Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Oxford Art Online. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 28 June 2022

Manet, Édouardfree

Manet, Édouardfree

Updated in this version

updated 09 July 2012

French, 19th century, male.

Born 23 January 1832, in Paris; died 30 April 1883, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, poster artist, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, urban landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Japonisme, Realism.

Impressionist group.

Édouard Manet, photograph, 255×215 mm (Frick Art Reference Library Archives)

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard MANET: stamp of sale

Édouard MANET: signature or monogram

Édouard Manet was from an old bourgeois family: his father was a magistrate and his mother’s father was a diplomat. He was unavoidably shaped by his origins and, however revolutionary his work may have appeared, he retained the bearing and the sentiments of a ‘society gentleman’. As a child, he already felt an irresistible attraction to painting as an occupation. An uncle who was a colonel in the artillery, and who spent every spare moment of his leisure time filling the pages of a sketchbook, passed down to him his love for drawing and took him to museums. Having pursued his studies at Collège Rollin, Manet chose (rather than studying law) to enlist as a ship’s boy on a commercial vessel, the Guadeloupe. The long journey that he made from Le Havre to Rio de Janeiro was influential on the way in which his genius developed and later provided the inspiration for seascapes that are among the most beautiful of his era. At the time, however, he felt able only to note down fleeting impressions with some pencil strokes - a picturesque attitude here, an elusive aspect there. On his return to France at age 18, his father acceded to his wishes, agreeing to let him follow his vocation. He arranged for him to enter the studio of Thomas Couture, where Manet remained for six years.

Apart from the general rules of his art, there was not a great deal for Manet to learn from Couture, to whom success had come easily and for whom virtuosity took the place of real talent. Master and pupil did not hold each other in high regard. ‘You will never be anything but the Daumier of painting!’ Couture told him one day, a revealing comment on both painters. Manet nevertheless developed in Couture’s studio; he was given the models that he needed, after which he would go to the Louvre and set passionately to work copying the Italian and Dutch masters, Titian being a favourite. His earliest independent works were also heavily indebted to Diego Velázquez. Journeys he made in this same period to Holland, Germany, and Italy broadened his horizons further. From 1856, he rented a studio on the Rue Lavoisier and decided to work alone.

In 1859, he confronted the public. The Salon rejected his submission, Absinthe-Drinker, and a first exhibition of his work at the Galerie Martinet, on the Boulevard des Italiens, caused a scandal. The astute, elegant, and attractive bourgeois gentleman, conscious of his worth, who liked to please and felt that he was destined for a glorious career, was instantly despised by the public. The newspapers portrayed him as a madman, a vulgar Bohemian, and an anarchist. Like his friend Charles Baudelaire, he saw himself as a great Classicist who was mistaken for a rebel. Manet’s Guitar-Player (or Spanish Singer) was accepted at the Salon of 1861, however, and even won an award. The previous year, he had paved the way for these great compositions that represented the flowering of his greatest freedom of inspiration with Music in the Tuileries Gardens, in which the colours reverberate around the shadows and both the figures and the trees tremble with life.

Manet’s artistic personality is already revealed in these early works by the quality of his contrasting blacks and whites, by the intensity of his tragic effects, and by the refined delicacy of his palette, as well as by the influence of Spain, with which his art has strange affinities and which remained one of his foremost sources of inspiration. (Paris was then fêting a troop of Spanish dancers, a singer, and a guitarist.) The influence of Japanese woodblock prints, which had recently become available in Paris, should not be overlooked. Japanese art suited his temperament because of its bold contrasts and the quality of its colour, clearly situated and sustained by beautiful blacks, as well as through its nonchalant forms, set off by the precision of a firm emphasis; and he was attracted to the subjects themselves - courtiers and theatrical people, artisans at their work, or women at their ablutions. From the very beginning, Manet reacted against insipid contours and attenuated values. He employed an alla prima technique (that is, painting without underpainting), essential for the development of Impressionism. On his canvas, he placed large unified masses, ‘faces from card games’, as was said of his famous Picnic on the Grass ( Déjeuner sur l’herbe), which caused a scandal at the first Salon des Refusés that was ordered by Napoléon III alongside the official Salon of 1863. All sorts of contradictory criticisms have been made of this canvas, which was an open-air painting but also one that contained the open air of the studio, inspired as it was by Giorgione’s Concert champêtre in the Louvre. Manet worked on it for an entire year, but it has all the tonal freshness of a sketch and was described by one critic as a daub and a caricature of colour. This is to say nothing of his audacity in showing a naked woman in a wood in the company of men wearing jackets! The young woman was Victorine Meurent, a redhead with a matte complexion, a svelte figure, and an impassive demeanour who was to feature for 12 years in many of the painter’s canvases. She would distress the 1865 Salon’s established visitors once again in her next incarnation, Olympia, painted in 1863. The gulf was widening yet further between Manet and his public. This naked girl appeared perverse, stupid, cadaverous, catlike in attitude, and indecent; the bouquet and her black servant were considered ridiculous. Finally, the face and the pallid flesh tones, through their faintly indicated contours, offended the viewers who were used to clever graduations and skilful transitions from light to shade. However, a small group of artists and writers took up a passionate defence of the work. They would meet at the Café Guerbois on the Avenue de Clichy. In this coterie, the brilliant Manet held the place of honour.

Contrary to his relaxed appearances, his output of work was prodigious: he produced watercolours and etchings, studies, major topical subjects taken from contemporaneous events, portraits and seascapes. Baudelaire wrote to him: ‘They cannot recognise your talent. . . . Do you imagine you are the first person to find yourself in this position? Are you any more of a genius than Châteaubriand and Wagner? That did not stop people making fun of them. Nor did they die of it’. People in the Salons pointed fingers at such a distinguished bourgeois gentleman who ‘painted obscenities’. Émile Zola was dismissed from the journal in which he had published his enthusiastic praise in 1867, the year of the Exposition Universelle. Anyone with any influence in society visited Paris for this event. To make his works known to the public, Manet presented them himself in a small pavilion outside the official enclosure. By this time, he had attained the most perfect degree of mastery. With strikingly restricted means, on a canvas on which he had spread a simple layer of paint, he would indicate the transition from light to shade in a few short paintbrush strokes and give resonance to his models’ luminous flesh tones, while first indicating in a unified tone some shadows that he would then emphasise violently with strokes of light. ‘M. Manet’, he wrote in the catalogue, ‘has claimed neither to overturn an old style of painting nor to create a new one. He has simply sought to be himself and none other’. It was only a few of Manet’s personal friends who bought canvases from him. Nevertheless, the paintings on show included Execution of the Emperor Maximilian, the admirable Running of the Bulls, Woman with Parrot, Guitar-Player, and Child from the Troop Playing the Fife, over which the greatest museums were to enter into disputes.

When war broke out in 1870, Manet fought in defence of Paris in the uniform of the national guard. But from February 1871, he took up his brushes again. At the Salon of 1873, a dramatic development ensued: Good Glass of Beer, colourful and solid, was not only accepted but admired both by the critics and by the public. Such a violent reversal worried the painter more than it delighted him. In fact, it turned out to have hardly any impact. The development of his art was then in full flow. Some of the young artists on whom his genius made a powerful impression influenced him in return, leading him to lighten his palette and develop a feeling for real open air. Under the influence mainly of Edgar Degas - whom he did not much like - new and fertile sources of inspiration appeared: railways, houses on the boulevards, sofas with covers, and bathroom or kitchen utensils. From these humble objects, transfigured by their art, Manet and his friends wrought masterpieces. It was as if ‘this innovation was more unforeseen and had more consequences for artists to come than the exoticism of a Gauguin’. Thus a great new inspiration came to enliven the canvases of this period, such as the magnificent Linen of 1876, which is full of real countryside air: the fresh air that circulates throughout is not that of a studio. This stunning picture was rejected by the Salon; the mass of his contemporaries still did not understand. When Manet invited the press to see his canvas in his studio, there was a chorus of curses. ‘What forms! What colours! What flesh tints!’ cried the indignant critics. ‘The trees are the colour of flesh, the face resembles the dress, the linen has the solidity of the body and the body has the thinness and unevenness of linen’. Another critic exclaimed the following year before another open-air painting, Argenteuil: ‘M. Manet has never sunk so low. In recent years, he has exhibited some extremely clownish and ridiculous things...’. However, his friend Stéphane Mallarmé was proud to have his portrait painted by him - which was one of his masterpieces. Again in the open air, Lunch at Father Lathuile’s House radiates light and vitality, while Bar at the Folies-Bergère, for which studies were made on-site in a multitude of sketches, completely reconstructs the artificial atmosphere and every aspect of the teeming and diverse life from which the beautiful girl with the worldly expression wanly emerges under the electric lights in front of its black table and bottles. In the same year, 1882, an exquisite portrait of a young girl, Jeanne, disarmed his fiercest opponents at the Salon.

However, though still young, Manet was exhausted by all this labour; the battles had worn out his nerves, and for two years he had been experiencing the first symptoms of a terrible illness that would destroy him: progressive locomotor ataxia, as well as tertiary syphilis. He suffered increasingly frequent and painful attacks. He still produced some great compositions, luminous and stunning ones such as Monsieur Perthuiset, but more often he produced portraits, flower paintings, and still-lifes that would not require him to stand in front of his easel for long periods at a time. He worked with pastels, which he found less tiring than the brushes. During the summer of 1882 at Reuil, he was hardly able to walk, and he used up the last of his strength on painting his garden or making some quick sketches of pretty visitors. The following winter, the illness worsened dramatically, and he developed gangrene in his left foot, which had to be amputated. Manet died on 30 April 1883. He was 51 years old, and he left 420 oil paintings, 114 watercolours, 85 pastels, and countless engravings. An engraver and lithographer, he was instrumental in reviving original etchings. From 1862, 76 etchings were made after his paintings. He also created some lithographs and posters, of which the most sought after is Cats. He produced some illustrations: in 1874, for Charles Cros’s River; in 1876, for Mallarmé’s Afternoon of a Faun ( L’Après-midi d’un faune) and Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven ( Le Corbeau); and in 1869, he contributed to the illustration of Sonnets and Etchings ( Sonnets et eaux-fortes), produced by Éditions Lemerre, as well as to the Weekly Review ( Revue de la semaine).

Manet’s technique generally stands in contrast to that of his friends. He practised the craft of the Spanish, Flemish, and Dutch painters. The preliminary drawing held the same importance for him as it did for the great masters of the past, whereas the Impressionists constructed with colours, using their brushes to hint at objects that are defined by the play of light. Nothing could be further from the technique of Manet, who enclosed his subjects with sombre and clear lines: Manet, ever scrupulous, was a draughtsman who, until the end of his life, would scratch, correct, erase, and measure so as to remain as close as possible to life and to its truth. Although once classified as one of the Impressionists, it would be more accurate to call him a Realist influenced by Impressionism.

Group Exhibitions

1861, 1864, 1865, 1869, 1870, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1877, 1881, 1882, Salon, Paris

1861, Imperial Academy, St Petersburg

1863, Salon des Refusés, Paris

1954, Manet and His Circle, Tate Gallery, London

2000, Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890, National Gallery, London

2002, Édouard Manet and the Impressionists, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

2002, Velázquez-Manet: The Spanish Style in the 19th Century (Vélasquez-Manet: la manière espagnole au XIXe siècle), Musée d’Orsay, Paris; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (as Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting)

2002, Edouard Manet und die Impressionisten, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

Solo Exhibitions

1859, Galerie Martinet, Paris

1867, (self-curated), outside the Exposition Universelle, Paris

1932, Manet, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris

1961, Manet, Cantini Museum, Marseilles

1979, Édouard Manet, Galerie du Jeu de Paume, Paris

1983, Manet, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris

1983, Good Morning, Monsieur Manet (Bonjour Monsieur Manet), Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris

2000, Manet. The Still-lifes, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

2003, Manet and the American Civil War: The Battle of U.S.S. ‘Kearsarge’ and C.S.S. ‘Alabama’, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2003,Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid

2006, Manet and the Execution of Maximilian, Museum of Modern Art, New York

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Baltimore, MD (Walters AM): At the Cafe (1879, oil on canvas)

Berlin: The House at Rueil; White Lilac

Berlin (Alte Nationalgal.): In the Conservatory

Boston (MFA): Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (c. 1867, oil on canvas, first version, unfinished)

Bremen: Zacharie Astruc

Budapest: Baudelaire’s Mistress

Buenos Aires: Nymph Surprised

Chicago: Departure from Boulogne Harbor (1864-5); Philosopher; Races at Longchamp

Copenhagen: Absinthe-Drinker; Execution of the Emperor Maximilian; Young Girl with Tie

Dallas, TX (MA): Spanish Woman Wearing a Black Cross (1865, oil on canvas); Portrait of Isabelle Lemonnier (c. 1879, oil on canvas); Bouquet of White Lilacs and Roses (1883, oil on canvas)

Dijon: Copy of Tintoretto by Himself; Model of the Bar; Garden Path; Portrait of Méry Laurent

Dresden: Lady in Pink

Dublin: Music in the Tuileries Gardens

Edinburgh: Still-life

Essen: Faure as Hamlet

Fort Worth, TX (Kimbell AM): Georges Clemenceau (1879–1880, oil on canvas)

Frankfurt am Main (Städel): The Croquet Party

Hamburg (Kunsthalle): Nana; Portrait of Henri Rochefort

London (Courtauld Institute of Art): Picnic on the Lawn (Le déjeuner sur l’herbe) (1863?, oil on canvas, first draft); Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874, oil on canvas); A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1882, oil on canvas)

London (NG): Music in the Tuileries Gardens (1862, oil on canvas); The Execution of Maximilian (c. 1867–1868, oil on canvas); Eva Gonzalès (1870, oil on canvas, on loan since 1979 at Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin); Corner of a Café-Concert (1878–1880, oil on canvas); Woman with a Cat (c. 1880–1882, oil on canvas, on loan from Tate Collection since 1997)

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): The Rue Mosnier with Flags (1878, oil on canvas)

Lyons: Copy after Delacroix’s ‘Dante and Virgil’; Mlle Gauthier Lathuille

Mannheim: Execution of the Emperor Maximilian

Melbourne: Floating Bridge; The House at Rueil

Moscow: Cork; Antonin Proust

Munich: After the Café; Manet in His Studio

Nancy: Autumn

New York (Metropolitan Mus. of Art): Copy after Delacroix’s ‘Dante and Virgil’ (c. 1859); Child with Sword (1861); Victorine Meurand in the Costume of an Espada (1862); Young Man Dressed as a Toff (1863); Dead Christ and the Angels (1864); Matador Saluting (c. 1865-70); Woman with Parrot (1866, oil on canvas); Burial; Boating (1874); Mlle Valtesse de la Bigne (1879); George Moore (1873-79); The ‘Kearsarge’ at Boulogne (1864)

Oslo: Nymph Surprised; Exhibition of 1867; Mme Manet in the Conservatory

Otterlo (Kröller-Müller Mus.): Portrait of a Man

Paris (Mus. d’Orsay): On the Beach (1873); Suzanne Hecht with Hat in Profile (1882); Woman with Cat (drawing); Lola from Valencia; Picnic on the Lawn (Le déjeuner sur l’herbe); Olympia; Fruit; Peonies; Bough with Peonies; Angelina; Fifer; Mme Manet at the Piano; Stem of Peonies; Émile Zola; Balcony; Boulogne by Moonlight; Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Flowers; Woman with Fans; Nina de Callias; Bare-breasted Blonde Woman; Stephane Mallarmé; Mme Manet; Clémenceau; Lemon; Young Woman with Naked Bust; Cabaner, the Musician; Matern, the Doctor; Irma Brunner

Paris (Mus. du Petit Palais): Théodore Duret

Richmond, VA (Virginia MFA): On the Beach, Boulogne-sur-Mer (c. 1868–1869, oil on canvas)

São Paulo (MA): Bathers by the Seine; Portrait of Monsieur Pertuiset, Lion Hunter

St Louis, MO (AM): Reader

Stockholm (Nationalmus.): Young Man Peeling a Pear

Stuttgart (Staatsgal.): Monet in His Studio (1874)

Toledo: Antonin Proust

Tournai (MFA): Boaters at Argenteuil (1874); At Father Lathuile’s House (1879)

Washington, DC (NGA): The Dead Toreador (c. 1864, oil on canvas); The Tragic Actor (Rouvière as Hamlet) (1866, oil on canvas); Masked Ball at the Opera (1873, oil on canvas); The Railway (1873, oil on canvas); Plum Brandy (c. 1877, oil on canvas); drawings, numerous engravings

Washington, DC (Phillips Collection): Spanish Ballet

Auction Records

Paris, 1878: Punchinello, FRF 2,000

Paris, 1881: Child with Sword, FRF 9,100

Paris, 1884: Olympia, FRF 10,000; Music Lesson, FRF 4,400; At Father Lathuile’s House, FRF 5,000; Linen, FRF 8,000; Portrait of George Moore, the Poet (pastel) FRF 1,800; Flowers (watercolour) FRF 410; Cats’ Rendez-vous (drawing) FRF 200

Paris, 1894: Nana, FRF 9,000; Rest, FRF 11,000; Torero Saluting, FRF 10,500

Paris, 1898: The ‘Alabama’ off Cherbourg, FRF 20,000; In the Garden, FRF 22,000

Paris, 1899: Half-length View of Young Woman, FRF 7,200; Woman with Golden Pin, FRF 5,100; Sandvihen near Christiania, FRF 6,000; Pavers of the Rue de Berne, FRF 13,500; Manet in His Studio, FRF 10,000

Paris, 24 March 1900: Ribini, FRF 4,700; Renée Maizeroy (pastel) FRF 3,000

Paris, 23 June 1900: Portrait of a Woman (pastel) FRF 4,500

Paris, 3 May 1902: Young Woman in White, FRF 10,000

Paris, 28-29 March 1905: Balcony (sketch) FRF 3,100

Paris, 9-11 Dec 1912: Music Lesson, FRF 120,000; On the Beach, FRF 92,000; Bust of Naked Woman, FRF 97,000

Paris, 26 March 1919: Seascape, FRF 30,000; Waitress with Glasses of Beer (at the Cabaret in Reischoffen), FRF 73,000; Running of the Bulls, FRF 50,000; Grand Prix de Rome in 1864 (watercolour) FRF 28,000

Paris, 22 May 1919: Portrait of Massin (pastel) FRF 12,000

Paris, 1-3 Dec 1919: Portrait of a Woman, FRF 35,500

London, 2 July 1920: Floating Bridge, GBP 997

Paris, 30 Nov-2 Dec 1920: Study for ‘Olympia’ (wash) FRF 5,500

London, 30 May 1922: Interior Scene with Figures (drawing) GBP 74

Paris, 7 Dec 1922: Girl at Her Toilette (pastel) FRF 43,000

London, 22 June 1923: Wedding, GBP 819

London, 13 July 1925: Zurbaran, Operatic Artist, GBP 65

Paris, 7 May 1926: Odalisque on its Side (watercolour and gouache) FRF 10,000; Portrait of Marcelin Desboutin (watercolour) FRF 15,500; Man in Tall Hat (watercolour) FRF 25,000; Under the Lamp; Two Figures (pencil) FRF 5,000; Little Blonde Girl, FRF 31,000; Punchinello, FRF 420,000

Paris, 1 March 1928: Thistles, FRF 10,500

Paris, 3 Dec 1928: Seascape (watercolour) FRF 35,000

New York, 10 April 1930: Marguerite de Conflans, USD 10,500

Paris, 21 May 1930: Portrait of Woman in Small Round Hat (graphite) FRF 1,950

New York, 24 March 1932: Old Carpenter, USD 600

Paris, 15 Dec 1932: Portrait of Berthe Morisot with Muff, FRF 360,000

Paris, 22 and 23 March 1933: Peonies, Flower and Bud, FRF 21,000; Horsewoman, FRF 30,500; Singer at the Café Concert, FRF 43,500

Paris, 2 June 1933: Young Woman Facing the Sea (watercolour) FRF 17,000

Paris, 18 Nov 1933: Paintbrush Sketch for a Portrait, FRF 21,000

Paris, 7 June 1935: Young Woman in the Flowers, FRF 130,000

Paris, 5 June 1936: Seascape, Calm Weather, FRF 30,000

London, 28 May 1937: Yellow and Pink Roses in a Vase, GBP 1,050

Paris, 30 March 1938: Boats, FRF 39,000; Harvesters, FRF 200,500

Paris, 22 Dec 1941: Parapet (graphite and drypoint sketch) FRF 2,500; Yacht (graphite sketch) FRF 2,000; At the Café Concert (graphite) FRF 3,300

Paris, 1 April 1942: Cats’ Rendez-vous (lead pencil, Indian ink, and gouache) FRF 4,600

Paris, 9 July 1942: Young Woman with Hands Clasped, FRF 20,000

Paris, 11 Dec 1942: Woman by a Window (watercolour) FRF 238,000

Paris, 26 April 1944: Anatomy Lesson (copy after Rembrandt) FRF 255,000; Study of a Head, FRF 506,000

Paris, 5 June 1944: Portrait Presumed to be of Edgar Allan Poe (pen) FRF 31,000

Paris, July 1946: Portraits of a Bearded Man (three studies in graphite and wash) FRF 29,000

London, 10 July 1946: Study of Flowers (drawing) GBP 20

Paris, 17 Nov 1948: Cavalier (graphite) FRF 40,000

Paris, 20 Dec 1948: Rower; Allegory (two drawings) FRF 7,500

Versailles, 12 Dec 1949: Two Pears, FRF 1,450,000

Paris, 30 May 1951: Portrait of Faure, FRF 1,200,000

Paris, 14 May 1952: Young Girl in a Cape, FRF 11,600,000

Paris, 14 June 1957: Head of an Old Woman, FRF 18,000,000

London, 15 Oct 1958: Walking, Madame Gamby in the Garden at Bellevue, GBP 98,000; Self-portrait, GBP 65,000

New York, 19 Nov 1958: Woman Standing in the Garden at Bellevue, USD 39,000

Paris, 16 March 1959: Couple on the Balcony with Banners (Indian ink, wash, dabs of gouache) FRF 400,000

New York, 9 Dec 1959: Portrait of Berthe Marie Morisot (watercolour) USD 6,500

New York, 16 March 1960: Young Girl Leaning on a Garden Pot, USD 29,000

Bern, 17 June 1960: Four Men in an Interior (pencil) CHF 1,750

London, 6 July 1960: Study of a Young Man Wearing a Coat (Conté crayon) GBP 300

London, 28 June 1961: Chrysanthemums in a Fan-shaped Basket, GBP 1,600

London, 11 April 1962: Reader (Mme Jules Guillemet), GBP 23,000

London, 12 June 1963: Alice Lecouvé, Breast Uncovered, GBP 9,000

London, 23 Oct 1963: Episode at a Bullfight (watercolour) GBP 1,800

London, 29 April 1964: Tub (gouache/canvas) GBP 10,000

London, 27 Nov 1964: Mme Manet in the Conservatory, GNS 3,800

New York, 14 Oct 1965: Smoker (Good Pipe), USD 450,000

London, 7 Dec 1966: Alice Lecouvé, Breast Uncovered, GBP 16,100

New York, 26 Oct 1967: Young Woman in Hat with Edges Turned Down (pastel/canvas) USD 75,000

Paris, 7 June 1968: Floral Basket (sketch/canvas) FRF 610,000

New York, 2 May 1973: Still-life with Fish, USD 1,400,000

New York, 17 Oct 1973: Young Woman in Hat with Edges Turned Down (pastel) USD 190,000

London, 2 April 1974: Isabelle with Muff (Mlle Isabelle Lemonnier) (c. 1880) GBP 100,000

Geneva, 6 June 1974: Portrait of Berthe Morisot with a Veil (1872) CHF 860,000

Paris, 17 June 1976: Young Girl and Child (1879, oil on canvas, 24 × 20 ins/61 × 51 cm) FRF 285,000

Paris, 20 Dec 1976: Gipsies (1862, etching) FRF 3,800

New York, 10 Feb 1977: Civil War (1871, lithograph, 15½ × 20 ins/39.4 × 50.7 cm) USD 2,750

New York, 31 Oct 1978: Italian Woman (1860, oil on canvas, 29¼ × 23½ ins/74 × 60 cm) USD 400,000

London, 14 Dec 1978: Absinthe-Drinker (1861/62, etching/porcelain, 11¼ × 6¼ ins/28.5 × 16 cm) GBP 3,700

London, 2 April 1979: Mme Martin in Black Hat Adorned with Roses (1881, pastel, 21¼ × 17¼ ins/54 × 44 cm) GBP 240,000

Bern, 21 June 1979: Little Girl (1862, etching and drypoint) CHF 5,200

New York, 6 Nov 1979: Spanish Dancers (1879, oil/parchment, 10 × 9 ins/25.7 × 22.7 cm) USD 170,000

London, 5 Dec 1979: Old Musician (c. 1862, graphite, pen, and colouring crayon, 9½ × 12½ ins/24 × 32 cm) GBP 26,000

New York, 20 May 1981: Portrait of Alice Lecouvé (1875, oil on canvas, 10¼ × 10¼ ins/26 × 26 cm) USD 175,000

New York, 6 Nov 1981: At the Café Concert, Group of Spectators (c. 1880, pencil, 7¼ × 10¾ ins/18.5 × 27.2 cm) USD 35,000

London, 23 March 1983: Study for ‘Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe’ in the Studio (1868, pen, brush, and brown ink, 8 × 6½ ins/20.5 × 16.8 cm) GBP 31,000

New York, 15 Nov 1983: Walk (c. 1880, oil on canvas, 36¼ × 27¾ ins/92.3 × 70.5 cm) USD 3,600,000

New York, 2 May 1984: Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1868, lithograph/porcelain, 13 × 17 ins/33.3 × 43.3 cm) USD 12,000

New York, 16 May 1984: M. Gauthier-Lathuille Junior (1879, pastel, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) USD 300,000

New York, 14 May 1985: Seascape at Berck: Fishing Boats and Fishermen (1873, oil on canvas, 19¼ × 31¼ ins/49 × 79.5 cm) USD 360,000

New York, 15 Nov 1985: Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (c. 1868, lithograph/porcelain, 13¼ × 17 ins/33.7 × 43.4 cm) USD 10,500

London, 1 Dec 1986: Rue Mosnier with Pavers (1878, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65.4 × 81.5 cm) GBP 7,000,000

London, 30 June 1987: Singer at the Café Concert (1879, oil on canvas, 20¾ × 13¾ ins/53 × 35 cm) GBP 860,000

Paris, 25 Nov 1987: Young Woman with Low Neckline (pastel/canvas, 22 × 18 ins/56 × 46 cm) FRF 950,000

London, 1988: Kid (print) GBP 30,800

New York, 18 Feb 1988: Portrait of Monsieur Pagans (1879, oil/parchment, 4 × 2¾ ins/10.2 × 7 cm) USD 24,200

Paris, 20 May 1988: Christ with the Angels (etching) FRF 29,500

Paris, 14 June 1988: Profiles of Women in Hats (1861-62, pencil, 7¼ × 4¼ ins/18.5 × 11 cm) FRF 22,100

Paris, 19 Oct 1988: Four Figures at the Theatre (Indian ink drawing, 4¾ × 6¾ ins/12 × 17 cm) FRF 302,000

Calais, 13 Nov 1988: Two Women Wearing Hats in Profile (graphite drawing, 7½ × 4¼ ins/19 × 11 cm) FRF 48,500

London, 1 Dec 1988: Rue Mosnier with Pavers (oil on canvas) GBP 7,700,000

London, 4 April 1989: Old Musician (pencil, ink, and colouring crayon, 9¼ × 12 ins/23.6 × 30.6 cm) GBP 143,000

New York, 14 Nov 1989: Rue Mosnier with Flags (1878, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65.5 × 81 cm) USD 2,640,000

New York, 15 Nov 1989: Walk (oil on canvas, 36¼ × 27¾ ins/92.3 × 70.5 cm) USD 14,850,000

Calais, 10 Dec 1989: Young Woman with Low Neckline (1882, pastel and oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/56 × 46 cm) FRF 1,200,000

New York, 15 May 1990: Bench (Garden at Versailles) (1881, oil on canvas, 26 × 32 ins/65.1 × 81.3 cm) USD 16,500,000

Paris, 17 June 1990: Landscape with Trees (1859, oil on canvas, 18¾ × 15 ins/47.5 × 38 cm) FRF 1,000,000

Paris, 22 June 1990: Plums and Cherries (watercolour/letter, 7¾ × 4¾ ins/19.5 × 12 cm) FRF 310,000

New York, 13 Nov 1990: Bouquet of Peonies (1882, oil on canvas, 22¼ × 17½ ins/56.5 × 44.5 cm) USD 4,400,000

New York, 12 May 1992: The Toilers of the Sea (1873, oil on canvas, 24¾ × 31¼ ins/63 × 79.3 cm) USD 1,980,000

Paris, 2 April 1993: Guitarist or Spanish Singer (1861, etching, 11½ × 9½ ins/29.4 × 23.9 cm) FRF 19,000

New York, 13 May 1993: Young Man in Toreador’s Costume (1862, oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55.7 × 45.7 cm) USD 310,500

Paris, 28 May 1993: Child in Profile (lead pencil, 9 × 5½ ins/23 × 14 cm) FRF 13,000

Paris, 11 June 1993: Child with Sword Facing Left (1861, etching and aquatint, 11 × 7¼ ins/27.1 × 18.1 cm) FRF 55,000

London, 28 June 1994: Bar at the Folies-Bergère (oil on canvas, 18½ × 22 ins/47 × 56 cm) GBP 4,401,500

London, 29 Nov 1994: Floral Basket (1880, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 32 ins/65.4 × 81.3 cm) GBP 452,500

Paris, 26 March 1996: Races (1864, lithograph, 20¼ × 15¾ ins/51.6 × 40.1 cm) FRF 210,000

New York, 30 April 1996: Young Woman in Négligé (1882, pastel/canvas, 22¼ × 13¾ ins/56.2 × 35.2 cm) USD 827,500

Paris, 13 June 1996: Victorine Meurand in the Costume of an Espada (1862, etching, 13¼ × 10¼ ins/33.5 × 26 cm) FRF 58,000

London, 25 June 1996: Woman Walking and Holding an Open Umbrella (1880, pastel/canvas, 23½ × 19¾ ins/60 × 50 cm) GBP 98,300

New York, 12 Nov 1996: Portrait of Mademoiselle Suzette Lemaire, in Profile (1880, pastel/paper, 21½ × 17¾ ins/54.3 × 45.1 cm) USD 2,917,500

London, 3 Dec 1996: Woman in the Tub (pastel/canvas, 18 × 22 ins/46 × 56 cm) GBP 386,500; Ball at the Opera (1873, oil on canvas, 14¼ × 11¼ ins/36.5 × 28.5 cm) GBP 1,596,000

New York, 12 May 1997: Self-portrait (1878, oil on canvas, 33½ × 28 ins/85.3 × 71 cm) USD 18,702,500

Paris, 11 June 1997: Theatre Box (Five Figures) (graphite, 4 × 6 ins/10 × 15 cm) FRF 39,000

Paris, 16 June 1997: Caricature of Commandant Besson, Known as the Viking (1848, watercolour, 10 × 7 ins/24.5 × 17.5 cm) FRF 150,000

Paris, 18 June 1997: Candle-Merchant (graphite, 4¾ × 4 ins/12 × 10 cm) FRF 40,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1997: Child with Sword Facing Left (1861, etching, 12½ × 9¼ ins/32 × 23.5 cm) FRF 56,000

Paris, 5 Feb 1998: Cat and Flowers (1869, etching and aquatint, frontispiece for Notre ami le chat) FRF 2,000

New York, 11 May 1999: Panier fleuri (1880, oil on canvas, 26 × 32 ins/65 × 81 cm) USD 600,000

New York, 8 Nov 1999: Polichinelle (1873, oil on canvas, 20 × 13 ins/50 × 32 cm) USD 2,700,000

New York, 9 Nov 2000: Young Girl in a Garden (oil on canvas, 61 × 46 ins/154 × 117 cm) USD 19,000,000

Paris, 7 Dec 2000: Lola de Valence (engraving, 10 × 7 ins/26 × 18 cm) FRF 110,000

New York, 10 May 2001: Brown-haired Girl with Bare Breasts (1872, oil on canvas, 24 × 19 ins/62 × 49 cm) USD 3,600,000

London, 25 June 2001: Woman with Dogs (oil on canvas, 36 × 26 ins/92 × 65 cm) GBP 210,000

London, 4 Feb 2002: Portrait of Mademoiselle Isabelle Lemonnier (c. 1879, oil on canvas, 40 × 32 ins/101 × 81 cm) GBP 1,500,000

New York, 7 May 2002: La Rochenoire, Painter of Animals (1882, pastel, 22 × 14 ins/56 × 35 cm) USD 700,000

London, 4 Feb 2003: Anatomy Lesson (oil on panel, 10 × 15 ins/25 × 39 cm) GBP 190,000

London, 6 Feb 2003: Letter to Albert Hecht (watercolour/pen/ink, 8 × 5 ins/20 × 13 cm) GBP 30,000

London, 2 Feb 2004: Two Pears (1864, oil on canvas, 11 × 13 ins/28 × 32 cm) GBP 720,000

New York, 5 May 2004: Courses au Bois de Boulogne (1872, oil on canvas, 29 × 37 ins/73 × 94 cm) USD 23,500,000

New York, 2 Nov 2005: Madame Jeanne Martin in a Hood (Madame Jeanne Martin en chapeau capote) (c. 1881, pastel on canvas on board, 22 x 18in/55.9 x 45.7cm) USD 250,000

New York, 4 Nov 2005: Seascape at Arcachon (Marine à Arcachon) (1871, oil on canvas, 10 x 17in/25.4 x 43.2cm) USD 850,000

London, 20 June 2006: Singer at a Café-concert (Chanteuse de café-concert) (1879, oil on canvas, 22 x 14in/55.9 x 35.6cm) GBP 1,200,000

Paris, 23 May 2007: Nude Woman Combing Her Hair (Femme nue se coiffant) (1879, oil on canvas, 32 x 26in/81.3 x 66cm) EUR 5,000,000

New York, 6 Nov 2007: Jetty at Boulogne (La jetée de Boulogne) (1868, oil on canvas, 12½ x 17¼in/31.7 x 43.8cm) USD 3,625,000

Paris, 23 Feb 2009: Girl in a Summer Hat (Jeune fille en chapeau d’été) (c. 1879, pastel on canvas, 22x13¾in/56x35cm) EUR 721,000.

New York, 4 Nov 2009: Four Apples (Quatre pommes) (1882, oil on canvas, 7½x9¾in/19x24.5cm) USD 1,986,500

London, 22 June 2010: Bust-length Self-portrait (Portrait de Manet par lui-même, en buste or Manet à la palette) (c. 1878–1879, oil on canvas, 33¾ x 28in/85.5 x 71cm) GBP 22,441,250; Bouquet de pivoines (1882, oil on canvas, 21¾ x 16½in/55 x 42cm) GBP 7,657,250

London, 8 Feb 2011: Young Woman Undressing (Jeune fille en déshabillé) (1882, pastel on canvas, 22 x 13¾in/56 x 35cm) GBP 1,609,250

New York, 3 May 2011: Portrait de Monsieur Brun (1880, oil on paper laid down on canvas, 21¾ x 14in/55 x 35.5cm) USD 5,402,500


  • Baziré, Édmond: Manet, A. Quantin, Paris, 1884.
  • Duret, Théodore: Histoire d’Édouard Manet et de son oeuvre, avec un catalogue des peintures et des pastels, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1902, 1906, 1919, 1926.
  • Moreau-Nélaton, Étienne: Manet graveur et lithographe, Loys Delteil, Paris, 1906.
  • Duret, Théodore: Théodore Duret. Histoire de Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre, E. Fasquelle, Paris, 1906.
  • Moreau-Nélaton, Étienne: Manet raconté par lui-même, H. Laurens, Paris, 1926.
  • Manet, Édouard: Lettres de jeunesse: 1848–1849. Voyage à Rio, Rouart, Paris, 1928.
  • Manet, Édouard: Lettres illustrées, Le Garrec, Paris, 1929.
  • Jamot, Paul/Wildenstein, Georges: Manet, avec un catalogue critique, Les Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1932.
  • Jamot, Paul/Sterling, Charles: Manet, exhibition catalogue, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris, 1932.
  • Colin, Paul: Manet, Floury, Paris, 1937.
  • Rey, Robert: Manet, Éd. Hypérion, Paris, 1938.
  • Guérin, Marcel: L’Oeuvre gravé de Manet, Floury, Paris, 1944.
  • Tabarant, Adolphe: Manet et ses oeuvres, Gallimard, Paris, 1947.
  • Paintings from the Louvre. Manet and His circle, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London, 1954.
  • Cogniat, Raymond: Dictionnaire de la peinture moderne, Hazan, Paris, 1957.
  • Bowness, Alan: ‘A Note on “Manet’s Compositional Difficulties”’, in Burlington Magazine, vol 103, no. 699, June 1961.
  • Baudelaire, Charles/Mayne, Jonathan (ed.): The Painter of Modern Life, and other Essays, Phaidon, London, 1965.
  • Leiris, Alan de: The Drawings of Édouard Manet, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969.
  • Reff, Theodore: Manet, Olympia, Viking Press, New York, 1977.
  • Harris, Jean C.: Édouard Manet. Graphic Works, a Definitive Catalogue Raisonné, Collectors Editions, New York, 1970 (reprinted, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts, San Francisco [CA], 1990).
  • Orienti, Sandra: Tout l’oeuvre peint d’Édouard Manet, Flammarion, Paris, 1970.
  • Rouart, Denis/Wildenstein, Daniel: Édouard Manet. Catalogue raisonné, La Bibliothèque des Arts, Lausanne, Paris, 1975.
  • Hanson, Anne Coffin: Manet and the Modern Tradition, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1977.
  • Wilson, Juliet: Édouard Manet, l’oeuvre gravé: chefs-d’oeuvre du Département des Estampes de la Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, Journées Françaises, Ingelheim am Rhein, 1977.
  • Wilson, Juliet: Manet: dessins, aquarelles, eaux-fortes, lithographies, correspondance, Huguette Bérès, Paris, 1978.
  • Hoog, Michel, and others: Édouard Manet, exhibition catalogue, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 1979.
  • Farwell, Beatrice: Manet and the Nude: A Study in Iconography in the Second Empire, Garland, New York, 1981.
  • Manet, exhibition catalogue, Galerie Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, 1983.
  • Bozo, Dominique, and others: Bonjour Monsieur Manet, exhibition catalogue, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1983.
  • Daix, Pierre: La Vie de peintre d’Édouard Manet, Fayard, Paris, 1983.
  • Sandblad, Nils G.: Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception, Gleerup, Lund, 1954.
  • Clark, Timothy J.: The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers, Knoph, New York, 1985.
  • Wilson-Bareau, Juliet: Hidden Face of Manet: An Investigation of the Artist’s Working Processes, exhibition catalogue published as a supplement to Burlington Magazine, London, 1986.
  • Gronberg, Theresa A.: Manet: A Retrospective, H. L. Levin Associates, New York, 1988.
  • Harris, Jean C.: Édouard Manet: Graphic Works. A Definitive Catalogue Raisonné, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts, San Francisco (CA), 1990.
  • Wilson-Bareau, Juliet: Manet: The Execution of Maximilian: Painting, Politics and Censorship, National Gallery Publications, London, 1992 (with essays by John House and Douglas Johnson).
  • Lallemand, Henri: Manet: A Visionary Impressionist, Todtri, New York, 1994.
  • Rubin, James Henry: Manet’s Silence and the Poetics of Silence, Reaktion Books, London, 1994.
  • Cachin, Françoise: Manet, Éd. Cercle d’Art, Paris, 1995.
  • Wilson-Bareau, Juliet (ed.): Manet by Himself: Correspondence & Conversation, Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings, Little, Brown, Boston and London, 1995.
  • Archer Brombert, Beth: Edouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat, Little, Brown, Boston and London, 1996.
  • Busse, Jacques: L’Impressionnisme: une dialectique du regard, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1996.
  • Fried, Michael: Manet’s Modernism, or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996.
  • Manet. Les natures mortes, exhibition catalogue, Gallimard, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2000.
  • Bretell, Richard R.: Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2000.
  • Armstrong, Carol M.: Manet Manette, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002.
  • Foucault, Michel: La peinture de Manet, Eds du Seuil, Paris, 2004.
  • Anderson, Wayne V.: Manet: The Picnic & the Prostitute, Eds Fabriart, Boston, 2005.
  • Reff, Theodore: Manet’s Incident in a Bullfight, Frick Collection, New York, 2005.
  • Elderfield, John: Manet and the Execution of Maximilian, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2006.
  • Bareau, Juliet Wilson/Park, Malcolm: Division and Revision: Manet’s ‘Reichshoffen’ Revealed, exhibition catalogue, Paul Holberton, London, 2008.
  • Rubin, James Henry: Manet: Initial M, Hand, and Eye, Flammarion, Paris, 2010.
  • Dolan, Therese (ed.): Perspectives on Manet, Ashgate, Burlington (VT) and Farnham (Surrey, England), 2011.