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Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture; died 2001.

Print artist (woodblock).

Kazumi Amano graduated from Takaoka High School of Industrial Art in 1945. In 1950 he studied with Shiko Murakata, a renowned graphic arts master in Japan. After 1968 Amano visited the United States on several occasions and moved there to teach, then settled in New York in ...

Article

Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Tokyo, Feb 19, 1929).

Japanese graphic designer . He graduated from Hosei University (Tokyo). In 1955 he received an award from the Japan Advertising Artists Club for his poster Give back the Sea, establishing himself as a socially committed designer. He was initially influenced by the American designer Ben Shahn. In 1962 he designed the iron gate for the government office building at the Izumo Grand Shrine (Shimane Prefect.). In 1965, along with many of Japan’s leading designers, he was chosen to take part in the Persona Exhibition, which stressed the personal identities of individual designers. In 1975 Awazu was art director on Shūji Terayama’s film Den’en ni shinu (‘To die in the country’). During the 1960s and 1970s Awazu’s work was influenced by the vernacular design that challenged Japanese modernism. He has designed for many national and international exhibitions, including Expo ’70 (Osaka). Since the late 1980s much of Awazu’s work has been commissioned by national and local government bodies....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Draughtsman, poster artist, graphic designer, sculptor.

Op Art.

Fukuda Shigeo is an international figure. He exhibits frequently, receiving numerous awards. He first exhibited in France in 1992, at the Quimper Contemporary Art Centre, and later at the Echirolles Mois du gra­phisme exhibition. Working in the tradition of Escher, he has become a master of illu­sionism. Drawings and objects can immediately be seen in two ways, familiar and disturbing, even absurd or impossible. His outlines, his even style of drawing, his flat colours all contribute to this visual tension....

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Nagano, June 22, 1903; d March 26, 1986).

Japanese graphic designer. He graduated from the Tokyo Prefectural School of Technology in 1921 and taught there from 1922 to 1941. During this period he was exposed to the work of overseas avant-garde artists László Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and El Lissitzky. He also established links with Tomoyoshi Murayama and other members of the Sankakai group of painters. These contacts had a great influence on his later designs and led to his emergence as the founder of Japanese modern design. In 1933 he participated in the founding of the Japan Studio (Nihon Kōbō). He designed the photography exhibitions in Junzō Sakakura Japan Pavilions for the Paris World Expositions of 1937 and the New York Exposition of 1939. These exhibits exemplified Hara’s philosophy that the real work of the designer is the organization of graphic elements. His designs for the propaganda magazine Front (published by the Tōhōsha company) during the Pacific War (...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Niigata Prefecture.

Painter.

Mono-ha (school of things); Conceptual Art.

Honda Shingo specialises in conceptual art and photographic collage. After interrupting his studies at Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music in mid-programme, he had his first solo shows in Tokyo in ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Jiangyin (Jiangsu).

Painter. Landscapes.

Huan Shiqing trained in his native province at the Wuxi Calligraphic Arts Institute. He took part in the 1980 exhibition Traditional Painters of the People’s Republic of China ( Peintres Traditionnels de la République Populaire de Chine...

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the USA from 1972.

Born 1941, in Hunan.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

At the start of his career, Dennis Hwang used graphic techniques such as those used in batik in a so-called Abstract Surrealist style. He also wrote a book entitled ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Ichigooka Noriyoshi is influenced by both traditional Japanese painting and Abstract Expressionism. He creates vast calligraphic works playing on the transparency of his colours, where his gold and black respond to his red, turquoise or green. Perfectly mastered, the paint liberally covers the canvas. He showed work in a solo exhibition at the Orangerie de Bagatelle in Paris in ...

Article

Japanese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1947.

Painter, graphic artist.

Isono is best known as a poster artist. His work often combines landscape elements with abstract geometric forms. He has exhibited internationally since the 1970s, including the exhibition Japanese Art Today at the museum of contemporary art in Montreal....

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Shanyu (Zhejiang); died 1938.

Painter.

Jing Hengyi was a prominent educationalist during the Nationalist era. His most important work was Collected Works of Inscriptions, Poems, Calligraphic Works and Paintings.

Article

Hiroshi Kashiwagi

(b Niigata, April 6, 1915; d 1997).

Japanese graphic designer. He studied principles of Constructivism at the Institute of New Architecture and Industrial Arts, Tokyo, a private institute established and run by Renshichiro Kawakita with the aim of introducing Bauhaus design theories in Japan; he graduated in 1935 and in 1938 joined the Nippon Kōbō design studio (now Publishing on Design Inc.). For over a decade from 1937 he worked as art director on a number of Japanese magazines, including Nippon and Commerce Japan. In 1951 he participated in the establishment of the Japan Advertising Arts Club, which secured social recognition for the profession of graphic designer. In 1955 he took part in the ‘Graphic ’55’ exhibition, together with Hiromu Hara, Paul Rand and others. Kamekura received an award from the Japan Advertising Arts Club in 1956 for a poster calling for peaceful use of atomic power. He co-founded the Nippon Design Centre (Tokyo) in 1960 with ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Painter, calligrapher.

In 1989 the Espace Japon in Paris mounted a solo exhibition of Katano’s calligraphic paintings on paper after Japanese poets of the past.

Article

Atsushi Tanaka

(b Osaka, Oct 13, 1887; d Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefect., Feb 13, 1931).

Japanese painter and illustrator. He distinguished himself in painting at middle-school. In 1907 he entered the department of Nihonga (Japanese-style) painting at the Tokyo School of Fine Art and later transferred to the department of Yōga (Western-style) painting. After graduating in 1914 he returned to Osaka and continued to paint. In 1919 he entered his first exhibited work in the 6th Nikakai (Second Division Society) show. The painting, the N Family, received the Chogyū Prize. In the Nikakai exhibition of 1920 his portrait of the Young Girl Omme received the Nika Prize.

In 1921–2 Koide made his first trip to the West, travelling to Paris and Berlin and throughout southern France. This led to him abandoning his early style, which had been characterized by rigid compositions and dark tonalities, in favour of a more even, stronger brush style with a lighter palette; his works became lighter in spirit. In 1923...

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in the USA.

Born 1953, in Shizuoka.

Graphic designer, illustrator.

Katsumi Komagata eventually settled in Tokyo, where in 1986 he opened his own publishing house, One Stroke . Earlier, from 1977 to 1983, he lived in the USA. From ...

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born c. 1954.

Painter.

Maita Masafumi’s painting is related to Conceptual Art. It relies on photographic documents and attempts to embody an intervention by the artist into natural phenomena, and to call them into question. He won the grand prix at the sixth International Exhibition of Young Artists at Sizuoka in ...

Article

(b Los Angeles, CA, Sept 2, 1931; d New York, Feb 10, 2012).

American graphic designer. As an American of Japanese descent, Miho was sent to an internment camp in Arizona during World War II, a difficult experience that she chose not to dwell on, but which helped her find other focuses and goals. In high school she received a scholarship for a summer programme at the Minneapolis School of Art (now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design) and was influenced by Modernism during her first visit to New York City, taking in the architecture and artwork of places such as Manhattan’s Museum of Modern Art. After high school she took a part-time job at the Bureau of Engraving in Minneapolis and continued to take classes at the Minneapolis School of Art. She then received a full scholarship to study at the Art Center School in Los Angeles (now the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena), CA. She focused on graphic design and eventually switched to industrial design so she could study packaging design with Mary Sheridan, sometimes assisting in her design office. She graduated with honours in ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Chiba, near Tokyo.

Painter.

Miyama gained a diploma in design from the Tama school of fine arts in Tokyo in 1967. His figurative paintings are executed in a bold, graphic style with hints of the naive. Since 1966...

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, on Kyushu.

Draughtsman.

After graduating from the technical university in Kyushu, Nagasaki Michihisa showed work at an exhibition of graphic design in Kyushu-Okinawa (1972) and at the exhibition Art and Culture in Tokyo (1972–1974)....

Article

Jeremy Howard

[Nadezhda] (Nikolayevna)

(b Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia, Jan 31, 1952; d Moscow, March 6, 1969).

Russian illustrator and graphic designer. The phenomenon of Nadya Rusheva arose as the result of the exploitation of a child talent and the demand for positive achievements that accorded with the Soviet myth. Her death at the age of 17 from a brain haemorrhage acted as a final sad chord in her cultural role. Her first drawings became known in 1964 when the Moscow intellectual elite was seeking an embodiment of Nikita Khrushchov’s political thaw. She exhibited in the offices of the famous opposition periodical Yunost’ (‘Youth’). She produced over 10,000 works in a number of series, most of which were essentially the line illustrations of a gifted, developing child for the classics from world literature. This work, created mostly in ink, felt-tip pen and crayon, was inspired by the amateur illustrations of 19th- and 20th-century writers, most notably Aleksandr Pushkin and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Typical of her most mature work was her illustration of ...