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date: 27 June 2022

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder real name: Müller or Sunderfree

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder real name: Müller or Sunderfree

German, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1472, in Kronach (Bavaria); died 16 October 1553, in Weimar.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, religious subjects, portraits.

Danube School (or style of).

Lucas, the Elder CRANACH: signature or monogram

Lucas, the Elder CRANACH: signature or monogram

Lucas, the Elder CRANACH: signature or monogram

Lucas, the Elder CRANACH: signature or monogram

Nothing is known of the start of Cranach's career or who his master was. The earliest of his extant paintings date from between 1502 and 1505, by which time he was already 30 years old, and they differ markedly from the rest of his work. Their style suggests that the young Cranach had been heavily influenced by Jan Pollak (or Pollonus) of Cracow, who settled in Munich about 1480. It also seems likely that Cranach went to Vienna about 1502, because his St Jerome dated 1502, found in Linz (in the Vienna Museum), the Crucifixion from the Scottish convent in Vienna, thought to be his first painting, the Munich Crucifixion dated 1502, and the Berlin Rest on the Flight into Egypt of 1504 form a stylistically homogeneous group that relates to the Danube style then flourishing in southern Germany, the best-known representatives of which are Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Cranach's early paintings have an exquisite charm. The scenes from religious history are located in landscapes that are Germanically romantic, with rocks and pine or oak forests stylised in the flexible, elaborate and artificial manner of the Danube School. Everything is governed by the same expressive intention, and the unreal limpidity of the colour, the movements of the figures, and the configuration of rocks and vegetation form a whole that is perfectly coherent, though fairytale-like.

In 1505 Cranach, who must have been known by then, was called to Wittenberg to become court painter to Prince Frederick the Wise. From this moment his art becomes more conventional. The large retable of the Martyrdom of St Catherine (Dresden), painted in 1506, already falls into the contemporary routine of German workshop painting. The figures are schematic and poorly constructed, the faces are inexpressive, and the landscape, which retains some of its romantic characteristics, is now no more than background painting. The series of engravings that Cranach issued between 1506 and 1509 is of very high artistic quality, but also shows the change in his style. The Wittenberg ethos was not as favourable to his development as that of Bavaria. Frederick the Wise, a dedicated collector of paintings and saints' relics, was working hard to create a new artistic centre in a region that had no artistic traditions. Once settled in Wittenberg, Cranach was separated from the main artistic currents of his time. However, we can see the influence on him of Jacopo de Barbari, a Germanising Venetian who visited Wittenberg in 1505. A drawing by Cranach of Diana Sleeping is the result of acquaintance with the anaemic elegance of this painter's figures.

In 1508 Cranach visited the Netherlands, probably on a diplomatic mission, and he painted a portrait of the future Charles V, then aged eight. This contact with the Netherlands is reflected in the Retable of the Holy Family of 1508 (Frankfurt), the clearer and roomier composition of which is clearly inspired by Quentin Masys and de Gossart, and in which we find some Italian influences, particularly Da Vinci and the Venetians. The Madonna and Child in Wroclaw cathedral and the Virgin and Two Saints in Wörlitz also belong to this period. In 1547 John Frederick, Cranach's protector, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Muhlberg and sent to Augsburg by Charles V. From 1550 Cranach shared his patron's captivity. Following his release, he met Titian and painted a portrait of him, but unfortunately this has not come down to us.

After a stay in Innsbruck, Cranach settled in Weimar in 1553. In the city church of Weimar there is an altar with an Allegory of Salvation, a crucifix at the foot of which stand Cranach and Martin Luther. The blood of Christ drips on to the head of the painter. This picture was finished by Lucas Cranach the Younger. During his long life Cranach was court painter to three successive princes of Saxony (Frederick the Wise, died in 1525, his brother John Constant, died in 1532, and John Frederick, died in 1556). The Wittenberg accounts mention portraits of the princes and their wives, religious and mythological paintings, decorative paintings on canvas (Tüchlein), which were replacing tapestries, decorations for fêtes and tournaments, and even the painting of buildings. From this it is clear that the Cranach workshop must have consisted, in addition to his sons, Hans and Lucas, of many assistants and pupils.

Over and above this work, Cranach, a prosperous and influential citizen, was a member of the city council and even Burgomaster of Wittenberg from 1537 to 1544. In 1520 he bought a pharmacy, and later a bookshop to which was attached a publishing house and printing works. He was a close friend of Martin Luther; the two men were godfathers to each other's children and many of Cranach's portraits of Luther survive. He also rendered Luther notable services during the persecution. The spread of Reformation and later Counter-Reformation ideas owed much to the printing press. Cranach engraved portraits and illustrations for the reformer's propaganda pamphlets. Indeed, he made woodcut prints for the first known Reformation broadsheet the Fuhrwagen (the Chariot to Heaven and the Chariot to Hell), illustrating the notion that redemption is a gift of God's grace and not achieved by human will. These varied activities make it a question how much time he spent in his workshop. Cranach signed with his name or initials (generally accompanied by a winged dragon, a blazon granted him in 1508) all works issued from his workshop, and modern critics have difficulty in deciding exactly what is his own work and what that of his sons and assistants. It is agreed that repetitions and variants of quality shall be considered as being by him, but the idea of quality here is not without its ambiguity. The series output of the workshop (an archive note of 1533 mentions an order for 60 painted portraits of the two dead electors), although signed by Cranach, is often not much more than popular imagery. These innumerable repetitions, which flooded the German châteaux and galleries, were made from a single original drawing by the master, usually depicting the head only. Some of these fine sketches have survived (one in the Louvre, thirteen in Rheims museum) and are the only certain evidence we have of Cranach as a portrait artist. In the large paintings produced by the workshop the costumes and armour take up so much space that they overshadow the facial features ( Portraits of Henry the Pious and his wife, in Dresden). Cranach's mature style is in one respect curious. At a time when German painting, as represented by Dürer and Holbein, was moving towards the measured and clear art of the Renaissance, in Cranach we find a return to the Gothic spirit. As with Altdorfer, scenes that contain many figures are an inextricable tangle, suggestive but irrational evocations of the human throng (paintings of the Census of Bethlehem, Dresden, and woodcuts depicting tournaments). However, this archaism gives a very special attraction to his Madonnas, among the finest of which are the Karlsruhe Virgin and the St Petersburg Virgin in a Bower. They depict elegant young women with light hair and clear skin, dressed in the stiff Wittenberg style, and placed in beautiful landscapes. Other paintings, mostly small but numerous, with nude figures standing against a landscape or black background, make up a considerable part of his production. Their sensual charm has attracted people to them throughout the centuries. It is possible that when he was in the Netherlands Cranach was impressed by some the works of Bosch in which we find similar small figures. The account books of the Saxony court contain many references to paintings of this type ordered from Cranach and which were apparently much enjoyed.

In his study of the German School in the Louvre, Louis Réau, insisting on the incompatibility between the bourgeois art of Reformation Germany and the paganism of the Italian Renaissance, writes, in connection with Lucas Cranach's Venus in a Landscape: 'The misunderstanding of antique mythology is grotesque and the ignorance of human form is naive. Because the strict behaviour of the German bourgeoisie forbade painters from using naked models in the studio, they could only reproduce clichés taken from Italian engravings and grossly deformed. Venuses from the Cranach workshop are highly characterised and immediately recognisable: domed foreheads, slanting eyes, frizzy blond hair, small breasts, standing slightly on one leg in a way that is reminiscent of 16th century ivories, with inordinately long, slender legs leading to large, goose-foot feet. Their only clothing is a transparent veil, a gold necklace and sometimes, as a joke, a cardinal's hat. These naked dolls are so lifeless and of such unsightly clumsiness that one is astonished that the humanists of Wittenberg found them attractive. In the work of Lucas Cranach and his son they alternate with Protestant imagery, more edifying, certainly, but even cruder, that found its market in the followers of Martin Luther.' In connection with Portrait of a Young Woman, Réau continues: 'This portrait of a young blonde girl standing against an opaque black background is certainly the work of Lucas Cranach, because it not only carries the mark of the dragon with the wings of a bat, but it has a striking resemblance to other works unquestionably by the Wittenberg master in the museums of Budapest and Weimar.' As to the comments on femininity in Cranach from an otherwise admirable historian, the objective description is quite well observed, but the aesthetic assessment is so extreme as to be worthless.

Cranach's ideal of beauty is exceptional for the 16th-century: he likes the slender sihouettes of hardly nubile girls, with protruding stomachs and slim waists. The flesh tones are delicately anaemic. The undulating line of the body is Gothic. The sensual character of these figures is emphasised by jewellery, hats and transparent veils. Some of them have a passing similarity to Italian art: the large Venus Standing of 1509 (Hermitage), Nymph of the Spring of 1518 (Leipzig) are clearly influenced by the Reclining Venus of Giorgione, the panels of Adam and Eve (Brunswick) are transposed from Dürer. But these are exceptions. Most of the paintings of this kind, whether religious or mythological - Judgement of Paris, Original Sin, Lucretia, Judith Judith, Venus or Bathsheba- are excuses for depicting female nudes of a very Germanic form such as is found, modestly represented, in Dürer, whereas in Cranach it is a seductive combination of naivety and sensuality.

Group Exhibitions

2002, State Gallery, Stuttgart (exhibition including 26 of the most prestigious works in the Fürstenberg Collection, Donaueschingen, of the late medieval Swabian School, some by Lucas Cranach)

2007, Dürer and Cranach. Art and Humanism in the German Renaissance, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

2008, Subtle Appeal: Dürer, Daldung Grien and Cranach the Elder, Palais Rohan, Strasbourg

Solo Exhibitions

1973, 1994, 1998, Lutherhalle, Wittenberg

1994, Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig; Schlossmuseum, Gotha; Wartburg Museum, Eisenach; Schloss Torgau, Torgau

2002, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

2007, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main (including over 100 masterpieces)

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Aix: Portrait of a Young Girl; Portrait of a Man

Altenburg: Virgin with St Catherine

Amsterdam: Portrait of a Man; Melanchthon; Kasper Cruciger; Last Judgement

Antwerp: Adam and Eve; Love

Augsburg: Samson and Delilah; Portrait of Luther (1533)

Bamberg: Painting of the Bishop of Eichstätt (1520); Madonna with Cake (1529)

Basel: Portrait of Martin Luther; Portrait of Luther and his Wife; Portrait of Catherine de Bore; Lucretia; Portrait of Catherine de Bore

Berlin: Portrait of George, Duke of Saxony; Portrait of a Woman; Portrait of a Man; Portrait of John Frederick, the Youngest Duke of Saxony; Rest during the Flight into Egypt (1504); St Jerome; Adam and Eve; St Anne of Selbdutt; Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane; Entombment; Portrait of John Frederick the Generous; St Anne Selberit; Portrait of Cardinal Albert de Brandenburg of Mainz; Mary with the Child Jesus and St John; Hell (right wing) Paradise (left wing) (altar); Apollo and Diana; Venus and Love; Patrician; Portrait of a Burgher; Portrait of a Burgomaster from Weissenfels; Portrait of Catherine de Bore, Luther's Wife; Venus and Love; Lucretia; Bathsheba (1526); Descent from the Cross; Cardinal Albert de Brandenburg and St Jerome in the Desert (1527)

Berlin (Gemäldegal.): Fountain of Youth

Besançon: Courtisan and Old Man; Reclining Nymph; Adam and Eve

Bonn: Crucifixion (1515)

Bootle (AG and Mus.): Virgin under an Apple Tree

Bordeaux: Venus and Love

Bremen: Holy Trinity; Ecce Homo

Brunswick: Adam and Eve; Hercules and Omphale (1537)

Brussels: Portrait of a Man; Adam; Portrait of Dr Scheuring (1529)

Budapest: The Three Arrows of the Eternal Father; Herodias; Christ Weeping; Adultery; Amorous Old Man; Amorous Old Woman; Mystical Marriage of St Catherine; Old Man and the Beauty (1522); Salome; Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery (1532)

Cherbourg: Frederick III and John, Electors of Saxony (triptych)

Cologne: St Mary Magdalene

Copenhagen: Holy Virgin and Child; St Sebastian

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): The Judgement of Paris (1527); Venus with Cupid Stealing Honey (1530)

Darmstadt: Painting of Saints; Cardinal Albert de Brandenburg as St Jerome (1525); Two Portraits of Children (1526)

Dijon: Child's Head

Donaueschingen (Fürstlich Fürstenbergisches Sammlungen): The Family of Wild Men (c. 1528)

Douai: Siren at her Toilette; Portrait of Idelette de Bure, Wife of Calvin; Portrait of Sybil, Wife of John, Elector of Saxony

Dresden: Martyrdom of St Catherine (1506); Adoration of the Shepherds, night scene; Census of Bethlehem; Prince Henry the Pious and his Wife (1514); Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane; The Flagellation (1515); Lucretia; Judith; Diana Sleeping (drawing)

Dublin: Judith with the Head of Holofernes; Christ on the Cross

Florence (NG): Portrait of Catherine de Bore; Portrait of Luther; Portraits of the Two Electors of Saxony, John and Frederick; Portraits of Luther and Melanchthon; St George; Self-portrait; Adam

Frankfurt am Main: Mary and the Child Jesus; Crucifixion of Christ; Herod's Feast; Retable of the Holy Family (1509); Venus with a Veil (1532)

Fribourg (St Nicolas Cathedral): Ecce Homo (1524)

Geneva: Temptation of St Anthony

Gotha: Original Sin and Redemption (1529); Judgement; Adoration of the Kings; Adam and Eve (1527)

Graz: Horseman at Crossroads

Halle (Church of St Mary): Altar with Virgin (1529)

Hamburg: Charity

Hanover: Christ and St John the Baptist; Lucretia; Martydom of Seven Brothers (two altarpiece wings)

Heidelberg: Frederick III of Saxony; Martin Luther; Catherine de Bore; Melanchthon; Frederick the Magnanimous

Helsinki: Portrait of a Woman

Indianapolis (MA): Crucifixion (1532, oil on panel)

Kaliningrad: Painting of Luther and Melanchthon

Karlsruhe: Virgin and Child

Kassel: St Catherine; St Barbara; Suicide of Lucretia; Portrait of an Old Man; Judith; Resurrection of Christ, St Barbara, Arms of Hesse and Mecklemburg (triptych); Age of Silver

Leipzig: Adoration of the Magi; Dying Man; Christ and the Samaritan Woman; George the Bearded, Duke of Saxony; Christian II of Denmark; Portrait of Gehrard Wolk; Apollonia and Georg de Widebach; Nymph of the Well (1518)

Lille: Portrait of a Man

Lisbon: Salome

Liverpool: The Nymph of the Fountain (1534, oil/panel)

London (NG): Saints Genevieve and Apollonia; Saints Christina and Ottilia (1506, oil/wood, two wings of the St Catherine altarpiece in Dresden); Portrait of Johann the Steadfast (1509, oil/wood); Portrait of Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous (1509, oil/wood, pair of portraits); Portrait of a Man, probably Johann Feige (1524, oil/wood); Portrait of a Woman (c. 1525, oil/wood); Cupid complaining to Venus (c. 1526, oil/wood); The Close of the Silver Age (?) (c. 1530, oil/wood); Charity (1537-1550, oil/wood)

London (Royal Collection): The Judgement of Solomon (1519 or 1549); Lucretia (1530); Apollo and Diana; The Judgement of Paris; The Fourteen Helpers in Need; Nicholas de Backer

Lyons: Portrait of a Woman

Madrid (Prado): Hunt Organised by Charles V for German Nobles (two pendants)

Mainz: St Jerome; Portrait of the Prince Elector of Brandenburg, Albert of Brandenburg; Portrait of Prince John William of Saxony and his Mother, Sophia of Magdeburg

Milan (Ambrosiana): Portrait of Two Children

Munich: Crucifixion (1502); Adultery; Suicide of Lucretia; Mary in a Red Dress and Green Cape, the Child on her Knee; Lot Drunk and his Two Daughters; Bust Portrait of Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon and the Elector Frederick III of Saxony; Moses and Aaron and Two Prophets; Adam and Eve under the Tree of Knowledge; Adultress before Christ; St Anne on a Bench with the Child Jesus, St Mary at her Side; Christ on the Cross between the Two Malefactors

Naples: Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery

Nuremberg: Mary and Child; Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery; Christ Mourned; Entombment; Beheading of St Catherine; Venus and Love; Portrait of Christian II of Denmark (1523); Portrait of the Margrave K. of Brandenburg; Portrait of a Young Woman; Young Girl Flattering an Old Man; Portrait of Dr Reuss (1503); St Francis Receiving the Stigmata

Nuremberg (Germanisches Nationalmus.): Luther

Oslo: Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery

Paris (Louvre): Mythological Subject; Venus in a Landscape; Two Portraits of a Man; Frederick III of Saxony

Potsdam (Schloss Sanssouci): Lucretia

Rheims: 13 sketches of heads of notable figures at the courts of Pomerania and Saxony

Rome (Gal. Colonna): Temptation of St Anthony

Schwerin: Portrait of a Man (1521)

Seattle (AM): Judgement of Paris (c. 1516-1518, oil on wood)

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Virgin under an Apple Tree; Virgin in a Bower; Venus and Love; Venus Standing (1509); Portrait of Cardinal Albert de Brandenburg; Portrait of Sibyl, Wife of the Elector of Saxony; Portrait of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony

Stockholm: Holy Virgin and the Child Jesus; Conversation about Money; Venus and Love; Bust Portrait of Hans Luther, Father of Martin; Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery; The Apostles Saying Farewell; Lucretia Committing Suicide; Feeding of the Five Thousand; Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery

Strasbourg: Crucifixion; Fall of Adam and Eve

Stuttgart (Staatsgal.)

Torgau (Church of St Mary): The Fourteen Saints

Versailles: John Frederick the Magnanimous, Duke of Saxony; Martin Luther

Vienna: St Jerome (1502); Daughter of Herodias (1539); Stag Hunt; St Jerome and St Leopold; Old Man and Young Woman; Portrait of a Man; Christ Saying Farewell to the Holy Women before His Passion; Judith (study); Judith; Adam and Eve; Portrait of Three Young Girls; Adam and Eve; Paradise; St Jerome (1502); Judith; Paradise (1530); Judith

Vienna (Akademie der Bildenden Künste): St Valentine; Lucretia (1532)

Vienna (Czernin): Adoration of the Shepherds

Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus.): Stag Hunt of the Elector Frederick the Wise

Vienna (Liechtenstein Mus.): St Helena (1525)

Vienna (Scottish Convent): Crucifixion

Weimar: Luther Dressed as a Gentleman; Holy Virgin; Prince John Frederick I in Engagement Dress (1526); Sibyl of Cleves engaged to Prince John Frederick; Fall and Redemption; Prince Elector John I; Prince Frederick III, the Wise; Prince John I; Luther in Ecclessiastical Dress with Biretta; Luther's Wife; Consequence of Jealousy; Venus and Love Chasing the Bee; Venus; Age of Silver (1526)

Weimar (Church): Allegory of Salvation

Windsor: Martin Luther

Wörlitz (Gotisches Haus): Virgin and Two Saints; Virgin Surrounded by Women; Mystical Marriage of St Catherine (1516)

Wroclaw: Portrait of a Woman; Sibyl of Cleves

Wroclaw (Cathedral): Virgin and Child

Auction Records

Paris, 1846: Portrait of Catherine de Bore, Luther's Wife, FRF 1,300

Paris, 1859: Portrait of Martin Luther (miniature) FRF 1,300

Paris, 1867: Let the Little Children Come unto Me, FRF 3,100

Paris, 1874: Christ and the Little Children, FRF 2,180

Paris, 1882: Hercules Standing, Seen from Behind, Holding a Club (pen and Indian ink) FRF 155

Paris, 1885: Frederick the Wise, FRF 6,000

Paris, 1890: Portrait of Luther, FRF 5,600

Paris, 4 June 1891: Portrait of Melanchthon, FRF 5,000

Paris, 1899: Madonna with Cake, FRF 11,250; Resting Nymph, FRF 11,437

New York, 1900: Portrait of a Gentleman, USD 1,751

Paris, 9 Nov 1900: The Christ Child and St John the Baptist, FRF 1,000

Paris, 15 June 1904: The Child Jesus Slaying a Demon, FRF 1,800

Paris, 4-7 April 1906: Virgin and the Child Jesus, FRF 2,500

Paris, 26 April 1907: Portrait of Luther, FRF 7,500

Paris, 8 May 1908: Portrait of a Man, FRF 4,260

Paris, 22-25 Nov 1909: Portrait of Wiecker Reys, FRF 12,300

Paris, 21 April 1910: Virgin and Child with Apple, FRF 6,500; The Abused Galant, FRF 5,600

Paris, 26-27 May 1919: Portrait of an Elector (on paper) FRF 13,000

Paris, 17-18 Nov 1919: Bacchanale, FRF 27,000

Paris, 29-30 April 1920: Lot and his Daughters, FRF 16,000

London, 13 April 1923: Prince George of Saxony with Martin Luther and Melanchthon, GBP 451

London, 25 March 1927: Catherine de Bore, GBP 546

London, 13 July 1928: The Adulterous Woman, GBP 1,785

London, 27 July 1928: St Christopher, GBP 1,627

Paris, 15 Nov 1928: Death of the Virgin (pen) FRF 10,000

Paris, 19 Nov 1928: Lucretia, FRF 425,000

London, 11 July 1930: Duchess of Saxony, GBP 630; Duke of Saxony, GBP 1,890

Berlin, 20 Sept 1930: Portrait of a Young Woman, DEM 43,000

London, 5 Aug 1932: A Cheerful Company, GBP 294

Paris, 19 May 1933: Portrait of Martin Luther, FRF 25,000

Paris, 22 Feb 1934: Lucretia, FRF 35,000

New York, 18-19 April 1934: Portrait of a Noble Woman, USD 1,200

London, 25 July 1934: Religious Allegory, GBP 330

Geneva, 27 Oct 1934: Portrait of Eleanora Mathilda and John the Just, CHF 4,000

London, 26 July 1935: Salome with the Head of St John the Baptist on a Platter, GBP 714

London, 9 Dec 1936: Virgin and Child, GBP 600

London, 25 Feb 1938: Hercules and the Servants of Omphale (1537) GBP 388

London, 24 June 1938: John Frederick, Elector of Saxony; Sibyl of Cleves, his Wife (painting, a pair) GBP 1,050

Amsterdam, 15 Nov 1938: Augustus of Saxony; Anna of Denmark (painting, a pair) NLG 15,800

Brussels, 6-7 Dec 1938: Portrait of a Man, BEF 125,000

London, 26 July 1939: Mary and John of Saxony (1528) GBP 620

New York, 26 Nov 1943: The Adulterous Woman before Christ, USD 2,000

New York, 20 April 1946: St Barbara and St Mary Magdalene, USD 3,000

New York, 15 May 1946: St Maurice, USD 3,700

Paris, 4 June 1951: Jewel Weigher, FRF 1,300,000

Paris, 7 June 1955: Hercules and Omphale, FRF 1,500,000

Lucerne, 1 Dec 1956: Virgin Rocking the Child Jesus, CHF 14,000

Paris, 29 Jan 1957: Portrait of Dr Johannes Scheiring, FRF 3,300,000

London, 20 March 1959: Adam and Eve, GBP 6,510

Lucerne, 30 Nov 1959: Portrait of a Bearded Man, CHF 10,000

Cologne, 26 April 1960: St Jerome, DEM 45,000

Bern, 19 May 1960: Portrait of Martin Luther, CHF 10,000

London, 22 June 1960: Portrait of Johan Bugenhagen, GBP 10,000

New York, 15 Nov 1961: Portrait of Princess Sibyl of Cleves, Electress of Saxony, USD 105,000

London, 20 March 1964: Crucifixion with the Virgin, St Mary Magdalene and St John the Evangelist, Gns 20,000

London, 24 Nov 1967: Bacchanale, Gns 15,000

Cologne, 29 Nov 1968: Virgin and Child with Strawberries, DEM 155,000

London, 26 June 1970: The Felitzsch Family (triptych) Gns 28,000

Paris, 7 March 1972: Portrait of Martin Luther; Portrait of Catherine de Bore, Martin Luther's wife (two wood) FRF 630,000

Munich, 25 Nov 1976: St John Chrysostom in Penitence (1509, engraving/copper) DEM 11,000

Vienna, 30 Nov 1976: Virgin and Child (after 1537, oil on panel, 7¾ × 6 ins/20 × 15.3 cm) ATS 900,000

Amsterdam, 9 June 1977: Virgin with Child (1516, oil on panel, 19½ × 12¾ ins/49.5 × 32.5 cm) NLG 105,000

Munich, 24 Nov 1977: St George Standing, with Two Angels (1506, engraving/wood) DEM 8,600

Paris, 23 June 1978: Venus and Love Stealing Honey (after 1537, oil on panel, 20 × 13¾ ins/51 × 35 cm) FRF 920,000

London, 6 Dec 1978: Frederick the Wise and John of Saxony (engraving/copper, 5¼ × 4¾ ins/13.4 × 11.9 cm) GBP 1,800

Munich, 29 Nov 1979: St Christopher (1506, engraving/chiaroscuro wood engraving) DEM 25,000

London, 20 Nov 1980: Second Tournament (1509, engraving/wood, 11½ × 16½ ins/29.2 × 41.8 cm) GBP 6,300

New York, 20 Jan 1983: Venus and Cupid Stealing Honey (1531, oil on panel, 20 × 13¾ ins/51 × 35 cm) USD 135,000

London, 17 June 1983: Fourth Tournament (1509, engraving/wood/watermarked paper, 11½ × 16½ ins/29.2 × 41.8 cm) GBP 4,400

Bern, 22 June 1984: Young Prince of Saxony on Horseback (1506, engraving/wood) CHF 22,000

London, 12 Dec 1984: Elector of Saxony, Frederick the Wise (oil on panel, 23¾ × 16 ins/60.5 × 40.5 cm) GBP 130,000

London, 3 April 1985: Hercules between Vice and Virtue (after 1537, oil on panel, 25 × 17¾ ins/63.5 × 45 cm) GBP 240,000

Bern, 21 June 1985: David and Abigail (1509, engraving/wood) CHF 36,000

London, 27 June 1986: Christ on the Cross between the Virgin and St John (engraving/wood/watermarked paper, 8½ × 6 ins/21.7 × 15.2 cm) GBP 43,000

London, 10 July 1987: Charity (oil on panel, 19½ × 13 ins/49.5 × 33 cm) GBP 220,000

New York, 4 Dec 1987: Holy Family (engraving/wood, 8¾ × 12¾ ins/22.2 × 32.4 cm) USD 8,500

New York, 14 Jan 1988: Portrait of a Young Woman (oil on panel, 33 × 22 ins/84 × 55 cm) USD 748,000; Lucretia (oil on panel, 22½ × 18¼ ins/57 × 46.5 cm) USD 352,000

London, 22 April 1988: St Peter (oil on panel, 10½ × 6¾ ins/26.7 × 17.2 cm) GBP 93,500

Heidelberg, 14 Oct 1988: Temptation of St Anthony (1506, woodcut, 15¾ × 11 ins/40.3 × 27.7 cm) DEM 2,600

New York, 11 Jan 1989: Lucretia (oil on panel, 33 × 22 ins/83.9 × 55.7 cm) USD 220,000

New York, 31 May 1989: Melancholy (oil on panel, 21 × 29½ ins/53.4 × 74.9 cm) USD 88,000

New York, 1 June 1989: Lucretia (oil on panel, 22¼ × 15 ins/56.4 × 38 cm) USD 715,000

London, 6 July 1990: Portrait of the Prince Elector John of Saxony, the Wise, Wearing a Black Coat and a Black Hat Decorated with Pearls and Plumes; Portrait of his Son, John Frederick of Saxony, the Brave, Wearing a Green and Red Doublet, a Gold Necklace and a Large Hat Ornamented with Ostrich Plumes (oil on panel, diptych, each 16¼ × 12¼ ins/41.3 × 31 cm) GBP 4,840,000

London, 24 May 1991: Charity (oil on panel, 19½ × 13 ins/49.5 × 33 cm) GBP 286,000

Monaco, 22 June 1991: Adoration of the Shepherds (oil on panel, 6 × 8 ins/15 × 20.2 cm) FRF 1,332,000

London, 11 Dec 1991: Portrait of a Man in a Red Beret (oil on paper, 9¾ × 7¾ ins/25 × 19.5 cm) GBP 187,000

London, 15 April 1992: Portrait of Young Woman, Seated and Wearing an Orange and Red Dress and a Large Hat, and Holding a Flower (oil on panel, 33¾ × 22 ins/86 × 55.6 cm) GBP 460,000

London, 8 July 1992: Personification of Justice as a Woman (1537, oil on panel, 29¼ × 20½ ins/74 × 52 cm) GBP 385,000

Heidelberg, 9 Oct 1992: Holy Family (woodcut, 9 × 12¾ ins/22.7 × 32.3 cm) DEM 1,400

London, 20 May 1993: Lucretia (1525, oil on panel, 22¼ × 15½ ins/56.5 × 39.3 cm) GBP 309,500

London, 8 July 1994: St Jerome Writing in a Rocky Landscape (oil on canvas/panel, 26¾ × 23 ins/68 × 57.5 cm) GBP 331,500

New York, 11 Jan 1995: Portrait of the Elector John Frederick of Saxony, the Magnanimous (oil on panel, 8¼ × 6 ins/20.8 × 15 cm) USD 27,600

New York, 12 Jan 1995: Child Jesus Blessing St John the Baptist Kneeling (1534, oil on panel, 13¾ × 9¼ ins/35.2 × 23.2 cm) USD 178,500; Venus and Cupid or the Theft of Honey (oil on panel, 19¼ × 13 ins/48.9 × 33 cm) USD 398,500

London, 3 July 1996: Adam and Eve (oil on panel, 34¼ × 23¼ ins/87 × 59 cm) GBP 463,500

London, 11 Dec 1996: Judgement of Paris (oil on panel, 17 × 12¾ ins/43 × 32.2 cm) GBP 1,981,500

New York, 31 Jan 1997: Bust Portrait of Sibyl of Cleves, Electress of Saxony (oil on canvas, 22½ × 15¼ ins/57 × 39 cm) USD 530,500

New York, 29 Jan 1998: Ill-Matched Lovers (oil on panel, 15¼ × 10½ ins/38.7 × 26.7 cm) USD 420,500

Zurich, 29 April 1999: The Third Tournament (1509, woodcut, 11 × 17 ins/29 × 42 cm) CHF 15,000

London, 7 July 1999: Madonna and Child (1536, oil on panel, 23 × 15 ins/58 × 37 cm) GBP 16,000

London, 6 July 2000: Portrait of a Young Lady Wearing a Red and Orange Dress and Wide Brimmed Plumed Hat (oil on panel, 34 × 22 ins/86 × 55 cm) GBP 1,150,000

Paris, 4 Dec 2000: Venus with Cupid Stealing Honey (oil on panel, 20 × 14 ins/52 × 36 cm) FRF 17,200,000

Vendome, 10 June 2001: Venus and Cupid Stealing Honey (1532, oil on panel, 20 × 15 ins/52 × 37 cm) FRF 14,500,000

London, 13 Dec 2001: Phyllis and Aristotle (1530, oil on panel, 22 × 15 ins/57 × 38 cm) GBP 1,400,000

Berlin, 29 Nov 2002: Luther as an Augustinian Friar with Doctoral Cap (copperplate, 8 × 6 ins/20 × 14 cm) EUR 32,000

Stuttgart, 5 Dec 2002: Hercules and Antaeus (oil on panel, 10 × 7 ins/26 × 17 cm) EUR 300,000

Vienna, 27 March 2003: Portrait of Princess Margaret of Saxony (oil on panel, 19 × 13 ins/48 × 32 cm) EUR 260,000

Vienna, 1 Oct 2003: Portraits of Duke John II of Anhalt and Duke Joachim of Anhalt (1532, oil on panel, two, 20 × 14 ins/52 × 36 cm) EUR 220,000

London, 7 July 2004: Head of Christ Crowned with Thorns (oil on panel, 11 × 8 ins/27 × 21 cm) GBP 600,000

London, 7 July 2004: Lot and his Daughters (oil on panel, 22 × 15 ins/56 × 39 cm) GBP 870,000


  • Einleitung, Johannes Jahn: Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 1472-1553. Das Gesamte graphische Werk, Manfred Pawlak, Herrsching, 1972.
  • Pope, M.: Woodcuts by Lucas Cranach the Elder and his Workshop, dissertation, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1978.
  • Friedländer, Max J./Rosenberg, Jakob: Die Gemälde von Lucas Cranach, Birkhäuser, Basel, 1979.
  • Christensen, C.: Art and the Reformation in Germany, Ohio University Press, Athens (OH), 1979.
  • Bax, Dirk: Hieronymus Bosch and Lucas Cranach: Two Last Judgement Triptychs, description and exposition, Noth-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1983.
  • Carter, M.: ‘Lucas Cranach's Women: A Speculative Essay’ in Austral. J. A., 1989-90.
  • Groll, Karin: Das 'Passional Christi und Antichristi' von Lucas Cranach der Ältere, Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 1991.
  • Grimm, Claus, et al.: Lucas Cranach: ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken, exhibition catalogue, Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig, Haus der Bayerschen Geschichte, Augsburg, 1994.
  • Tacke, Andreas/Braun, Caroline: Cranach: Meisterwerke auf Vorrat: die Erlanger Handzeichnungen der Universitätsbibliothek, exhibition catalogue, Staatliche Galerie Moritzburg, Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, 1994.
  • Kunz, A.: ‘Cranach as Cartographer: The Rediscovered Map of the Holy Land’ in Prt. Q. 12/ii, 1995.
  • Stepanov, Alexander: ‘Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1472-1553’ in coll. Great Painters, Parkstone, Bournemouth, 1997.
  • Sandner, Ingo: Unsichtbare Meisterzeichnungen auf dem Malgrund: Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen, exhibition catalogue, Wartburg, Eisenach, Schnell und Steiner, Regensburg, 1998.
  • Strehle, Jutta/Kunz, Armin: Druckgraphiken Lucas Cranachs der Ältere: im Diens von Macht und Glauben, exhibition catalogue, Lutherhalle, Wittenberg, 1998.
  • Cranach, exhibition catalogue, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, 2002 (text in Danish and English).
  • Heydenreich, Gunnar: Lucas Cranach the Elder: Painting Materials, Techniques and Workshop Practice, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2007.