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Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in Baku.

Painter. Genre scenes, portraits.

Trained at the school of fine art in Moscow by the determined proponent of Socialist Realism Sergei Gerassimov, Mikhail Abdullaiev became one of the official painters of the Stalin and Brezhnev regimes, providing portraits and historic scenes in a style inherited from 19th-century academicism. His paintings were displayed in official exhibitions across the USSR. He taught in Baku....

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 25 July 1922, in Riga, Latvia; died 1 March 1983, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter and theorist. Historical, still-life, cartographic, environmental, and abstract subjects.

Ojārs Ābols distinguished himself in later years by transcending political orthodoxy and stylistic parochialism in his own work and by enabling colleagues and younger artists to do likewise. His studies began under modernist Romans Suta at Riga’s Second Gymnasium ...

Article

Afrika  

Russian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born c. 1960, in Novorossick.

Painter.

Sots Art.

Afrika belongs to the generation that had begun to find its feet during the liberalisation enjoyed under the Gorbachev regime. 'Sots Art' is the relative Russian parallel to the American-European Pop Art movement. The young Russian artists preserved the iconic subject matter of official Stalinist art, yet stripped it of its meanings in order to use it as a purely three-dimensional element....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1911, in Clermont-Ferrand; died 18 June 1989, in Rochefort-Montagne.

Painter. Figure compositions.

Socialist Realism.

He exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1930 onwards, the Salon des Indépendants from 1935, and the Salon d'Automne from 1942...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1882; died 1938.

Painter. History painting.

Socialist Realism.

Avilov was a professor at the I.Repin institute in Leningrad. His Stalin Inspecting the Cavalry is at the Central House of the Soviet Army.

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Berdiansk; died 1989.

Painter. History painting, portraits.

Socialist Realism.

Piotr Petrovich Belousov settled in Leningrad (now St Petersburg) in 1929 attending the I.Repin institute from 1934 to 1939. He is known as one of the finest portraitists of Lenin. The official channels continued to offer him solo exhibitions, even during the breakdown of the constraints of Social Realism as an ideological vehicle for the Party. Solo exhibitions of his work were held in ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 1906.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes.

Socialist Realism.

Jeno Benedek trained between 1927 and 1936. He had several solo exhibitions and became a professor at the fine arts school and the school of decorative arts.

Budapest (Magyar Nemzeti Gal.)

Article

Ukrainian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Kiev; died 2000.

Painter. Scenes with figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Max Birstein studied at the institute of arts in Moscow with Sergei Gerasimov. A socialist realist to begin with, he then changed style, moving towards a Post-Impressionism along the lines of his elders, Robert Falk and Atychler. Birstein mounted many collective and solo exhibitions since ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1895, in Nizhniy Novgorod; died 1959, in Moscow.

Painter. Figures, portraits, scenes with figures.

Socialist Realism.

AKhRR (Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia).

Having studied at the Moscow institute and at the Higher Artistic and Technical Studios, Fedor Semienovich Bogorodsky depicted the Soviet people - peasants, workmen, soldiers of the Red Army - in naturalist compositions. He took part in exhibitions organised by the Union of Revolutionary Russian Artists. In ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1911; died 1985.

Painter. Figures, urban landscapes, flowers.

Pavel Boronkin studied at the Ilya Repin Institute in Leningrad (now St Petersburg) and painted conventional subjects, marked by socialist realism; he has exhibited from 1950.

Moscow (State Tretyakov Gal.)

St Petersburg (Gosudarstvennyj Russkij Muz.)...

Article

V. Rakitin

(Izrailevich)

(b Sofiyevka, nr Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, Jan 6, 1884; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Aug 14, 1939).

Russian painter, graphic artist and collector, of Ukrainian birth. He studied at the School of Art in Odessa (1896–1902) under Kiriak Kostandi (1852–1921) and at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg (1902–8) under Il’ya Repin, who remained an important influence throughout his life. During the revolutionary years 1905 to 1907 Brodsky became famous as a political caricaturist and for his painting Red Funeral: The Funeral of the Victims of the Armed Attack on the Peaceful Demonstration in St Petersburg on 9 Jan 1905 (1906; St Petersburg, Acad. A., Mus.). From 1909 to 1911 he worked in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Austria on a scholarship from the Academy. Brodsky’s landscapes and portraits of the period are generally traditional and academic in style.

In 1917 Brodsky drew a series of portraits of the members of the Provisional Government and in 1919 received first prize in the ‘Great Russian Revolution’ competition for his painting ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Also active in France.

Born 5 September 1933, in Sverdlovsk or according to some sources in Saratov.

Painter. Figure compositions.

Sots Art.

Erik Vladimir Bulatov has lived in Moscow since a very young age; a pupil of Petr Dmitrievich Pokarzhevsky from 1952 to 1958...

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 23 March 1887, in Hronov nad Metuji; died March 1945, in Bergen-Belsen, Germany, in the concentration camp.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures. Stage sets.

Socialist Realism.

Groups: Mánes, Skupina Vytvarnych Umelcu (Group of Plastic Artists).

Josef Capek was the brother of the playright Karel Capek, the author of ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Omsk; died 1968, in Moscow.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

Socialist Realism.

Nikita Chebakov studied under L. Piminov at the Moscow School of Fine Arts, graduating in 1948, and had his first exhibition in the same year. He was one of the brigade painters under Boris Ioganson who painted ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, female.

Born 1916; died 2002.

Painter, draughtswoman. Nudes.

Tamara Chilovskaia worked in the workshop of her father, a Stalinist architect. The Galerie Patrick Frémeaux in Vincennes posthumously presented an exhibition of her drawings, Forbidden Nudes in 2004. Drawing of nudes was effectively prohibited by the Soviet regime. In these drawings, the artist gives free rein to a fluid, sensual stroke inherited from the Constructivism of Matisse's 1930s....

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in Bulgaria.

Painter. Figure compositions, still-lifes.

Socialist Realism.

Spiru Chintilla studied at the institute of fine arts in Bucharest, and then travelled around Eastern Europe. In keeping with Socialist Realism, he often depicted scenes celebrating the lives of workers; he also painted several still-lifes. In ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1899, in Kursk; died 1969, in Moscow.

Painter, illustrator, decorative artist, engraver. Figure compositions.

Socialist Realism.

Association of Easel Painters (OST).

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Deineka studied at the Kharkov art college, and also with Vladimir Favorsky and Ignati Nivinksy at the Vkhutemas institute (Higher Artistic and Technical Studios) in Moscow. He was a founding member of OST, the Society of Easel Painters, where young painters aimed to reflect the contemporary revolutionary process in their works. They used strong images with striking graphic lines, and contributed to the rise of easel painting, monumental art, illustration and the production of theatre décors. In 1928, he was a professor in the lithograph department in the graphic arts faculty of the Vkhutein and in the same year he painted a large canvas entitled ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Moscow; died after 1932.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist. Figure compositions.

Socialist Realism.

Groups: Soiuz Molodezhi (Union of Youth), Association of Easel Painters (OST).

From 1911 to 1917, Nikolai Fedorovich Denisovsky was a pupil at the Stroganov school of art and industry, and of Georgiy Yakulov at the Vkhutemas in Moscow from ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1908, in Louvain.

Painter.

Socialist Realism.

Devroey studied at the academies in Louvain and Brussels. He worked in accordance with his political convictions. He executed numerous sketches during his travels to countries formerly of the Eastern Bloc.

Article

David Elliott

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Kursk, May 21, 1899; d Moscow, June 5, 1969).

Russian painter, graphic artist and designer. He studied at the Khar’kov Art School (1915–17), breaking off his studies to join the Red Army. By 1919 he had returned to Kursk, where he was designing the stencilled propaganda ROSTA posters that spread throughout the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic following Mayakovsky’s original examples (see Agitprop). In 1921 he moved to Moscow and studied under Vladimir Favorsky at Vkhutemas (the Higher Artistic and Technical Workshops) until 1925. While still a student he worked on illustrations and designs for a number of new magazines such as Bezbozhnik (‘The Atheist’) or Prozhektor (‘Searchlight’).

In the mid-1920s Deyneka started to make easel paintings and became a leading member of the Society of Easel Painters (OST), which reflected advanced tendencies in representational painting rather than the literalism of the Wanderers. His major paintings of the period are The Defence of Petrograd (...