 35 ins/91 × 89 cm) USD 9,300,000

New York, 6 May 2004: Pool with Waterlilies (oil on canvas, 39 × 79 ins/100 × 200 cm) USD 15,000,000

New York, 3 Nov 2004: Houses of Parliament, London, the Sun Breaking through the Fog (1904, oil on canvas, 32 × 36 ins/81 × 92 cm) USD 18,000,000

New York, 1 Nov 2005: Nympheas (1907, oil on canvas, 39 × 39 ins/99.1 × 99.1 cm) USD 12,500,000

New York, 2 Nov 2005: Grand Canal, Venice (1908, oil on canvas, 29 × 36 ins/73.7 × 91.4 cm) USD 11,500,000

New York, 2 May 2006: Water Lilies, Grey Weather (Nymphéas, temps gris) (1907, oil on canvas, 39 × 29 ins/99.1 × 73.7 cm) USD 10,000,000

New York, 3 May 2006: Near Monte Carlo (Près de Monte-Carlo) (1883, oil on canvas, 66 × 82 ins/167.6 × 208.3 cm) USD 4,500,000

London, 18 June 2007: Waterloo Bridge, Cloudy (1904, oil on canvas, 26 × 39 ins/66 × 99.1 cm) GBP 16,000,000

London, 19 June 2007: Nymphéas – Water-lilies (1904, oil on canvas, 32 × 39 ins/81.3 × 99.1 cm) GBP 16,500,000

New York, 6 May 2008: Railway Bridge in Argenteuil (Le pont du chemin de fer à Argenteuil) (1873, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 38¾ ins/60 × 98.4 cm) USD 41,480,000

London, 25 June 2008: Beach at Trouville (La Plage à Trouville) (1870, oil on canvas, 19 × 29 ins/48 × 73.5 cm) GBP 7,657,250

London, 4 Feb 2009: On the Prairie (Dans la prairie) (1876, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 32½ ins/60.3 × 82 cm) GBP 11,241,250

London, 23 June 2009: Au Parc Monceau (1878, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 21½ ins/65.3 × 54.2 cm) GBP 6,313,250

New York, 5 May 2010: Effect of Spring at Giverny (Effet de printemps à Giverny) (1890, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 39½ ins/60 × 100 cm) USD 15,202,500

New York, 2 Nov 2010: Lily Pond (Le basin aux nymphéas) (1917–1919, oil on canvas, 38½ × 78¼ ins/97.5 × 198.4 cm) USD 24,722,500

New York, 4 May 2011: The Poplars (Les peupliers) (1891, oil on canvas, 45¾ × 28½ ins/116.2 × 72.2 cm) USD 22,482,500

New York, 2 Nov 2011: Antibes, Fort (Antibes, le fort) (1888, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65 × 81.5 cm) USD 5,817,377

London, 8 Feb 2012: Berges de la Seine près de Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65 × 81.2 cm) GBP 2,505,250; L’entrée de Giverny en hiver (1885, oil on canvas, 26 × 33¾ ins/65.5 × 85.5 cm) GBP 8,217,250; Printemps à Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 31¾ ins/60 × 80.5 cm) GBP 1,497,250

New York, 7 Nov 2012: Bateaux de pêche, temps calme (1868, oil on canvas, 25¼ × 21½ ins/64.1 × 54 cm) USD 2,098,500; Bloc de rochers à Port-Goulphar (1887, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 25¾ ins/65.4 × 65.4 cm) USD 2,378,500; Les Nymphéas (1905, oil on canvas, 35 × 39¼ ins/88.3 × 99.5 cm) USD 43,762,500

London, 19 June 2013: Le Palais Contarini (1908, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼ ins/73 × 92 cm) GBP 19,682,500; Le Pont de bois (1872, oil on canvas, 21½ × 28¾ ins/54 × 73 cm) GBP 6,242,500; L’Église de Vernon, temps gris (1894, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 36¼ ins/65 × 92 cm) GBP 4,562,500

New York, 6 Nov 2013: Coucher de soleil à Pourville, pleine mer (1882, oil on canvas, 21½ × 29 ins/54 × 73.5 cm) USD 4,645,000; Glaçons, effet blanc (1894, oil on canvas, 26 × 39½ ins/65.5 × 100 cm) USD 16,125,000; Chevaux à la pointe de la Hève (1864, oil on canvas, 21½ × 29 ins/54 × 73.5 cm) USD 2,741,000

London, 23 June 2014: Nymphéas (1906, oil on canvas, 34¾ × 39½ ins/88.5 × 100 cm) GBP 31,722,500; La Seine à Argenteuil (1875, oil on canvas, 23½ × 31½ ins/59.8 × 79.8 cm) GBP 8,538,500; Antibes (vue du Plateau Notre-Dame) (1888, oil on canvas, 25.6 × 36¼ ins/65.1 × 92.1 cm) GBP 7,922,500

New York, 4 Nov 2014: Alice Hoschedé au jardin (1881, oil on canvas, 32 × 25.6 ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 33,765,000; Sous les peupliers (1887, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¾ ins/73 × 92 cm) USD 20,325,000; Église de Vernon, soleil (1894, oil on canvas, 25.6 × 36¼ ins/65 × 92 cm) USD 7,781,000; Le jardin de Vétheuil (1881, oil on canvas, 23½ × 29½ ins/59.5 × 74.5 cm) USD 7,557,000

London, 3 Feb 2015: Le grand canal (1908, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼ ins/73 × 92 cm) GBP 23,669,000; Les peupliers à Giverny (1997, oil on canvas, 29 × 36½ ins/74 × 92.7 cm) GBP 10,789,000; L’Embarcadère (1971, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 29 ins/54 × 73.5 cm) GBP 10,229,000; Antibes vue de la salis (1999, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 35¾ ins/65.5 × 91 cm) GBP 8,773,000; Vas de pivoines (1882, oil on canvas, 39½ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) GBP 2,277,000

Paris, 24 March 2015: Vue d’un port (1871, oil on canvas, 19.6 × 25.6 ins/49.8 × 65 cm) EUR 1,575,900

New York, 5 May 2015: Nymphéas (1905, oil on canvas, 32 × 39½ ins/81 × 100.5 cm) USD 54,010,000; Le Palais Ducal (1908, oil on canvas, 22½ × 36¼ ins/57 × 92 cm) USD 23,098,000; Bassin aux nymphéas, les rosiers (1913, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 39½ ins/73 × 100 cm) USD 20,410,000; Le Chemin d’Epinay, effet de neige (1875, oil on canvas, 24 × 39¼ ins/61 × 99.5 cm) USD 6,410,000

New York, 11 May 2015: Le Parlement, soleil couchant (1900–1901, oil on canvas, 32 × 36⅝ ins/81.3 × 93 cm) USD 40,485,000

New York, 5 Nov 2015: Nymphéas (c. 1908, oil on canvas, 39⅜ × 32 ins/100 × 81.3 cm) USD 33,850,000

New York, 12 May 2016: Le bassin aux nymphéas (1919, oil on canvas, 39⅜ × 40⅞ ins/99.6 × 103.7 cm) USD 27,045,000

New York, 16 Nov 2016: Meule (1891, oil on canvas, 28⅝ × 36¼ ins/72.7 × 92.1 cm) USD 81,447,500

New York, 14 Nov 2017: Les Glaçons, Bennecourt (1893, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 39½ ins/65.5 × 100.5 cm) USD 23,372,500

New York, 8 May 2018: Nymphéas en fleur (c. 1914–1917, oil on canvas, 63 × 70⅞ ins/160.3 × 180 cm) USD 84,687,500; Extérieur de la gare Saint-Lazare, effet de soleil (1877, oil on canvas, 24⅛ × 31¾ ins/61.3 × 80.7 cm) USD 32,937,500

London, 20 June 2018: La Gare Saint-Lazare, vue extérieure (1877, oil on canvas, 23¾ × 31⅝ ins/60.4 × 80.2 cm) GBP 24,983,750

New York, 11 Nov 2018: Le bassin aux nymphéas (1917–1919, oil on canvas, 39¾ × 79 ins/100.7 × 200.8 cm) USD 31,812,500

London, 26 Feb 2019: Le Palais Ducal, oil on canvas, 31⅞ × 36⅝ ins/81 × 93 cm) GBP 27,534,000

New York, 14 May 2019: Meules (1890–1891, oil on canvas, 28⅝ × 36¾ ins/72.7 × 92.6 cm) USD 110,747,000

London, 19 June 2019: Nymphéas (1908, oil on canvas, 36¼ × 35 ins/92 × 89 cm) GBP 23,731,624

Bibliography

  • Alexandre, Arsène: Claude Monet, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1921.
  • Geffroy, Gustave: Claude Monet, sa vie, son temps, son oeuvre, G. Crès, Paris, 1922.
  • Elder, Marc: À Giverny, chez Claude Monet, Bernheim, Paris, 1924.
  • Werth, Léon: Monet, G. Crès, Paris, 1928.
  • Léger, Charles: Claude Monet, G. Crès, Paris, 1930.
  • Francastel, Pierre: Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Skira, Paris, 1939.
  • Besson, Georges: Monet, Braun, Paris, 1951.
  • Rouart, Denis/Degand, Léon: Monet, Skira, Geneva, 1958.
  • Hoschedé, Jean-Pierre: Claude Monet, ce mal connu, Éditions Pierre Cailler, Geneva, 1960.
  • Seitz, William Chapin: Claude Monet: Seasons and Moments, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, Garden City (NY), 1960.
  • Taillandier, Yvon: Monet, Flammarion, Paris, 1963.
  • Seitz, William Chapin: Monet, Nouvelles Éditions Françaises, Paris, 1966.
  • Cogniat, Raymond: Monet, Flammarion, Paris, 1969.
  • Wildenstein, Daniel: Claude Monet: biographie et catalogue raisonné, 5 vols, La Bibliothèque des Arts, Paris, 1974–1991. (Published as Monet, or, The Triumph of Impressionism, 4 vols, Taschen, Cologne; Wildenstein Institute, Paris, 1996.)
  • Isaacson, Joel: Claude Monet, Observation and Reflection, Phaidon, Oxford, 1978.
  • Monet’s Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1978.
  • Bortolatto, Luigina Rossi: Tout l’oeuvre peint de Monet, 1870–1889, Flammarion, Paris, 1981.
  • Tucker, Paul Hayes: Monet at Argenteuil, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1982.
  • Aitken, Geneviève/Delafond, Marianne/van der Kemp, Gérald (preface): La collection d’estampes japonaises de Claude Monet à Giverny, La Bibliothèque des Arts, Paris, 1983.
  • Gordon, Robert/Forge, Andrew: Monet, Abrams, New York, 1983.
  • Stuckey, Charles F. (ed.): Monet, a Retrospective, Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, New York, 1985.
  • House, John: Monet, Nature into Art, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1986.
  • Tucker, Paul: Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, exhibition catalogue, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT) and Boston, 1989.
  • Hayes-Tucker, Paul: Monet, le triomphe de la lumière, Flammarion, Paris, 1990.
  • Sproccati, Sandro/Busse, Jacques (preface): Monet, Gründ, Paris, 1992.
  • Alphant, Marianne: Claude Monet, une vie dans le paysage, Hazan, Paris, 1993.
  • Tucker, Paul Hayes: Claude Monet: Life and Art, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1995.
  • Busse, Jacques: L’Impressionnisme: une dialectique du regard, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1996.
  • Néret, Gilles (ed.): Claude Monet: biographie et catalogue raisonné, Taschen, Cologne, 1996.
  • Pissarro, Joachim: Monet and the Mediterranean, Rizzoli, New York, 1997.
  • Rachman, Carla: Monet: Art and Ideas, Phaidon, London, 1997.
  • Tucker, Paul, and others: Monet in the 20th Century, Royal Academy of Arts, London, Boston and New Haven (CT), 1998.
  • Tucker, Paul: Monet au XXe siècle, Flammarion, Paris, 1999.
  • Bretell, Richard R.: Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2000.
  • Spate, Virginia: Monet, la couleur du temps, Thames & Hudson, Paris, 2001.
  • Delafond, Marianne/Grenet-Bondeville, Caroline: Monet à Marmottan, Scala, Paris, 2002.
  • Joel, David: Monet at Vetheuil and on the Norman Coast, 1878–1883, Antique Collectors Club, Woodbridge, 2002.
  • Monet. I luoghi della pittura, exhibition catalogue, Casa dei Carraresi, Treviso, 2002.
  • Sagner-Düchting, Karin: Monet and Modernism, Prestel, Munich and London, 2002.
  • Baillo, Joseph, and others: Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exhibition catalogue, Abrams, New York, 2010.
  • Gedo, Mary Mathews: Monet and His Muse: Camille Monet in the Artist’s Life, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2010.
  • Goldman, Noémie: Claude Monet: son musée, Hazan, Paris, 2010.
  • Bartolena, Simona: Monet, Prestel, Munich and London, 2011.
  • Stamford, Tasha: Monet, Mason Crest, Broomall, 2016.
  • Widauer, Heinz/Buchhart, Dieter: Claude Monet: A Floating World, exhibition catalogue, Albertina Museum, Vienna, 2018.
  • Daneo, Angelica, and others (eds.): Claude Monet: The Truth of Nature, exhibition catalogue, Denver Museum of Art, Denver, 2019.
  • Shackelford, George T.M., and others: Monet: The Late Years, exhibition catalogue, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, 2019.
  • Dombrowski, André: ‘Impressionism and the Standardization of Time: Claude Monet at Gare Saint-Lazare’, The Art Bulletin, College Art Association of America, vol 102, no. 2, June 2020. DOI: 10.1080/00043079.2020.1676129