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Article

(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, March 4, 1615).

German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.

Hans’s surname is derived from his father’s native town. According to Karel van Mander, he probably studied c. 1567–73 with the portrait painter Georg Jerrigh, who had trained in Antwerp. Von Aachen subsequently became a member of the Cologne guild of painters. He travelled to Italy c. 1574, first working in Venice as a copyist and for the painter Gaspar Rem (1542–1615/17), before going in 1575 to Rome, where he copied antique sculptures and the works of Italian masters; he also painted an Adoration of the Shepherds for the church of Il Gesù in Rome (1580s; untraced, but known from an engraving (...

Article

Finnish, 20th century, male.

Born 3 February 1898, in Kuortane; died 11 May 1976, in Helsinki.

Architect, designer, painter, draughtsman, watercolourist. Figures, landscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, still-lifes. Models (furniture/glass).

Alvar Aalto was adamant that his experience as a painter was an indispensable adjunct to his profession as an architect, noting repeatedly that modern architecture had its roots in painting. As an architecture student, he took private lessons with the Finnish painter Eero Järnefelt. He moved in artistic circles and was frequently to be found in the company of the sculptor Wäinö Altonen and the painters Henry Ericsson and Eemu Myntti. For a period, he also worked as an art critic....

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, March 15, 1894; d Budapest, Sept 29, 1941).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He trained as a drawing teacher at the College of Fine Arts, Budapest (1912–14). In 1913 he worked at the Szolnok colony and he served in World War I. He taught drawing for a while at the Technical University, Budapest. In 1922 he learnt etching from Viktor Olgyay at the College of Fine Arts. His early works show an affinity with the Group of Eight; later he moved closer to the work of the Activists, especially József Nemes Lampérth and Béla Uitz. He instinctively sought a dynamic and powerful form of expression. His pen-drawings and etchings are frequently based on biblical subjects and are characterized by a heroic conception, an illusory atmosphere and romantic associations. The etching Savonarola (1925; Budapest, N.G.) reveals his extraordinary compositional abilities, especially in the rendering of crowds, and his use of strong chiaroscuro. His landscapes are dominated by carefully composed, naturalist details and the exploitation of the dramatic effect of reflections. In his drawings, Cubist arrangements gradually gave way to a more diffuse composition. His nudes in the landscape (e.g. ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active at the end of the 16th and at the beginning of the 17th centuries.

Born in Rome.

Painter.

Son of the line engraver Mario dell'Abacco, and grandson of the architect Antonio dell'Abacco, Antonio di Mario dell'Abacco's work is not known but his name appears, followed by the title of painter, in records of ...

Article

Dorigen Caldwell

[Abbate, Niccolò dell’]

(b Modena, 1509–12; d ?Fontainebleau, 1571).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was one of the most important artists of the first Fontainebleau school, which was developed at the French court by Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio, and he introduced the Italian Mannerist landscape into France.

He was almost certainly trained by his father, Giovanni dell’Abate (d 1559), a stuccoist, and by the sculptor Antonio Begarelli. Apparently after a period as a soldier, by 1537 he was working in Modena as a painter under Alberto Fontana (fl 1518–58). There the two artists decorated the façade of the Beccherie (Slaughterhouse) from which certain paintings survive (e.g. St Geminian and an allegory of the Wine Harvest; both Modena, Galleria e Museo Estense). His early paintings clearly show the influence of Correggio and of such Ferrarese artists as Dosso Dossi. They also display a love of the picturesque and the pastoral, with frequent variations on the theme of the concert, as in the fragment of a concert scene (Reggio Emilia, Mus. Civ. & Gal. A.) from the façade decorations of the Palazzo Pratonieri in Reggio Emilia. Around ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1836, in Naples; died 1868, in Florence.

Painter. Genre scenes, portraits, church interiors, architectural views, landscapes, seascapes.

Macchiaioli Group.

Giuseppe Abbati was one of the interesting figures of the new Italian School. He trained under his father Vincenzo Abatti, a Neapolitan painter. He then went to work at the school of fine arts in Venice. In ...

Article

Jeanne-Marie Horat-Weber

(b Winterthur, Nov 14, 1723; d Berne, Oct 17, 1786).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and engraver. In 1741 he moved to Berne, where he took drawing lessons with Johann Grimm (1675–1747), whose school of drawing he took over in 1747. He visited the Bernese Oberland with Emanuel Handmann, Christian Georg Schütz (1718–91) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt (1721–72) in 1759 and in the same year travelled to Paris with Adrian Zingg (1734–86). This was his only trip abroad, but it determined him to work exclusively as a landscape painter. After nine months he returned to Berne, where his landscape views became popular, particularly with foreign travellers, enamoured of ‘Nature’ and keen to retain souvenirs of their travels. He was one of the first artists to portray the beauties of the Swiss countryside; his favourite subjects were the Aare Valley and views of Swiss lakes (e.g. View of Erlach on the Lake of Biel; Berne, Kstmus.). He invented a technique known as the ...

Article

Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

Article

C. J. A. Wansink

In 

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1790, in Doncaster; died 1845.

Draughtsman, architect. Architectural interiors.

Frederick Abraham exhibited at London's Royal Academy in 1833 and 1834.

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active in London between 1827 and 1840.

Painter. Architectural views.

Henry Robert Abraham specialised in architectural subjects; he exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 19th century, active in London between 1819 and 1840.

Painter. Architectural views.

School of London.

Robert Abraham exhibited architecture-based compositions at the Royal Academy.

Article

Portuguese, 18th century, male.

Active in Lisbon at the beginning of the 18th century.

Died 1738, in Lisbon.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Abreu's works in Lisbon include the ceilings of the Menino de Deus church and the vestibule of the church of Nossa Senhora da Graça....

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Active still in 1810.

Born 1757, in Mompelgard.

Draughtsman, architect.

He furnished proof of remarkable aptitude for drawing while very young, such that at 14 he was enrolled for the academy of fine arts in Stuttgart. He was a brilliant student, and on ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 September 1881, in Mulhouse.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator. Landscapes, architectural views.

Achener had a full training, first at the École des Beaux-Arts in Strasbourg, then in Munich in the studios of the engraver Peter Halm and the painter Ludwig von Loefftz. He was also a pupil of Jean-Paul Laurens in Paris....

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Naplesc.1640.

Painter. Architectural views. Decorative schemes.

Neapolitan School.

Reputed as a skilful decorator and architectural painter, Acquarelli worked predominantly in church, palazzo and theatre decoration, frequently in co-operation with Scoppa.

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1780, in Rome; died 1847, in Rome.

Draughtsman, engraver (line-engraving). Urban landscapes, architectural views, ruins.

Under the name of Acquaroni it is possible to find an Antonio, a Giuseppe and a Giovanni, who are probably all one and the same artist....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Activec.1295.

Born in Brescia.

Painter, draughtsman, architect.

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Painter, engraver. Architectural views.

S. Acton lived in London between 1791 and 1802 and exhibited at the Royal Academy.

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 October 1854, in Edinburgh; died 1929, in North Berwick.

Painter (including gouache). Interiors with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, urban views, architectural views, interiors, portraits.

Having studied at the Royal Scottish Academy under George Paul Chalmers and MacTaggart, Patrick Adam went on to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy at the age of 18 and at the London Royal Academy ...