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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 December 1937, in Paris.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Stage costumes and sets.

Jacques Bazin began painting when still at school. Initially influenced by Cubism, he soon discovered Surrealism and was a friend of Dalí for some 20 years. He began exhibiting work in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1904, in France.

Painter. Landscapes.

Blech was attracted by Braque's Cubism, then by the Surrealism of Max Ernst, Miró and Tanguy. He painted landscapes shortly before 1940.

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Edward Bowen was the pupil of Paul Nash. Due to his association with Nash he came under the combined influences of Cubism and Surrealism. He took part in the Exposition des Peintres et Sculpteurs Anglais Contemporains (Exhibition of Contemporary English Painters and Sculptors), organised in Paris in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1 May 1940, in Nantes.

Painter.

A self-taught artist, Maurice Cadou-Rocher was first influenced by Cubism and then by Surrealism. In his transparencies of glue and water, forms arise from stains - the familiar monsters of nightmares, sometimes merely embryonic, sometimes relatively clear....

Article

Francis M. Naumann

(b Blainville, Normandy, July 28, 1887; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Oct 2, 1968).

French painter, sculptor and writer, active also in the USA. The art and ideas of Duchamp, perhaps more than those of any other 20th-century artist, have served to exemplify the range of possibilities inherent in a more conceptual approach to the art-making process. Not only is his work of historical importance—from his early experiments with Cubism to his association with Dada and Surrealism—but his conception of the ready-made decisively altered our understanding of what constitutes an object of art. Duchamp refused to accept the standards and practices of an established art system, conventions that were considered essential to attain fame and financial success: he refused to repeat himself, to develop a recognizable style or to show his work regularly. It is the more theoretical aspects implicit to both his art and life that have had the most profound impact on artists later in the century, allowing us to identify Duchamp as one of the most influential artists of the modern era....

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1955, in Madrid.

Painter.

Carlos Forns Bada's painting displays a Cubist influence and, above all, a Surrealist influence, and also recalls certain works by Dalí and Chirico. He has taken part in numerous group exhibitions, including: in 1977, the ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Cuba.

Painter.

Julio Herrera-Zapata's work shows the legacy of Cubism and Surrealism; he can be described as a metaphysical realist. Around 1973 his style changed and he began to combine on the same canvas elements of almost photographic realism with other more blurred elements, as if depicting movement....

Article

Marianne Heinz

[François] (Marie Martínez)

(b Paris, Jan 22, 1879; d Paris, Nov 30, 1953).

French painter and writer. He was one of the major figures of the Dada movement in France and in the USA but remained as stubbornly uncategorizable as he was influential. In his rejection of consistency and of an identifiable manner, he called into question attitudes to the artistic process that had been regarded as sacrosanct and in so doing guaranteed the intellectual force of his ideas for subsequent generations of artists.

After attending the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris on an irregular basis from 1895 to 1897, he was able to begin his career as a painter thanks to a substantial inheritance from his mother. He gained early recognition with Impressionist-influenced landscapes and townscapes depicting resorts near Paris such as Villeneuve-sur-Yonne and Moret-sur-Loing, for example Banks of the Loing (1905; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.). These paintings, which he exhibited in Paris at the official salons and in commercial galleries, were particularly close to the work of Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley; in spite of their sometimes mediocre quality they sold easily because of the ready market for this kind of work....

Article

Melissa McQuillan

(b Málaga, Oct 25, 1881; d Mougins, France, April 8, 1973).

Spanish painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist and writer, active in France. He dominated 20th-century European art and was central in the development of the image of the modern artist. Episodes of his life were recounted in intimate detail, his comments on art were published and his working methods recorded on film. Painting was his principal medium, but his sculptures, prints, theatre designs and ceramics all had an impact on their respective disciplines. Even artists not influenced by the style or appearance of his work had to come to terms with its implications.

With Georges Braque Picasso was responsible for Cubism, one of the most radical re-structurings of the way that a work of art constructs its meaning. During his extremely long life Picasso instigated or responded to most of the artistic dialogues taking place in Europe and North America, registering and transforming the developments that he found most fertile. His marketability as a unique and enormously productive artistic personality, together with the distinctiveness of his work and practice, have made him the most extensively exhibited and discussed artist of the 20th century....

Article

(María Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la)

(b Guanajuato, Dec 13, 1886; d Mexico City, Nov 24, 1957).

Mexican painter and draughtsman. He was one of the most important figures in the Mexican mural movement and won international acclaim for his vast public wall paintings, in which he created a new iconography based on socialist ideas and exalted the indigenous and popular heritage in Mexican culture. He also executed large quantities of easel paintings and graphic work.

Rivera’s artistic precocity was recognized by his parents, both of whom were teachers. He was drawing at two, taking art courses at nine and enrolled at the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City at eleven. There the quality of his work, especially his landscape painting, earned him a scholarship at fifteen and a government pension at eighteen. At nineteen he was awarded a travel grant to Europe, and in 1907 he went to Spain, settling in Paris two years later. In November 1910 he returned to Mexico for an exhibition of his work at the Academia, which was part of the Mexican Centennial of Independence celebrations. The Mexican Revolution began the day the exhibition opened, and Rivera returned to Paris early in ...