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Article

Ulrike Gaisbauer

(b Pressburg, Aug 28, 1940).

Austrian painter, writer, film maker and musician. While still at school he wrote short novels and songs, drew comic strips, composed pieces for ocarina and piano and was three times Austrian junior national yachting champion. From 1957 to 1963 he was a student at the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna. His sensual pictures, which express a totally egocentric personality, sparkle with lively imagination. They incorporate the idea of metamorphosis as a consistent leitmotif and are therefore always undergoing a process of transformation. The idea of beauty, as part of a wide-ranging aesthetic view of the world, often forms the core of his artistic statements and is the basis of his numerous actions.

Attersee’s invented words and objects, for example Food-ball or Prosthesis-alphabet, are the result of an intellectual exploration of ordinary objects in everyday reality, as well as of current linguistic patterns. From 1967 to 1968 he produced his ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the UK.

Born 1958, in Georgetown, Guyana.

Video artist, film maker, photographer, journalist, broadcaster. Scratch videos.

George Barber has a BA from St Martin’s School of Art in London (1980) and an MA from the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1966, in Lille.

Installation artist, photographer, video artist, film producer, writer, musician.

Stéphane Bérard lives and works in Haute-Provence. Both poet and sculptor, he casts a quizzical and ironic eye on the flotsam of everyday life. His inventions include the ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950, in Brook Alexander, New York.

Installation artist, video artist, poet.

David Bunn graduated with a master's degree from the University of California at Los Angeles and has received several awards and fellowships including two National Endowment for the Arts Individual Artist Fellowships, the City of Los Angeles Individual Artist Fellowship and the Ethel Fortner Award for creative writing....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 27 September 1965, in Billings (Montana).

Installation artist, performance artist, video artist, writer. Multimedia.

Andrea Fraser studied at the School for Visual Arts (1982(1983) and at the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (...

Article

Amanda du Preez

Term used to indicate the complex visual matrix incorporating the one who looks as well as the one who is looked at. This means the one who imposes the gaze and the one who is the object of the gaze are both implicated in the construction of the gaze. The concept was addressed initially by Sigmund Freud’s concept of scopophilia (‘pleasure in looking’ or voyeurism) and later in Jacques Lacan’s formulation of the mirror stage and its role in identity formation. Lacan formulated the complex role of the gaze in constructing the relation between interior self and exterior world as two kinds of subjects—not only as a powerful subject gazing at the world but also as a lacking, objectified subject encountering the gaze outside himself. For the most part the link between the gaze and power is entrenched in theories on the gaze, since the directed gaze of the powerful subject has the ability to subjugate and even petrify its objects as exemplified in the terrifying gaze of Medusa in Greek mythology. The construction of the gaze happens within an asymmetry of power. In recent times, the gaze has become a trope within visual culture for the critical analysis of several entwined ideas concerning class, race, ethnography, sex, gender, religion, embodiment, ideology, power, and visuality. In this article the powerful directed gaze is analysed through the categories of the clinical gaze, colonial gaze, touristic gaze, and the male gaze. Finally, theorizing possibilities of going beyond the gaze are considered....

Article

Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

(b Urbana, IL, March 31, 1942).

American performance artist, video artist, and writer. Graham founded the Daniels Gallery in New York and was its director from 1964 to 1965; there he came into contact with Minimalist artists such as Carl Andre, Sol LeWitt, and Donald Judd. This led him to question the gallery structure and the art displayed and to experiment with conceptual art. From 1965 to 1969 he produced a series of works published in magazines, such as Schema (1966; Brussels, Daled priv. col., see 1988 exh. cat., p. 9). This series consisted merely of a descriptive list of its own contents, including the number of words, and so referred to nothing beyond itself, unlike Minimalist art that he believed referred to the surrounding display space. Furthermore, the magazine was, unlike a gallery, clearly related to time and change through its regular appearance and topicality.

From 1969 to 1978 Graham was primarily involved with performance, film, and video. His first performance took place at the Loeb Student Center at New York University in ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant and Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Cleveland, OH, 1959).

American printmaker, film maker, installation and conceptual artist and writer.

Green, of African descent, has worked primarily with film-based media, and has published criticism and designed installations that reveal her commitment to ongoing feminist and black empowerment movements. She earned her BA from Wesleyan University in 1981 and also spent some time at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1980, returning in the late 1980s to study in the Whitney Independent Study Program, graduating in 1990. At the age of 24 she began exhibiting her comparative compositions containing found objects, images, and texts that question recorded history.

Green’s work deals with issues of anthropology and travel. By undertaking projects via the methodology of the 19th-century explorer, she exposed the arbitrary and prejudiced nature of classification, as in Bequest (1991; see 1993 exh. cat.), an installation she made at the invitation of the Worcester Museum of Art to commemorate their 50th anniversary. Using the museum as a ready-made stage set, she installed works of art alongside 19th-century texts explaining stereotypes of whiteness and blackness. Green characteristically intervened in the history of her chosen site to produce a fiction that included her own responses as an African American woman to her findings. In ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Newport, Wales, April 5, 1942).

British film maker, painter, writer, draughtsman, curator and installation artist. He was brought up in Walthamstow, London, studying design at Walthamstow School of Art between 1960 and 1964. After he left college he decided that he would go into the film industry and worked as a film journalist and an editing assistant before getting a job at the Crown Film Unit in 1965. He spent the next 11 years as an editor at the unit making short public information films. He continued to paint, with an increasing preoccupation being the classification and numbering of objects and events, as in Computer Vocabulary (1968; see 1998 exh. cat., pl. 12). In the mid-1960s he began to make short experimental films that often incorporated these ideas, as in A Walk Through H (1978) that includes shots of his paintings used as maps and landscapes. In the 1980s he gained a large new audience with his feature films, which continued to use painterly tableaux and intricate classification, as in ...

Article

Native American (Haudenosaunee/Cattaraugaus, Huron clan), 20th century, male.

Born in 1945, in New York.

Painter, mixed-media artist (acrylics, video/film), paper-maker, curator.

Peter Jemison received his BA in art education from Buffalo State College. His artwork combines contemporary art practices with traditional Native American themes, such as in the Haudenosaunee notion of ...

Article

Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

(Jennifer )

(b Barre, VT, Feb 15, 1974).

Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

American film maker, artist, and writer.

She attended the University of California, Santa Cruz, but left after her second year and never returned to school. She has had no formal artistic training. After leaving Santa Cruz, she moved to Portland, OR, where she began exploring performance art and film-making. One of her earliest projects, Joanie4Jackie (1995), demonstrates July’s early and continued interest in collaborative artistic practice. In this work July circulated pamphlets where she invited women to send her short films on VHS tapes, and in return, she would send them films made by other women. The project acted as an arena for free film distribution to create a conversation among and women film makers. Though she has worked in a wide array of media, much of her work explores similar subjects such as human relationships, intimacy, and mortality. Her online project, Learning to Love You More...

Article

Richard Dagenhart

(b Rotterdam, Nov 17, 1944).

Dutch architect, architectural theorist, and urbanist. Brought up in Rotterdam, Jakarta, and Amsterdam, Koolhaas studied script writing at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in Amsterdam and was a film scriptwriter in Amsterdam and Los Angeles. He studied architecture at the Architectural Association in London (1968–72), where his ideas were shaped by the architectural neo-avant-garde of the 1960s. He continued his architectural studies at Cornell University (1972–5) and initiated conceptual design projects focused on contemporary metropolitan culture and New York City, including The City of the Captive Globe (1974), Hotel Sphinx (1975), and New Welfare Island/Palace Hotel (1975-6). He founded the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) in Rotterdam in 1975 and wrote Delirious New York (1978) while he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City. These experiences combined to set out a critical framework for his design practice by engaging and revealing the contradictions between architecture and urbanism—one humanist, human-scaled, and moral; the other technocratic, amoral, and global. This is the context that has framed his prolific writing and architecture/urban design practice in OMA and its media based twin, AMO....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1945, in Wasco (California), United States.

Installation, video, performance, public art, photography, publishing.

Suzanne Lacy is a Los Angeles–based artist whose work addresses topics such as rape, violence, aging, poverty, racism, and issues of gender and youth culture. She focuses on social practise, creating installations, videos, and unconventional performances that often include collaborations with other artists and members of local communities. Lacy’s larger actions include media-outreach programmes and public-policy debates, effectively blurring the line between art and activism. Lacy is the chair of the Public Practices program at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles. She is also the cofounder of the Women’s Building, a centre of study and activism for women artists that developed from the Feminist Studio Workshop established by Judy Chicago, Arlene Raven, and Sheila Lavrant de Bretteville in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1969, in Paris.

Installation artist, collage artist, photographer, video artist, film producer, writer.

Valérie Mréjen graduated from the École Nationale d'Arts in Cergy-Pontoise. She lives and works in Paris. Working with various art forms, the subject matter of her films, books and photographs is relationships between individuals, which are often characterised by uncertainty, and the difficulties of verbalising and specifying one´s desires. Her work focuses on the social arena and the language that underpins relationships....

Article

Susan Kart

(b Umlazi, Durban, July 19, 1972). South African photographer and video and installation artist. Muholi has identified as a black Zulu lesbian and her artworks engage with her own identity at the same time as they seek to integrate LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex) identities into mainstream acceptance in South Africa and elsewhere. Muholi is part of a generation of African artists for whom photography remains a powerful tool for socio-political commentary in the post-colonial and post-apartheid era. In ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Bernice Murphy

(b Sydney, July 19, 1945).

Australian conceptual and performance artist, film maker and writer. He began writing poetry as a student at Queensland University (1965–6). Although he attended the National Art School at Darlinghurst, Sydney (1968), he was largely self-taught as an artist. He first became known for his conceptual works, filmed actions and performances and typescript pieces in 1971–2, when he ran Inhibodress, an alternative art space in Sydney, with artist Peter Kennedy (b 1945). In 1972 he travelled abroad for the first time for about a year, making Vienna his base (as he did again in 1977–8). In 1973 he carried out performances in Lausanne and Neuchâtel, Switzerland. These works (and the associated filmed record) were collectively entitled Performances, Actions, Video Systems and developed out of previous Sydney works: Word Situations (1971) and Idea Demonstrations (1971–2).

On returning to Australia Parr incorporated recent filmed records of performances into much larger, autobiographical film projects that occupied most of his artistic energy for ten years, producing three substantial, experimental films: ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 2 February 1964, in Boston.

Filmmaker, video artist, installation artist, journalist.

Laura Poitras is an artist, filmmaker, and journalist who places current events at the centre of her artistic practices. She is best known for her Academy Award–winning documentary, Citizenfour, the third film in her post-9/11 series. Poitras has received the George Polk Award, the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, the Peabody Award, and the Nannan Prize for Press Freedom, among many other awards.

Poitras’s work exposes information to the average American by granting access to material that was formerly confidential or not shown in Western media outlets. Her films focus on her reporting as in one of her best known works, Citizenfour (2014), where she exposed the National Security Agency’s data collection and surveillance activities using information leaked by former CIA employee Edward Snowden. Poitras travelled to Hong Kong for an interview with Snowden in which he gave her classified documents with proof of the NSA’s actions....

Article

Peter A. Nagy

Indian new media artists and theorists . Raqs Media Collective was formed in 1991 by New Delhi artists, Jeebesh Bagchi (b 6 July 1965), Monica Narula (b 13 June 1969) and Shuddhabrata Sengupta (b 12 Feb 1968), who met when they were studying for their masters’ degrees in mass communication at Jamia Milia University, New Delhi. The collective have explained the significance of their name in stating that:

Raqs is a word in Persian, Arabic and Urdu that means the state that whirling dervishes enter into when they whirl. It is also a word used for dance. At the same time, Raqs could be an acronym, standing for “rarely asked questions.”

Their practice incorporates new media, digital art, documentary filmmaking, photography, media theory and research, writing, criticism and curation ( see fig. ).

In 2002 they shot onto the international art world stage by being included in ...

Article

Swiss, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Zurich.

Born 21 June 1962, in Rheintal.

Sculptor, video installation artist, video artist, director, musician, poet. Artists' books.

Pipilotti Rist studied at the Universität für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna, then trained in audiovisual techniques at the school of design in Basel. She won the Premio ...