Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Oxford Art Online. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 30 June 2022

Dyck, Anthony van, or Antoon or Anton (Sir)free

Dyck, Anthony van, or Antoon or Anton (Sir)free

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Born 22 March 1599, in Antwerp; died 9 December 1641, in Blackfriars, London.

Painter, engraver. History painting, portraits.

Anthony van Dyck: Self-Portrait, oil on canvas, 1.20 × 0.88 m, ca. 1620–21 (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Hules Bache Collection, 1949, Accession No. 49.7.25); courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anton van, or Antoon or Anthony DYCK: signature or monogram

Anthony van Dyck was 11 years old when his father, Franchois van Dyck, a wealthy cloth and silk merchant, found him an apprenticeship with Hendrik van Balen the Elder, with whom he stayed for two years before entering Peter Paul Rubens’s studio. Rubens had just returned from Italy and, struck by Van Dyck’s aptitude, wasted no time in training him in his new style. Rubens considered him to be the best of his pupils, and Van Dyck collaborated on many of his master’s great religious works. Rubens, who promoted his own work through engraved copies, saw to Van Dyck’s training in engraving and etching. His reputation was made so quickly that in early 1618, at the age of 19, he was registered as a master of the Guild of St Luke and, at the same time, had set up an independent workshop in Antwerp with Jan Brueghel the Younger, although he continued to work in Rubens’s studio.

For three years, he continued to work either alone or with Rubens until, in 1620, he travelled to England, where he stayed briefly at the invitation of the Earl of Arundel, painting portraits and working for King James I. Encouraged perhaps by the earl, Van Dyck travelled to Italy in November 1621, staying in Genoa, Rome, and Venice, where he copied works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Paolo Veronese, and Giorgione. The biggest single influence on Van Dyck, however, was the work of Titian, which he particularly sought out and studied. His reputation earned him several commissions from Prince Emmanuel Albert of Savoy, viceroy of Sicily, who summoned him to Palermo in 1624. He was received at court and produced works resonant of Titian, although he left Palermo hurriedly at the outbreak of plague and returned to Genoa, painting portraits of the Genoese aristocracy and continuing to study Titian’s technique until his return to Antwerp in September 1627. Van Dyck returned with a well-established reputation, and this period saw a prodigious output of portraits as well as numerous history and religious paintings and some of his best etchings.

Van Dyck’s work and reputation came to the attention of Charles I of England, who must have offered considerable incentives to entice Van Dyck to London early in 1632. Charles I gave him a generous salary and a house in a privileged area, appointed him ‘Principalle Paynter in ordinary to their Majesties’, and, in 1632, knighted him as a mark of honour, so that he eclipsed Daniel Mytens the Elder as court painter. Van Dyck lived ostentatiously, but he earned well, his studio operating a kind of production line of portraits with Van Dyck concentrating on the heads and touching up. His portraits of the English royal family (full-length and equestrian) are among his most successful and most famous, and his wide-ranging portraits of the English aristocracy largely create the contemporary image of Charles’ court. Among his other achievements was the decoration of the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall for Charles I. During his time in England, Van Dyck made frequent trips to the Continent, particularly to Antwerp and Brussels, where he continued to carry out commissions, beginning the cycle of paintings for the town hall in Brussels. On Rubens’s death in 1640, he was appointed dean of the academy of St Luke and may have considered settling permanently in Antwerp. However, he was already troubled by illness by this time and was also drained by his battle to win the competition to decorate the Grande Galerie of the Louvre, which he lost to Nicolas Poussin. Returning to London in 1641, he died, probably of tuberculosis, going into decline just a few days after the birth of his daughter. He left a large estate.

His first works, prior to his trip to Italy in 1621, reveal the influence of Rubens, as depicted in Van Dyck’s St Martin in the church of Saventhem (1621) or in his mythological paintings, such as Drunken Silenus, Jupiter and Antiope, or Studies of Four Negro Heads (1617). In Genoa, he most notably painted the lovely Portrait of Maria de’ Medici, which is one of his best works, as well as numerous group portraits, such as those of the De Wael, Durazzo, and Cattaneo families. In Rome in 1623, he painted the Portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio. Upon his return to Antwerp in 1627, he concentrated his attentions on portraits of members of high society, whom he painted in rigorous poses and extremely sober compositions. Van Dyck was able to convey the personality of the figures he painted while at the same time suggesting something of the melancholy or Romanesque. He harmonised bright colours, delicate greys, and golden tones, and his subdued shadows made colours all the more vibrant. He sometimes preferred to sacrifice accessories in the interests of emphasising hands and faces. Around 1630, he began designing his series of engraved and etched portraits, The Iconography. Most of these portraits of artists, scholars, statesmen, and bureaucrats were made by professional engravers after Van Dyck’s paintings, but the painter also etched 18 of the plates himself. In England in 1635, he painted one of the most beautiful portraits of Charles I (Louvre), who appears with all his royal self-assurance, having no need for sumptuous clothing, painted in a bold composition in which the horse, servants, and landscape occupy a good part of the painting but do not distract attention from the sovereign’s personality.

Van Dyck helped to create a link between Flemish and Italian painting through his study of works seen in Rome, Genoa, and Venice particularly by Titian and Veronese. He remained uninfluenced by Caravaggio. The vast majority of Van Dyck’s output was portraiture, though he may have wished for more commissions for religious and history painting. In portraiture, his development of the Grand Manner portrait from Titian’s model proved his legacy of the longest standing, influencing artists down to John Singer Sargent. Van Dyck’s imaginative handling of portraiture covered a vast social range, from princes and princesses to prelates, bankers, jewelers, and merchants, young and old, posing them in a vast array of positions, placing them against personalised decors and flanking them with fashionable props and status symbols. A perfect example of this is Portrait of Elena Grimaldi Cattaneo, where a black servant carries a red parasol and the fabrics, costumes, armour, and jewellery are all emphasised, contributing to an expression of the psychology of a figure from a society built on a cult of personal display. Van Dyck’s legacy was the elevation of the genre of portrait painting, which had important repercussions for English art. He played a decisive role in the establishment of a future school of English painting in the 18th century, influencing Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Lawrence.

Group Exhibitions

1952, The Portrait in Flemish Art: From Memling to Van Dyck (Le portrait dans l’art Flamand: de Memling à Van Dyck), Orangerie des Tuileries, Paris

1995, Van Dyck and His Age, Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv

1999, Van Dyck and His Circle: Drawings and Printed Graphics from the Collection of Copper Engravings at the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum (Van Dyck und sein Kreis: Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik aus dem Kupferstichkabinett des Herzog-Anton-Ulrich-Museums), Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig

1999, Van Dyck: Landscapes, Sources of Inspiration, Rubenshuis Museum, Antwerp

2006, The Call of Italy, French and Northern Painters in the Peninsula - Drawings from the 17th and 18th Centuries (L’Appel de l’Italie, artistes français et nordiques dans la péninsule - Dessins des XVIIIe et XVIIIe siècles), Musée de Grenoble

Solo Exhibitions

1900, Royal Academy of Art, London

1981, Anton van Dyck and His Iconography: Etchings, Engravings and Drawings of the Fondation Custodia, Frits Lugt Collection (Antoon van Dyck et son iconographie: eaux-fortes, gravures et dessins de la Fondation Custodia, collection Frits Lugt), Netherlands Institute, Paris

1982, Van Dyck in England, National Portrait Gallery, London

1990, Anthony Van Dyck, National Gallery of Art, Washington

1991, The Drawings of Anthony van Dyck, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

1991, Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp

1997, Van Dyck a Genova: Grande Pittura e Collezionismo, Palazzo Ducale, Genoa

1999, Anton van Dyck 1599-1641, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp; Royal Academy of Arts, London

1999, Anton van Dyck in Print, Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

2004, Anton van Dyck: Italian Reflections (Anton van Dyck: Riflessi Italiani), Palazzo Reale, Milan

2008, Antoon van Dyck: Portraits, Musée Jacquemart-André, Paris

2009, Van Dyck and Britain, Tate Britain, London

2011, Rubens and Van Dyck, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Aix: Portrait of Van Diepenbeeck and Rickaert

Amiens: Man’s Head (two works); Assumption of the Virgin

Amsterdam: Repentant Mary Magdalene; François (?) van der Borght; Johanne Baptista Franck; Nicolaes van der Borcht; Prince William II and His Wife, Princess Mary Stuart; Petrus Paulus Rubens; Caspar Gevaerts; Salvator Mundi

Antwerp (Koninklijk Mus. voor Schone Kunsten): Christ on the Cross; Jan Malderus, Fifth Bishop of Antwerp; Deposition of Christ; Christ Entombed; Portrait of César Alexandre Seaglia; Christ on the Cross; Portrait of a Priest; Portrait of the Artist Marten Pepyn

Baltimore, MD (MA): Rinaldo and Armida (1629)

Bayonne: Raising of the Cross (sketch); Head of St John; Head of a Young Man; Portrait of van Baelen; Henrietta of France and Her Two Children; Portrait of Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria

Bergamo (Accademia Carrara): Roman Charity; Portrait of a Child; Portrait of the Family of Philip Herbert, Fourth Earl of Pembroke (rough sketch)

Berlin (Gemäldegal.): Christ Ridicule; Lamentation of Christ; Portrait of Ph. Fr. de Carignan, Prince of Savoy; Nymph Bathing; Portrait of a Nobleman from Genoa; Portrait of Marchioness Geronina Spinola; Apostle’s Head; The Two Johns

Béziers: Portrait of a Man

Brussels: Jean Vincent Imperial, Duke of S Angelo; Alexandre Dellafaille; Drunken Silenus; Martyrdom of St Peter; St Anthony of Padua; St Francis of Assisi; Crucifixion; Portrait of a Man; Rinaldo and Armida

Budapest: Self-portrait; Venus Crying over the Death of Adonis; Portrait of a Couple; The Trinity; St Eligius; Portrait of Archduke Ferdinand (after Rubens)

Caen: Jesus Wearing a Crown of Thorns

Chantilly: Portrait of Gaston d’Orléans, Duke of Orléans; Portrait of Count Henri de Berghe; Portrait of Princess Marie de Barbançon, Duchess of Arenberg; Portrait of William of Neuburg

Cherbourg: Meleager and Atalanta

Courtrai (Notre Dame): Raising of the Cross

Darmstadt: Portrait of a Young Woman

Douai: Lamentation of Christ; Reception of St Placid and St Maur by St Benedict; Portrait of a Man

Dresden: Three Eldest Daughters of Charles I of England; Christ Approaching the Serpent; Portrait of a General; Portrait of a Man in Black; Portrait of a Lady in Black; Portrait of a Lady and Child; Portrait of a Gentleman; Portrait of a Lady; St Hieronymus; Portrait of St Bartholomew; Portrait of St Matthew; Portrait of St Simeon; Portrait of St Peter; Portrait of St Paul; Portrait of an Old Gentleman; Portrait of a Lady; Portrait of a Young Man; Portrait of a Gentleman in Black; Portrait of a Man with a Blond Beard; Portrait of a Man with a Blond Moustache; Portrait of Thomas Parr at 150 Years Old; Drunken Silenus Walking

Dublin: Portrait of Frédéric Marselar; Study for a Painting of St Sebastian

Edinburgh (Nat. Gal. of Scotland): An Italian Noble (oil on canvas); The Lomellini Family: Nicolo and Gio. Francesco Lomellini with Barbara Spinola Lomellini and the Children Vittoria and Agostino (c. 1623-1627, oil on canvas, group portrait); St Sebastian Bound for Martyrdom (c. 1621-1623, oil on canvas)

Edinburgh (Nat. Gal. of Scotland, Print Room): Studies of Heads (drawing)

Florence (Palazzo Pitti): Portrait of Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio; Head of the Virgin; Portrait of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France; Rest on the Flight to Egypt

Florence (Uffizi): Portrait of a Lady; Portrait of Princess Margaret of Lorraine; Virgin and Child Jesus; Portrait of a Man; Portrait of Jecunde Monfort; Portrait of Charles I; Jean de Montfort

Frankfurt am Main: The Cross; Portrait of Mme Brignole-Sale and Her Daughter; Portrait of Pauline Brignole-Sale; Portrait of the Prince of Orange; Portrait of Father and Son; Portrait of the Marquis and Poet Antoine Jules Brignole-Sale

Geneva: Maternal Ecstacy; Georges de la Rive; Christ on the Cross

Genoa: Portraits of Genoese Families; Christ

Ghent (Church of St Michiels): Calvary

Glasgow: Rest on the Flight to Egypt; Portrait of an Old Man

Grenoble: Repentant Mary Magdalene

Hamburg: Portrait of Holmalius

Hanover: Study of a Head; Cavalryman; Cavalryman; Christ and the Paralytic

Kassel: Portrait of Isabelle d’Assche (?); Portraits of a Man Aged between 50 and 55, and His Wife (a pair); Portraits of the Brothers Lucas and Cornelius de Wael; Sebastian Leerse with His Wife and Child; Portrait of a Man and a Woman; Portrait of the Painter F. Snyders and His Wife; Portrait of Justus van Meerstraeten; Portrait of the Landscape Artist Jan Wildens; Child Jesus; Portrait of a Woman Aged between 45 and 48; Portrait of an Italian Gentleman

La Fère: Miracle of the Plague Sufferer; Repentant Mary Magdalene

Le Puy-en-Velay: Christ Weeping

Lille: Jesus on the Cross; Miracle of St Anthony of Padua in Toulouse; Portrait of a Woman; Portrait of Maria de’ Medici; Adoration of the Shepherds

London (Dulwich Picture Gal.): Samson and Delilah (c. 1618-1620, oil on canvas); Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, Prince of Oneglia (1624, oil on canvas, portrait); The Madonna and Child (before 1632, oil on canvas); Venetia Stanley, Lady Digby, on Her Death-bed (1633, oil on canvas); George, Lord Digby, later Earl of Bristol (c. 1638-1639, oil on canvas, portrait); Sunset Landscape with a Shepherd and His Flock (oil on canvas, attributed)

London (National Portrait Gal.): Venetia, Lady Digby (c. 1633-1634, oil on canvas); Lord George Stuart (c. 1638, oil on canvas); Sir Kenelm Digby (c. 1640, oil on canvas)

London (NG): The Emperor Theodosius is Forbidden by Saint Ambrose to Enter Milan Cathedral (c. 1619-1620, oil on canvas, loose copy after Rubens); Portrait of Cornelis van der Geest (c. 1620, oil/wood); Portrait of François Langlois (1630-1635, oil on canvas); Carlo and Ubaldo See Rinaldo Conquered by Love for Armida (1634-1635, oil/wood); Equestrian Portrait of Charles I (c. 1637-1638, oil on canvas)

London (Tate Collection): c. 1633-1638, oil on canvas, three portraits

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): Man Wearing Armour

London (Wallace Collection): Portrait of a Lady, Called Isabella van Waerbeke, Wife of Paul de Vos (1628-1632, oil on canvas); Marie de Raet, Wife of Philippe Le Roy (1631, oil on canvas); Paris (c. 1632, oil on canvas); Philippe Le Roy (1630, oil on canvas)

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): Thomas Howard, Second Earl of Arundel (c. 1620-1621, oil on canvas); Portrait of Agostino Pallavicini (c. 1621, oil on canvas)

Lyons: Study of Two Heads

Madrid (Prado): St Jerome Repenting; Crown of Thorns; Portrait of the Painter David Ryckaert; Portrait of the Infante; Cardinal D. Fernando of Austria; Portrait of the Countess of Oxford; Portrait of Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange; Portrait of the Princess of Orange; Equestrian Portrait of Charles I of England; Portrait of a Mature Woman; Portrait of Henry, Count of Berg; Portrait of a Musician; Portrait of an Unknown Person; Portrait of Van Dyck and the Count of Bristol; Portrait of Henri Liberti; Old Man’s Head; Virgin of Anguish; Portrait of a Monk; Arrest of Christ; Diana and Endymion Asleep; St Francis of Assisi as a Slave; Portrait of Polexena, First Marchioness of Leganes

Mainz: Head of a Dying Man; Repentant Mary Magdalene

Mechelen (Sint-Rombouts Kathedraal): Crucifixion

Melbourne: Portrait of Francis Frank; Portrait of the Artist; Portrait of Jucodus Momper

Metz: Portrait of Rykaert

Milan (Pinacoteca di Brera): Portrait of Amelia de Solms; Madonna with Jesus and St Anthony of Padua

Montauban: Portrait of a Monk

Montreal (Learmont): Deposition

Moscow (Rumiantsev Mus.): Portrait of Lady Philadelphia Wharton; Portrait of a Nun; Philogyny; Child Christ and St John the Baptist; Portraits of Men

Munich: General Tilly; Count Albrecht of Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland; King Gustav Adolph of Sweden; Princess Margaret of Lorraine; Prince Franz Thomas of Carignan; Bust Portrait of the Antwerp Painter of Battles and Landscapes, P. Sivayers; Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, Maria Ruthwen; Portrait of Heinrick Liberti of Groningen; Portrait of the Engraver Karl Malery of Antwerp; Portrait of the Painter Jan de Wael and His Wife; Portrait of the Wife of Jan de Wael; Portrait of the Sculptor Colyn de Nole; Portrait of a Man in Black; Portrait of Geneviève d’Urphé; Portrait of Duke Carl Alexandre of Croi; Study of a Child’s Head; Martyrdom of St Sebastian; Portrait of the Merchant Sebastian Leerse in Antwerp; St Sebastian Tied to the Tree; Christ on the Cross; Virgin and Child; Lamentation of Christ (two works); Battle Near Martin d’Église; Portrait of the Artist; Portrait of a Young Man; Portrait of the Young Marquis of Mirabella; Portrait of D. Filippo Spinola; Portrait of Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm of Neuburg (two works); Study of an Apostle; Portrait of the Battle Painter Palamedes Palamedesz.; Portrait of the Painter Jan Brueghel with Red Hair; Landscape Artist Lucas van Uden; Count John of Nassau; Abbé César; Alexandre Scaglio

Munich (Alte Pinakothek): Susanna Bathing; Rest on the Flight to Egypt

Nancy: Virgin and Child; Portrait of the Painter Anthony van Opstal; Portrait of Count John of Nassau and His Family

Naples: Jesus on the Cross

New Haven,(CT) (Yale Center for British Art): Mountjoy Blount, 1st Earl of Newport (c. 1637-1638, oil on canvas, portrait)

New York (Frick Collection): Frans Snyders (c. 1632-1641, oil on canvas)

Nice: St Dominic

Nottingham (Castle Mus. and AG): Portrait of Charles I

Oporto: Portrait of a Man

Palermo (Oratorio della Compagnia del Rosario di San Domenico of the Rosary): Madonna of the Rosary

Paris (Louvre): Virgin and Child Jesus; Virgin with Donors; Lamentation of Christ; St Sebastian; Venus and Vulcan; Rinaldo and Armida; Portrait of Charles I, King of England; Portrait of the Children of Charles I; Portrait of Charles Louis, Duke of Bavaria, and His Brother Robert, later Duke of Cumberland; Portrait of Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Sovereign of the Netherlands; Equestrian Portrait of François de Moncade, Marquis of Aytona; Bust Portrait of François de Moncade; Portrait of a Man and a Child; Portrait of a Lady and Her Daughter; Portrait of the Duke of Richmond (three male portraits); Head of an Old Man; Bust of St Joseph; Martyrdom of St Sebastian; Portrait of a Woman; Portrait of Van Dyck

Perpignan: Virgin with Four Donors

Rome (Gal. Colonna): Charles Colonna; Portrait of Lucretia Tomacelli

Rome (Mus. e Gal. Borghese): Jesus Christ Crucified

Rome (Palazzo Doria Pamphili): Portrait of an Elderly Lady

Rotterdam (Mus. Boijmans Van Beuningen): Portrait of Charles I of England with His Wife Henrietta and Their Two Children

Saventhem: St Martin Sharing His Cloak

St Petersburg: Holy Communion; Christ on the Cross; Christ Descended from the Cross; Incredulity of St Thomas; St Sebastian; Portrait of a Man; Portrait of a Woman; Charles I, King of England; Henrietta Maria of France; William II of Nassau; William Lound, Archbishop of Canterbury; Antoine de Trieste, Bishop of Ghent; Henry Danoers, Count of Danby; Lord Philip Wharton; Sir Thomas Wharton; Elisabeth Philadelphia Wharton; Lady Jane Goodwin; Thomas Chaloner; Lord Rowland Wandesford; Jan van den Wouver; Adriaen Stevens, Almoner of the Town of Antwerp; Portrait of the Wife of Adriaen Stevens; Portrait of the Painter Jan ‘Velvet’ Brueghel; Portrait of the Architect Inigo Jonès; Family Portrait; Portrait of a Young Man; Bust Portrait of an Old Man; Portrait of Marc-Antoine Lumagne; Portrait of Evenard; Portrait of Lazarus Markijzus; Two Ladies; Portrait of a Lady

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Holy Family

Stockholm: St Hieronymus; Portrait of Prince William of Hessen-Kassel

Strasbourg: Portrait of a Lady Dressed in Black; Study of a Head

Termonde (Church of Notre Dame): Adoration of the Shepherds; Christ on the Cross Surrounded by Saints

The Hague: Portrait of Sir Sheffield; Portrait of Anna Wake, Wife of Sir Sheffield; Portrait of Qurintyn Simons; Portraits of Peter Stevens and His Wife

Toulouse: Christ with Angels; Miracle of the Mule; Achilles Recognised by Ulysses

Troyes: Portrait of François Snyders

Turin: Portraits of the Children of Charles I, King of England

Vaduz: Portrait of Gaspard de Crayer; Portrait of Jean Vermeulen

Valenciennes: Martyrdom of St James; Portrait of Jacques le Roy, Seigneur of Horbaix; Head of St Matthew; Portrait of Madame de Cantecroix

Venice: Christ Crucified; Portrait of a Child

Venice (Gal. Reale): Head of a Sleeping Child

Versailles: Thomas of Savoy, Prince of Carignan

Vienna: Portrait of Countess Amelia Solms, Princess of Orange; Portrait of an Elderly Woman; Study of a Woman’s Head; Portrait of Queen Mary of England; Portrait of Prince Rhodokani; Portrait of a Young Captain; Venus with Vulcan; St Francis; Portrait of a Man; Portrait of Prince Karl Ludwig of the Palatinate; St Germain Joseph; St Rosalie Receiving a Crown from Jesus; Portrait of a Young Man; Ecce Homo; Portrait of Archduchess Isabella Clara; Portrait of Marquis Francesco de Moncada; Holy Family; Portrait of the Spanish Consulate; Jean de Montfort; Portrait of Carolus Sribani; Portrait of a Man; Portrait of a Woman; Portrait of the Painter; Cupid with Bow and Arrows; Mary and the Child Jesus; Portrait of the Painter Paul de Vos

Vienna (Czernin’sche Gemäldegal.): Neptune; Ecce Homo; Portrait of a Man in an Armchair (Generally Identified as the Painter of Animals, Paul de Vos); Portrait of a Man; Portrait of a Young Man; Cupid

Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus.): Samson and Delilah; Portrait of Prince Ruprecht of the Palatinate

Washington DC (Georgetown University): Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Janssens van Bisthoven (c. 1630, oil on canvas)

Washington DC (NGA): Filippo Cattaneo, Son of Marchesa Elena Grimaldi (1623, oil on canvas); Clelia Cattaneo, Daughter of Marchesa Elena Grimaldi (1623, oil on canvas); A Genoese Noblewoman and Her Son (c. 1626, oil on canvas); other paintings, numerous prints

Windsor Castle: Charles I in Three Poses; Portraits of the Children of Charles I

Ypres: Male Portrait; Female Portrait

Auction Records

Amsterdam, 13 May 1705: Portrait of an Old Man, FRF 35

Amsterdam, 17 May 1710: A Sketch, FRF 325

Paris, 1792: King Charles I of England and His Family, FRF 26,250; Portrait of Snyders, FRF 10,000

Paris, 1800: Painting on Panel, FRF 150,000

Paris, 1810: Jesus with the Paralysed Man, FRF 82,500

London, 1810: St Sebastian Surrounded by Soldiers, FRF 22,305

Antwerp, 1822: Portrait of Le Roy, FRF 11,440; Portrait of the Wife of Le Roy, FRF 13,200

Paris, 1872: The Young Composer, FRF 37,800

London, 1886: Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, FRF 375,000; Portrait of Mary, Duchess of Richmond, FRF 39,190

Ghent, 1887: Virgin and Child, FRF 220

Paris, 1891: Portrait of the Count of Aligre, FRF 69,000

New York, 1895: The Marquis of Spinola and His Granddaughter, FRF 250,000

Antwerp, 1898: Portrait of Martin Pepyn, FRF 60,000

Paris, 1898: Mystic Marriage of St Catherine, FRF 13,500

London, 1898: Portrait of a Young Boy in Purple Hose and Green Breeches, FRF 42,000

Brussels, 1899: Portrait of Ambrose Doria, BEF 40,000

New York, 1899: Lord Arundel, FRF 44,000

London, 1900: Portrait of Bartholomeo Guisdimani, One of Van Dyck’s Masters, FRF 606,250

London, 3 July 1908: Portrait of Cardinal Domenico Rivarole, GBP 819; Portrait of the Countess of Northumberland, GBP 210

London, 12 Dec 1908: Portrait of a Gentleman, GBP 50

London, 30 April 1909: Portrait of Mutio Vitelleschi, Leader of the Jesuits (held in Art Treasures in Great Britain) GBP 99

London, 2 July 1909: Portrait of a Jesuit Priest, GBP 189

London, 16 July 1909: Charity (grisaille) GBP 65

Paris, April 1910: Portrait of Wolfgang, Duke of Neuburg, FRF 12,500

London, 6 May 1910: Portrait of Catherine Hastings, GBP 357; Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria, GBP 367; Portrait of a Lady in Black and Silver Dress, GBP 367; Portrait of Cardinal Domenico Rivarole, GBP 945; Portrait of Dorothy Devereux, GBP 157

Paris, 25 Nov 1918: Two Heads of Children, FRF 111,000

London, 26 May 1922: Elizabeth, Countess de Southampton, GBP 6,510

London, 4-7 May 1923: Adoration of the Shepherds, GBP 178

London, 6 July 1923: Portrait of De Witte, GBP 2,100; Portrait of the Wife of De Witte, GBP 892; Princess Mary, Daughter of Charles I, GBP 1,050

London, 13 July 1923: Portrait of the Artist, GBP 5,985; Henri Liberti of Groningen, GBP 2,100

Paris, 2 June 1924: Martrydom of St Sebastian (sketch) FRF 30,000; Portrait of Ferdinand Boisschot, Baron of Saventhem, FRF 86,000

London, 4 July 1924: Virgin, Child and St Catherine, GBP 3,150

London, 1 May 1925: George Stuart, Lord Aubigny, GBP 840

London, 7 May 1926: Genevieve d’Urfe, Duchess of Croy, GBP 609

Paris, 27 and 28 May 1926: Portrait of Jan van den Wouver, FRF 185,000; Portrait of the Engraver Jean-Baptiste Barbé, FRF 50,000; Portrait of Paul de Halmale, FRF 47,000; Head of a Young Man (study) FRF 41,000; Head and Hands of a Young Man, FRF 37,000

London, 12 May 1927: Head of a Woman, GBP 2,100

London, 17 and 18 May 1928: Marchioness Catherine Durazzo, GBP 1,575; Count Brandolini, GBP 1,312

Paris, 21 and 22 May 1928: Heads of Children, FRF 255,000

London, 8 June 1928: Jupiter and Antiope, GBP 787

London, 25 June 1928: St Francis in Prayer, GBP 472

Paris, 28 Nov 1928: Study of a Man Standing in Semi-profile in the Costume of the Brandenburgs (drawing) FRF 4,000

Paris, 19 Dec 1928: Two-thirds Portrait of a Young Woman with a Necklace, FRF 4,000

London, 3 May 1929: Portrait of Jacques Le Roy, GBP 17,850

London, 21 June 1929: Portrait of Charles II as a Child, GBP 4,830

London, 1 Aug 1929: Anne-Marie de Camudio, GBP 99

London, 27 June 1930: Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria, GBP 997

London, 25 July 1930: Child Jesus on a Globe, GBP 189

New York, 22 Jan 1931: St Paul, USD 1,500; St Philip, USD 900; St John the Evangelist, USD 13,000

New York, 4 and 5 Feb 1931: Portrait of a Burgomaster, USD 1,650

New York, 22 April 1932: Portrait of Three of the Children of Charles I, USD 3,600

London, 27-30 May 1932: Prince Rupert, GBP 231

Paris, 11 Dec 1934: Christ on the Cross, FRF 46,000

New York, 3 Dec 1936: Edward Sutton, USD 2,900

Cologne, 4 May 1937: Portrait of a Man, DEM 8,000

London, 1 July 1938: Portrait of a Woman, GBP 2,100; William Feilding, GBP 1,995; Mary, Duchess of Richmond, GBP 1,552

New York, 20 April 1939: Wolfgang, Prince of Pfalz-Neuburg, USD 1,600

New York, 4 Jan 1945: Portrait Presumed to be of Constantin Huygens, USD 13,000

New York, 21 Feb 1945: Ferdinand Boisschot, USD 3,500; Donna Polyxera Spinola, Marchioness of Leganes, USD 10,000

London, 1 June 1945: Inspiration of St Jerome, GBP 2,145

New York, 25 Oct 1945: Count Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg, USD 3,000

London, 12 July 1946: Portrait of a Gentleman, GBP 4,189

Paris, 25 May 1949: Portrait of the Engraver Paul Pontius, FRF 3,900,000

Paris, 9 Dec 1952: Heads of Children, FRF 3,950,000

London, 28 Nov 1956: Heads of Two Negroes, GBP 7,800

New York, 13 March 1957: Portrait of Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio, USD 5,000

London, 26 June 1957: St Jerome Repenting, GBP 2,500

London, 27 June 1958: St Judas Thaddeus, GBP 5,775

London, 26 Nov 1958: Portrait of a Man, GBP 7,000

London, 8 July 1959: Virgin, Child and St Anne, GBP 3,400

Geneva, 13 June 1960: Ecstasy of St Francis (pen and bistre wash) CHF 1,000

London, 15 July 1960: Portrait of a Woman, GBP 6,300

London, 7 Dec 1960: St Rosalie Interceding on Behalf of the City of Palermo, GBP 5,000

London, 14 June 1961: Portrait of a Gentleman, GBP 19,000

Paris, 20 June 1961: Portrait of Clarissimus Erycius Puteanus (chalk, wash and gouache) FRF 4,100

New York, 15 Nov 1961: Portrait of a Genoese Officer, USD 27,000

London, 3 July 1963: Portrait of Lucy, Countess of Carlisle, GBP 14,000

London, 12 June 1968: Virgin, Child and St Anne, GBP 21,000

London, 26 March 1969: Portrait of a Man with a Beard, GBP 8,600

London, 25 June 1971: Heads of Four Negroes, Gns 400,000

London, 6 Dec 1972: Two Studies of the Head of a Man (oil on mounted paper on canvas) GBP 17,000

London, 11 July 1973: Marchioness Lomellini-Donazzo, GBP 180,000

London, 2 July 1976: Virgin and Child (c. 1627-1632, oil on panel, 60¾ × 42½ ins/154.5 × 108 cm) GBP 200,000

New York, 16 June 1977: Portrait of Don Paolo Gordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano (oil on canvas, 74¼ × 53¼ ins/188.5 × 135 cm) USD 27,000

Bern, 9 June 1978: Frans Francken (c. 1635, etching) CHF 7,000

New York, 16 Feb 1979: Pieter Brueghel the Younger (etching, 9½ × 6 ins/24.4 × 15.5 cm) USD 12,000

London, 3 May 1979: Study of a Kneeling Man (double-sided drawing in black chalk, 8½ × 6¾ ins/21.7 × 17 cm) GBP 2,000

London, 9 April 1981: Studies of the Holy Family and the Head of a Monk (recto); Virgin and Child with Two Saints and a Cottage (verso) (pen and brown ink/paper, 7½ × 5½ ins/19.3 × 14 cm) GBP 13,000

Bern, 24 June 1983: Lucas Vorstermans (c. 1640, etching) CHF 1,500

London, 3 July 1984: Wooded Landscape with a House on the Right (watercolour, pen and brown ink, 7½ × 14¼ ins/18.9 × 36.3 cm) GBP 240,000; Portrait of Hendrick van Balen (black chalk, 9½ × 7¾ ins/24.3 × 19.7 cm) GBP 540,000

London, 23 Nov 1984: Portrait of Anne Carr, Countess of Bedford, Holding a Rose (oil on canvas, 39¾ × 32½ ins/101 × 82.5 cm) GBP 150,000

London, 9 July 1986: Portrait of Dorothy, Lady Dacre (oil on canvas, 51¼ × 40½ ins/130 × 103 cm) GBP 145,000

New York, 17 Nov 1986: St Jerome, St George, St Catherine of Alexandria, and Holy Monks (brush, brown ink and grey wash, 11½ × 9½ ins/29.5 × 24 cm) USD 130,000

New York, 20 Nov 1986: Jan de Wael (before 1632, etching and burin, 10 × 7 ins/25.3 × 18 cm) USD 32,000

London, 6 July 1987: Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (black chalk, pen and brown ink, brown and grey wash, 7¼ × 11 ins/18.2 × 27.9 cm) GBP 220,000

Stockholm, 29 April 1988: Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria (oil on canvas, 48½ × 35½ ins/123 × 90 cm) SEK 16,000

Stockholm, 15 Nov 1988: Portrait of a Man Dressed in Dark Colours (oil, 30¾ × 22 ins/78 × 55 cm) SEK 10,000

New York, 31 May 1989: Portrait of Nicholas Rockox Aged 76 Dressed in Black with a White Ruff (1636, oil on panel, diam. 6 ins/15.2 cm) USD 231,000

New York, 2 June 1989: Portrait of a Horseman (1634, oil on panel, 28¾ × 22 ins/73 × 55 cm) USD 374,000

London, 17 Nov 1989: Full-length Portrait of Mary, Princess Royal, in a Silver Embroidered Pink Dress with Ribbands and Lace Collar (oil on canvas, 61 × 42 ins/155 × 106.5 cm) GBP 880,000

New York, 1 June 1990: St James the Greater (oil on paper/canvas, 33¼ × 24¾ ins/84.5 × 63 cm) USD 176,000

London, 6 July 1990: St Jerome Penitent (oil on canvas, 51¾ × 70¼ ins/131.5 × 178.5 cm) GBP 110,000

London, 14 Nov 1990: Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, First Count of Strafford, Standing Holding his Armour (oil on canvas, 40 × 33 ins/101.5 × 84 cm) GBP 19,800

London, 2 July 1991: Paris (black and white chalk/light brown paper, 15¾ × 10 ins/40 × 25.5 cm) GBP 9,900

London, 9 Nov 1994: Portrait of George Hay, Count of Kinnoul, in Armour (oil on canvas, 85¾ × 52 ins/218 × 132 cm) GBP 82,900

London, 3 April 1996: Bust Portrait of Elizabeth Stuart, Countess of Arundel, Dressed in a White Satin Dress with a Fur Stole on Her Right Shoulder (oil on canvas, 29¼ × 23¼ ins/74.5 × 59 cm) GBP 177,500

New York, 30 Jan 1997: Vanitas: Two Very Young Boys Blowing Bubbles (oil on paper/panel, 25¼ × 20¾ ins/64.1 × 52.7 cm) USD 41,400

London, 9 April 1997: Portrait of Sir Arthur Hopton (c. 1637-1638, oil on canvas, oval, 23¼ × 18¾ ins/59 × 47.5 cm) GBP 95,000

London, 3-4 Dec 1997: Full-length Portrait of Prince Charles Louis, Elector Palatine (oil on canvas, 86 × 49 ins/218.5 × 124.5 cm) GBP 771,500

New York, 29 Jan 1998: Venus and Adonis (oil on canvas, 68¼ × 68¼ ins/173.5 × 173.5 cm) USD 992,500

New York, 28 Jan 1999: Studies of Two Hands. Forearm and Legs of Man (black and white chalk, double-sided, 9 × 9 ins/22 × 23 cm) USD 8,500

London, 8 July 1999: Portrait of Nobleman, possibly Emanuel Frockas Pereira y Pimentel, Standing (oil on canvas, 87 × 50 ins/220 × 128 cm) GBP 390,000

New York, 11 May 2000: Paulus Pontius (etching, 9 × 6 ins/23 × 16 cm) USD 5,000

London, 13 Dec 2000: Bridled Grey Stallion, with Saddle Cloth and Partially Plaited Mane (oil on canvas, 52 × 42 ins/132 × 107 cm) GBP 700,000

London, 10 July 2001: Portrait of Lady Mary Villiers, Wearing Bronze Gown and Holding a Rose (oil on canvas, 42 × 33 ins/106 × 84 cm) GBP 390,000

New York, 3 Oct 2001: Portrait of Charles, Lord Strange, Later 8th Earl of Derby (oil on canvas, 28 × 22 ins/70 × 57 cm) USD 550,000

New York, 24 Jan 2002: Bust of the Apostle Thomas (oil on canvas, 24 × 19 ins/62 × 49 cm) USD 1,900,000; Bust of the Apostle Peter (oil on canvas, 24 × 19 ins/62 × 49 cm) USD 2,850,000

New York, 24 Jan 2003: Portrait of Anne Carr, Countess of Bedford (oil on canvas, 40 × 32 ins/101 × 82 cm) USD 280,000; Portrait of Mary Hill, Lady Killigrew, Wearing a Russet Dress before a Landscape (oil on canvas, 42 × 33 ins/107 × 83 cm) USD 600,000

Milan, 2 Dec 2003: Portrait of Lord John Belasyse (oil on canvas, 39 x 31in/99 x 78.7cm) EUR 200,000

Cologne, 22 May 2004: Portrait of Thirty-seven Year Old Man in Dark Clothing (oil on canvas, 50 x 39in/127 x 99cm) EUR 290,000

New York, 28 Jan 2005: The Incredulity of St Thomas (oil on canvas, 10 x 44in/25.4 x 111.8cm) USD 280,000

London, 7 Dec 2005: Portrait of Prince Charles Louis, Elector Palatine (oil on canvas, 42 x 37in/106.7 x 94cm) GBP 400,000

New York, 26 Jan 2006: Adoration of Shepherds (oil on canvas, 23 x 19in/58.4 x 48.3cm) USD 1,300,000

New York, 8 June 2007: Holy Family with an Angel, Perhaps the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (oil on canvas, 48 x 38¾in/122 x 98.5cm) USD 1,500,000

London, 5 Dec 2007: The Crucified Christ Adored by Saints Dominic and Catherine of Siena (oil on oak panel, en grisaille, 24½ x 17¾in/62 x 45cm) GBP 558,100

New York, 28 Jan 2009: Portrait of Anne Cavendish, Lady Rich (1612–1638) (c. 1637, oil on canvas, 51 x 87in/129.6 x 221.2cm) USD 542,500

London, 7 July 2009: Portrait of Mrs Oliver St John, later Lady Poulett (oil on canvas, 88¼ x 52¼in/224.2 x 132.7cm) GBP 881,250

London, 8 July 2009: Portrait of Endymion Porter (1587–1649) (oil on canvas, 45 x 37in/114.5 x 94cm) GBP 3,296,948

London, 9 Dec 2009: Self-portrait (oil on canvas, 23 ½ x 18 ½in/59.7 x 47.3cm) GBP 13,583,340

New York, 28 Jan 2010: Holy Family with an Angel, Perhaps the Rest on the Flight into Egypt (oil on canvas, 48 x 38¾in/122 x 98.5cm) USD 1,986,500Portrait of Nicholas Rockox (oil on circular panel, 6in/15.2cm) USD 1,538 500Two Studies of a Bearded Man (oil on canvas, 17¾ x 26½in/45 x 67cm) USD 7,250,500

London, 6 July 2010: Portrait of Anne Sophia, Countess of Carnavon (d. 1695) (oil on canvas, 79 x 52in/200.7 x 132.1cm) GBP 2,438,013

London, 7 Dec 2010: Portrait of a Gentleman, traditionally called A Senator of Antwerp, Half-length, Leaning on a Plinth (oil on canvas, 48¾ x 38¼in/123.9 x 97.2cm) GBP 1,652,778

London, 8 Dec 2010: Portrait of Sir John Mennes (1599–1671) (oil on canvas, 42¼ x 33½in/107.5 x 85cm) GBP 690,850

London, 6 July 2011: Portrait of a Carmelite Monk, Head and Shoulders (oil on oak panel, 24½ x 19in/62.3 x 48cm) GBP 713,250Study of a Bearded Man with Hands Raised (oil on oak panel, 35 x 21¾in/89 x 55.5cm) GBP 457,250


  • Hollstein, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich: Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts, circa 1450-1700, in vols 2-16, Menno Hertzberger, Amsterdam, 1949–1974.
  • Magurn, Ruth: The Letters of Peter Paul Rubens, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA), 1955.
  • Van Puyvelde, Leo: ‘Van Dyck’, in Flemish Painters of the 17th Century Series, Elsevier, Brussels, 1959.
  • Jaffé, Michael: Van Dyck’s Antwerp Sketchbook, 2 vols, Macdonald, London, 1966.
  • Vey, Horst: Die Zeichnungen Anton Van Dycks, Verlag Arcade, Brussels, 1962.
  • Strong, Roy C.: Van Dyck: Charles I on Horseback, Viking Press, London, 1972.
  • Hook, Judith: The Baroque Age in England, Thames and Hudson, London, 1976.
  • Martin, John Rupert/Feigenbaum, Gail: Van Dyck as a Religious Artist, Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton (NJ), 1979.
  • Gaunt, William: Court Paintings in England from Tudor to Victorian Times, Constable, London, 1980.
  • Larsen, Erik: L’opera completa di Van Dyck, catalogue raisonné, Rizzoli, Milan, 1980.
  • McNarin, Alain: The Young Van Dyck, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1980.
  • Van Dyck in England, exhibition catalogue, National Portrait Gallery, London, 1982.
  • Brown, Christopher: Van Dyck, monograph, Phaidon, Oxford, 1982.
  • Millar, Oliver: Van Dyck in England, National Portrait Gallery, London, 1982.
  • Howarth, David: Lord Arundel and His Circle, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1985.
  • Filipczak, Zirka Zaremba: Picturing Art in Antwerp, 1550–1700, Princeton University Press, Princeton (NJ), 1987.
  • Smuts, R. Malcolm: Court Culture and the Origins of Royalist Tradition in Early Stuart England, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1987.
  • Larsen, Erik: The Paintings of Anthony Van Dyck, 2 vols, Luca Verlag, Freren, 1988.
  • Wheelock, Arthur K., and others: Anthony Van Dyck, exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1990.
  • Brown, Christopher, and others: Van Dyck Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Thames and Hudson, London, 1991.
  • Depauw, Carl, and others: Antoon Van Dyck (1599–1641) and Antwerpen, Museum Plantin-Moretus en Stedelijk Prentenkabinet Antwerp, 1991.
  • Mauquoy-Henrickx, Marie: L’Iconographie d’Antoine Van Dyck: catalogue raisonné, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, Brussels, 1991 (2nd revised, extended edition).
  • Jaffé, Michael: ‘Van Dyck at the National Gallery of Art, Washington’, in Burlington Magazine, 133, no. 1055, February 1991.
  • Jaffé, Michael: ‘Drawings by Van Dyck. New York and Fort Worth’, in Burlington Magazine, vol 133, no. 1058, May 1991.
  • Cifani, Arabella/Monetti, Franco: ‘New Light on the Abbé Scaglia and Van Dyck’ in Burlington Magazine, vol 134, no. 1073, August 1992.
  • Barnes, Susan J./Wheelock, Arthur K. (eds.): Van Dyck 350, in Studies in the History of Art vol. 46, National Gallery of Art, Washington (DC), 1994.
  • Moir, Alfred: Anthony van Dyck, Thames and Hudson, London, 1994.
  • White, Christopher: Anthony van Dyck, Thomas Howard, the Earl of Arundel, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu (CA), 1995.
  • Hedley, Jo: Van Dyck at the Wallace Collection, Wallace Collection, London, 1999.
  • Lawson, James: Van Dyck, Paintings and Drawings, Prestel, New York, 1999.
  • Depauw, Carl/Luijten, Ger: Anthony van Dyck as a Printmaker, exhibition catalogue, Antwerpen Open, Antwerp, 1999.
  • Royalton-Kisch, Martin: The Light of Nature. Landscape Drawings and Watercolours by Van Dyck and His Contemporaries, British Museum, London, 1999.
  • Brown, Christopher (ed.): Van Dyck, exhibition catalogue, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1999.
  • Corns, Thomas N.: The Royal Image: Representations of Charles I, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1999.
  • Stewart, J. Douglas: ‘Reflections on Eroticism, Love and the Antique in Van Dyck’s Art’, in Apollo, vol 152, no. 8 2000.
  • Vlieghe, Hans: Van Dyck 1599 - 1999: Conjectures and Refutations, Brepols, Turnhout, 2001.
  • Barnes, Susan J., and others: Van Dyck : A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, catalogue raisonné, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2004.
  • Cavalli-Björkmam, Görel: Rubens & Van Dyck, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, 2010.