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Article

Jan Minchin

(Vladimir Jossif)

(b Vienna, Oct 13, 1920).

Israeli painter of Austrian birth, active in Australia. He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in 1937. Poor, and with little English, his struggle to paint went hand-in-hand with a struggle to survive. In 1939 he attended the National Gallery of Victoria’s art school and came into contact with a group of young artists including Victor O’Connor (b 1918) and Noel Counihan, who were greatly influenced by Bergner’s haunting images of refugees, hard-pressed workers and the unemployed, for example The Pumpkin-eaters (c. 1940; Canberra, N.G.). Executed in an expressionist mode using a low-toned palette, they were among the first social realist pictures done in Australia.

In 1941...

Article

Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Peter Booth passed from Abstract-Minimal painting to a violent Expressionism in 1977, at which time he realised his first Figurative painting. His works frequently depict human misfortunes and torments, in chaotic compositions tinged with religious sentiments....

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Tavria or Kershon; died 1917, in Thessalonica.

Painter, illustrator.

Symbolism, Futurism.

Groups: Golubaya Roza (Blue Rose), Bubnovy Valet (Jack of Diamonds), Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider).

Vladimir Davidovich Burlyuk was the brother of David Burlyuk. He studied in Odessa and married the sister of the painter Lentulov. Along with his brother, he collaborated on the most important projects of the Russian avant-garde, including with the group ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, female.

Born 1894.

Painter, watercolourist.

The wife of the painter and illustrator Hugo Mund, Gizella Dömötör studied in Nagybanya. She painted in an Expressionist style between 1916 and 1918 and published Cubist drawings in 1917. She took part in collective exhibitions in Marosvásárhely (...

Article

Ursula Zeller

[Georg]

(b Berlin, July 26, 1893; d W. Berlin, July 6, 1959).

German painter, draughtsman, and illustrator. He is particularly valued for his caustic caricatures, in which he used the reed pen with notable success. Although his paintings are not quite as significant as his graphic art, a number of them are, nonetheless, major works. He grew up in the provincial town of Stolp, Pomerania (now Słupsk, Poland), where he attended the Oberrealschule, until he was expelled for disobedience. From 1909 to 1911 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Dresden, where he met Kurt Günther, Bernhard Kretschmar (1889–1972) and Franz Lenk (1898–1968). Under his teacher Richard Müller (1874–1954), Grosz painted and drew from plaster casts. At this time he was unaware of such avant-garde movements as Die Brücke, also active in Dresden. In 1912 he studied with Emil Orlik at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin. A year later he moved to the Académie Colarossi in Paris, where he learnt a free drawing style that swiftly reached the essence of a motif....

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Pardubice.

Painter, illustrator, engraver.

Jaroslav Grus studied with H. Schwaigra at the academy of arts in Prague. A figurative painter influenced by the Fauvist and Expressionist movements in Central Europe, he also executed engravings and illustrated books. He participated in numerous exhibitions of Czech painting....

Article

Czechoslovak, 20th century, male.

Born 22 October 1919, in Svedernik.

Painter, illustrator. Figures, animals.

Vincent Hloznik studied in Prague from 1937 to 1942 before settling in Bratislava. His work remains within that Expressionist tradition still very much alive in Central Europe, and is characterised by the inclusion of references to primitive art. Figures of humans and animals are used to convey the anguish of existence in an art that angrily expresses the painter's reaction to the oppressive regime set up after the defeat of Dubcek in ...

Article

(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...

Article

Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1961.

Painter, draughtsman, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Artists' books.

Benoît Lemoine graduated from the École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1983. Initially Expressionist and Kinetic, his work developed into a form of Gestural Abstraction, consisting of signs and writings. His canvases are often painted on slightly eccentric cross-shaped stretchers and composed of canvases that have been assembled or placed close together. He has illustrated many books, such as ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 14 February 1930, in Radebeul.

Painter, illustrator.

Expressionism, fantasy and popular tradition are bizarrely mixed in his descriptive art where the humorous and tragic coalesce. He is predominantly an illustrator.

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 4 May 1895, in Szolnok.

Painter, illustrator.

Szenes painted portraits which, while giving the impression of a desire not to misrepresent the likeness, were not related to the works of Germanic Expressionism. Also a cartoonist, Szenes worked on the periodicals ...

Article

Slovene, 20th century, male.

Born 11 June 1881, in Potok; died 1957.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Fran Tratnik studied at the Prague and Berlin Academies. He was one of the leading lights in Slovene Expressionism and contributed to a variety of illustrated magazines. He lived and worked in Ljubljana....

Article

Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...