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Article

Gordon Campbell

English family of furniture designers and artist-craftsmen. Ernest (1863–1926) and his brother Sidney (1865–1926) worked with Ernest Gimson in the design and construction of furniture in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Sidney’s son Edward (1900–87) carried on the business at a shop established in Froxfield (Petersfield, Hants) in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

(b London, Oct 17, 1854; d Manorbier, Dyfed, July 5, 1924).

English designer. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford, and in 1877 he was articled to the architect Basil Champneys. Encouraged by William Morris, in 1880 Benson set up his own workshop in Hammersmith specializing in metalwork. Two years later he established a foundry at Chiswick, a showroom in Kensington and a new factory at Hammersmith (all in London), equipped with machinery to mass-produce a wide range of forms, such as kettles, vases, tables, dishes and firescreens. Benson’s elegant and spare designs were admired for their modernity and minimal use of ornament. He is best known for his lamps and lighting fixtures, mostly in copper and bronze, which are fitted with flat reflective surfaces (e.g. c. 1890; London, V&A). These items were displayed in S. Bing’s Maison de l’Art Nouveau, Paris, and were used in the Morris & Co. interiors at Wightwick Manor, W. Midlands (NT), and Standen, East Grinstead, W. Sussex. Many of Benson’s designs were patented, including those for jacketed vessels, which keep hot or cold liquids at a constant temperature, and for a ‘Colander’ teapot with a button mechanism for raising the tea leaves after the tea has infused. Benson sold his designs, labelled ‘Art Metal’, through his showroom on Bond Street, which opened in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1863, in Rolle (Vaud); died 1948, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Murals, designs for stained glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Ernest Bieler was the uncle of André Charles Bieler. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. He divided his time between the mountainous regions of the Valais and the shores of Lake Geneva; his body of work evokes the everyday life of the peasant communities in the Valais and the Canton of Vaud at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bieler was commissioned to paint compositions for the ceiling of the Victoria hall in Geneva; decorative panels and windows for the federal government building in Bern; stained glass windows for the Vevey church of St-Martin; and decorations for the vintners' festival. Additionally, he exhibited woodcut engravings and designed furniture....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 September 1848, near Schaffhausen.

Draughtsman.

Jakob Billeter was a businessman until 1882, when he decided to study art at the college of industrial design in Winterthur and subsequently in Munich. He taught at the college of industrial design in Basel in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in 1902 in Rome.

Born 20 August 1857, in Ebnat (Toggenburg).

Sculptor.

August Bösch served an apprenticeship as a stonemason before enrolling at the industrial arts college in Munich (1875-1877) and then at Munich academy; he moved to Paris in ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Fareins, Ain, April 1, 1828; d Paris, 1906).

French photographer, caricaturist, and writer. He was trained as an industrial designer, then, like Nadar, he embarked on a career as a caricaturist. He was passionately fond of the theatre and published a series of lithographs, Le Théâtre à la ville, in Paris in 1854. He founded literary reviews, among which was Le Boulevard (1861), which established his reputation. After an apprenticeship in 1858 with Pierre Petit, he began to photograph artistic, literary, and political personalities with whom he was associated politically, including the composer Gioacchino Rossini (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.) and Emile Zola (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He also photographed actors, including Sarah Bernhardt and the mime artist Charles Deburau on stage. Some friends, including Gustave Courbet (e.g. pubd 1878; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), were the object of a series of photographs. He was also the accredited photographer of ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1940.

Born 4 August 1883, in Bordeaux; died 24 August 1950, in New York.

Decorative artist, architect, designer, draughtsman. Furniture.

Art Deco.

Pierre Chareau worked in France until 1939, then went to live in New York. He regularly participated in the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs in Paris. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

English school of furniture design. In 1892 Ernest Gimson and Ernest and Sidney Barnsley moved from London to the Cotswolds, where they made such Arts and Crafts furniture as rush-seated, ladder-backed chairs, plain oak pieces and more elaborate inlaid cabinets. They were joined in 1902 by C(harles) R(obert) Ashbee, who moved the workshops of the Guild of Handicraft to Chipping Campden, Glos. In ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 January 1854, in Venarcy; died 26 September 1945, in Dijon.

Sculptor, furniture designer, jeweller. Busts, statues, groups.

Jean Auguste Dampt studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon, and then under Jouffroy and Dubois at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris....

Article

(b Venarcy, Côte-d’Or, Jan 2, 1854; d Dijon, Sept 26, 1945).

French sculptor, jeweller and furniture designer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon and then, in 1874, under François Jouffroy and Paul Dubois (ii) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He first exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français in 1876 with his bust of an architect called Belot (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) and in 1877 he came second in the Prix de Rome. In 1879 he was awarded a second-class medal for his plaster sculpture Ismael (Châlons-sur-Marne, Mus. Mun.) and in 1881 he won a first-class medal for the marble St John the Baptist (Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). He travelled in Italy from 1882 to 1883 and later visited Spain and Morocco on a travel scholarship. In 1889 he ceased exhibiting at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français and instead exhibited at the recently established Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He worked primarily in bronze but also in ivory, silver and gold, and produced some jewellery. His sculptures were mainly inspired by religious and mythological subjects executed in a highly finished academic style (e.g. ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Graphic designer, poster artist.

Verny L. Danvers ran a school of commercial art and worked with the fashion and interior design industries. He designed posters for the London Underground Group and London County Council Tramways from 1922 to 1929. He also produced posters for the North Eastern Railway....

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1868, in Oberspaar, near Meissen (Saxony).

Sculptor, modeller (porcelain). Genre scenes.

Eichler worked at the Meissen porcelain factory before attending the industrial art and design school and the art academy in Dresden. From 1899 onwards he showcased his works at fine arts and decorative arts exhibitions in Dresden, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Hanover and elsewhere....

Article

Liana Paredes-Arend

(b 1862; d 1933).

French designer. He was a barrister by profession, and his legal training is perhaps reflected in his furniture designs, which are solid in construction, each part being carefully conceived to relate to the whole. He published his theories about avant-garde furniture and became established as an advocate of the modern school. Although known almost exclusively for his furniture, he also designed a wide range of objects and decorative schemes in an elegant Art Nouveau style.

Early in his career Gaillard collaborated in S. Bing’s fashionable Art Nouveau shop in Paris. Together with Georges de Feure and Edouard Colonna he created interiors and furniture for Bing’s pavilion, Art Nouveau Bing (destr.), at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris. Under Bing’s direction these artists carried out an aesthetic programme that laid claim to ‘the old French tradition’ infused with ‘a lively spirit of modernity’. Gaillard was responsible for three rooms in the pavilion: the vestibule, dining-room and bedroom. French precedents, especially elements from the Rococo style, were freely used as a source of inspiration. In the vestibule Gaillard installed a mosaic floor, bold pink draperies and a stencilled frieze that effectively set off a walnut portemanteau with mirrored back and shelves. The dining-room was furnished in walnut, ornamented with scrolled foliage and panelled wainscot, beneath a mural painted by the Spanish artist ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 January 1869, in Fürstenfeldbruck, near Munich; died 5 October 1934, in Dresden.

Sculptor, decorative designer, draughtsman. Designs (furniture, porcelain, jewels).

Karl Gross studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1885 to 1888, then completed his training under the supervision of Fritz von Miller. In ...