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Simon Lee

(b Paris, Jan 1668; d Paris, April 11, 1736).

French painter and draughtsman. In 1678 he was apprenticed to Guy-Louis Vernansal (1648–1729); he later became a pupil of Jean Jouvenet and in 1684–5 of Bon Boullogne. By 1684 he was enrolled at the Académie Royale, Paris, and a year later won the Prix de Rome with his Construction of Noah’s Ark (untraced). He probably arrived in Rome towards the end of 1685, and he stayed until the winter of 1688–9. While in Italy he studied the work of Raphael and the Carracci family, as well as showing an interest in Correggio. He also led a student protest against the teaching régime of the Académie de France in Rome. After some months in Lyon he returned to Paris in 1689 and began to work on minor commissions, including drawings of the statues in the park at Versailles (Paris, Bib. N.). The influence of the Boullogne brothers is evident in his small-scale paintings of this time, such as ...


Jörg Garms

(b Nantes, May 16, 1667; d Paris, March 19, 1754).

French architect and writer. He maintained the tradition of the Grand Style in France between Jules Hardouin Mansart, who was born in 1646, and Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who died in 1782. His work also provided an important bridge between that of Louis Le Vau in the mid-17th century and those of the architects of the Piranesian generation of Neo-classicists in the mid-18th century, such as Etienne-Louis Boullée, whom he influenced.

His father, Jean Boffrand, was a minor architect and sculptor. Germain Boffrand came to Paris at the age of fourteen to study sculpture, working for three years in the studio of François Girardon. From 1685 he worked as a draughtsman in the Bâtiments du Roi under Jules Hardouin Mansart. Through his uncle, the court poet Philippe Quinault, Boffrand met important artists and aristocrats, who were to prove useful connections later. By the late 1690s he was supervising architect of the new Place Vendôme, Paris, but in ...


Ana Maria Rybko


(bapt Rome, May 8, 1663; d Rome, Dec 24, 1748).

Italian painter. At the age of 15 he was a pupil of Giuseppe Passeri in Rome and afterwards lived for a decade in northern Italy, especially in Turin. After returning to Rome he studied geometry and perspective with Andrea Pozzo. His style was first based on that of Carlo Maratti, but without the monumentality and tempered by the influence of Benedetto Luti; then he became a strong exponent of the Rococo, as can be seen in a series of light and charming decorations in Roman churches.

In 1691–3 Cerruti painted the figures in landscapes by other painters on the walls of some rooms in the Palazzo della Cancelleria, Rome, in a decorative scheme (destr.) commissioned by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. In 1697 he executed the Birth of the Virgin (Ponza, Santa Trinità), painted for S Venanzio ed Ansuino (destr.). He participated in the decoration of the ground-floor Sala delle Ninfe of the Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome, in ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....


Robert Neuman

(b Paris, 1656–7; d Passy, Paris, July 15, 1735).

French architect and urban planner. The most influential French Baroque architect during the Régence, he was Premier Architecte du Roi between 1708 and 1734. Financial constraints limited his work for the Crown, but he built many hôtels for the nobility, involved himself in numerous urban planning schemes and was frequently consulted by patrons abroad, particularly in Germany.

By 1676 de Cotte was working for Jules Hardouin Mansart, whose brother-in-law he later became. In 1681 Hardouin Mansart was appointed Premier Architecte du Roi to Louis XIV, and during his absence from court in 1687 de Cotte first attracted the attention of the King with his own drawings for the colonnade of the Grand Trianon at Versailles. Destined to play an important role in the Service des Bâtiments du Roi, in 1689 de Cotte embarked on a trip to Italy lasting six months in order to complete his architectural education.

Although the King’s costly wars brought a temporary halt to royal projects in the 1690s, the Treaty of Ryswick of ...


Robert Neuman

(b Paris, 1671; d Paris, 1739).

French architect. He was the most important member of a family of architects active in Paris. His early work included adding a storey to the Hôtel de Sillery (1712) and additions to the Hôtel de Vendôme (1715) in the Rue d’Enfer, but his most significant contribution was the design of two hôtels particuliers in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, the fashionable neighbourhood on the west bank of the Seine. About 1720 he drew up plans for the first of these, the Hôtel de Matignon (in the Rue de Varenne), built 1722– 4 for Christian-Louis de Montmorency-Luxembourg, Prince of Tingry. In his initial project Courtonne organized the plan of this ‘hôtel-entre-cour-et-jardin’ around a single longitudinal axis, thus conforming to current practice. However, in his definitive plan the axes of the court and garden façades were made discontinuous, and although the circulatory path through the building lacked symmetry, this arrangement allowed both the court façade and the stable court to gain in breadth and prominence. His plan also placed an unusual emphasis on the public rooms, apparently as a means of accommodating the collections of the owner. In ...


Carola Wenzel

German family of artists. From the 16th century to the 18th the Drentwett family of Augsburg produced over 30 master gold- and silversmiths who received commissions from monarchs, nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie of all parts of Europe. Members of the family were active in many fields, including cast and repoussé gold- and silverwork, engraving, enamelling and even wax modelling. The founder of the family’s reputation, Balduin Drentwett (1545–1627), worked for a number of courts, notably that of the Margraves of Baden-Baden. The work of his son Elias Drentwett I (c. 1588–1643) includes an exceedingly fine ewer and basin (1619; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.); the ornamentation on the ewer is part cast and part repoussé, and the reliefwork on the oval basin depicts marine motifs.

Philipp Jacob Drentwett I (c. 1583–1652) was one of the first goldsmiths in the 17th century to produce large articles of silver, sending silver tableware, wine-coolers, buffets and ewers to Poland, Sweden and the Viennese imperial court. His son ...


Christian Dittrich

(b Sangerhausen, bapt April 23, 1654; d Dresden, 1725).

German painter, draughtsman and teacher. He was a cousin and pupil of Samuel Bottschild, to whom he was apprenticed until 1672 and with whom he travelled to Italy in 1673–7, to study the works of Italian masters and ancient sculptures. After his return he settled in Dresden, where he was appointed court painter by Elector John-George IV (reg 1691–4). With Bottschild he worked on three ceiling paintings (completed after 1693; destr. 1945) in the Palais in the Grosser Garten (destr. 1945) in Dresden. He also produced wall paintings (destr.) in the Dresden palaces of Lubomirski (destr. 1760) and Vitzthum (destr. 1786).

After Bottschild’s death in 1706, Fehling was made chief court painter and inspector of art works by Elector Augustus II, who also put him in charge of the Malerakademie. His pupils here included Christian Friedrich Zincke (1687–1770), Paul Christian Zincke (1687–1770...


Birgit Roth

(b Roveredo, nr Bellinzona, 1671; d Eichstätt, March 21, 1747).

Italian master builder and architect. In the early 1690s he was a master builder at the court of Prince John Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, where he worked at the Liechtenstein town palace, firstly under Domenico Martinelli and later (1705–6) completing it to his own plans, the staircase showing his influence most strongly. Gabrieli was summoned to Ansbach in 1694 by Markgraf Georg Friedrich to submit plans for rebuilding the palace there, and while the Margrave deliberated, Gabrieli took on other commissions in Ansbach. He built a garden house (1697–9; now the Prinzenschlossen) for Privy Counsellor Georg Christian Seefried above the palace quarter. Less well preserved is his summer-house (1696–1701) for Lieutenant-Colonel Jahnus in Pfaffengreuth. Gabrieli began work on the Ansbach Palace in 1705, after the Margrave’s death. A fire in 1709 facilitated a complete remodelling, and Gabrieli, who was promoted to court architect and Director of Building in ...


(b Paris, Aug 24, 1670; d Paris, July 21, 1761).

French painter. He was a pupil of Louis Boullogne (ii). In 1695 he won the Prix de Rome and subsequently lived in Rome for two years. Because of a lull in royal patronage, Galloche was obliged, on his return to Paris, to accept commissions from churches and monasteries. Between 1706 and 1713 he painted, in collaboration with Louis de Silvestre, St Scholastica Praying for a Storm (Brussels, Mus. A. Anc.) and scenes from the life of St Benedict for the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs, Paris. In 1711 he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale, Paris, on presentation of Hercules Restoring Alcestis to her Husband (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He became professor at the Académie in 1720, rector in 1746 and chancellor in 1754. Between 1737 and 1751 he exhibited regularly at the Salons.

For the church of St Lazare (now Ste Marguerite), Paris, Galloche painted ...


Marianne Roland Michel

(b Langres, April 28, 1673; d Paris, May 4, 1722).

French draughtsman, printmaker and painter. He was the son of an embroiderer and painter of ornaments, who doubtless trained him before he entered the Paris studio of Jean-Baptiste Corneille about 1690; there he learnt to paint and etch. In 1710 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale; he was received (reçu) as a history painter five years later, on presentation of the Nailing of Christ to the Cross (Noailles, Corrèze, parish church). Although he painted other elevated subjects, including a Death of the Virgin (1715; untraced) for his native Langres, he was most active as a draughtsman and printmaker specializing in theatre and genre scenes, as well as bacchanals and designs for decorations. Gillot’s principal source of inspiration was the popular theatre; he is said to have run a puppet theatre, to have written plays and once to have been in charge of sets, machinery and costume for the opera. This interest was to have a profound effect on the art of his principal pupil, ...



(b ?Prague, 1667; d Nuremberg, July 16, 1740).

Bohemian painter. He was born into a weaver’s family, who, as Moravian Brethren, were forced to emigrate from Bohemia to Pezinok, Slovakia. Having met the artist Benedikt Claus (1632/3–1707), he left home at 15 to join him in Vienna, and three years later accompanied him to Italy. He worked in Venice and other north Italian towns before settling in Rome, where he made a meagre living by copying portraits. Although he attempted genre and historical paintings, portraiture became his main work. His influences ranged from prominent Venetian painters such as Bernardo Strozzi, Johann Carl Loth and Giuseppe Ghislandi to Anthony van Dyck and Hyacinthe Rigaud. Through perseverance he established his own studio in Rome, c. 1700, and found his own distinctive portrait style—clear, rather cool, yet with all its restraint profoundly felt and monumentally executed (e.g. Self-portrait, 1707; Florence, Uffizi).

Having gained recognition as an eminent portrait painter Kupecký moved, ...


Fausta Franchini Guelfi

(b Genoa, Sept 18, 1664; d Genoa, March 7, 1739).

Italian sculptor and wood-carver. In 1680 he entered the workshop of his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Agnesi, as an apprentice, but he also attended the workshop of the furniture-maker Pietro Andrea Torre (d 1668). By 1688 he already had his own workshop in partnership with Giovanni Battista Pedevilla. The success of his work soon enabled him to open an independent workshop, where he was assisted by pupils, among them his own son, Giovanni Battista Maragliano (d after 1762). His early works include St Michael and Lucifer (1694; Celle Ligure, oratory of S Michele) and St Sebastian (1700; Rapallo, oratory of the Bianchi), both processional casse: groups of polychrome wooden statues made to be carried in procession by the religious confraternities on feast days. The larger part of Maragliano’s production consists of such monumental groups, in which the scenes from a saint’s life (ecstasy, martyrdom etc) are represented in a theatrical manner, expressing devotional wonder and intense emotional involvement. The lively colouring of the sculptures was done by specialist polychrome painters, at times under the supervision of Maragliano himself. Among the most famous of these ...


Oreste Ferrari

(b Piano del Cilento, Salerno, Feb 9, 1662; d Naples, Jan 26, 1728).

Italian painter and silversmith. He was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures.

He arrived in Naples while still young and received his first artistic training in the workshop of Luca Giordano. He was in Rome before 1683, where he was the pupil of Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), a still-life painter, and here he became a protégé of the 7th Marqués del Carpio, Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, the Spanish Ambassador, who had already begun to form an impressive art collection. In Rome the influence of Giordano was modified by the formal elegance of the painting of Carlo Maratti. De Matteis’s earliest known work, the ...


(b Paris, July 27, 1672; d Paris, March 13, 1742).

French architect, designer and illustrator. He was in the first rank of architects during the great period of interior decoration in France during the first half of the 18th century. Appointed by the Duc d’Orléans as his chief architect and designer during the Regency (1715–23), Oppenord was in a position to wield a strong influence on the development of the Rococo style.

His father, who had moved to France from the Netherlands, was employed as an ébeniste ordinaire du roi, and from 1684 the family occupied an apartment in the Louvre. Oppenord studied briefly with Jules Hardouin Mansart, but his principal education as an architect and designer took place in Italy. As a protégé of the Surintendant des Bâtiments, Edouard Colbert (1629–99), the Marquis de Villacerf, Oppenord was sent to Rome in 1692 to be attached to the Académie de France there, initially for two years, although his stay was extended and in ...


William Hauptman

(b Locarno, 1669; d Locarno, April 17, 1731).

Swiss painter. He was the founding member of a family of painters who worked in Locarno and father of the better-known painter Giuseppe Antonio Felice Orelli (1700–70/74). For most of his life Antonio Baldassare Orelli worked in the region of Locarno, although there is some evidence that he was also active in Como, painting mostly altarpieces and church or secular decorations. No official oeuvre has been established; many works remain attributed to him without precise dating or adequate documentation. His style is exemplified by two frescoes (1716) in S Francesco, Locarno, depicting the Marriage at Cana and the Last Supper, in which the influence of Correggio and of the northern Italian Baroque is still in evidence. His fresco Adoration of the Shepherds (c. 1717; Locarno, S Antonio Abate) demonstrates his originality and vigorous style: the delineation of the background and glowing sunrise are especially innovative. He also produced decorations of note in ...


Bernard Aikema


(b Venice, April 29, 1675; d Venice, Nov 5, 1741).

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France.

His father, a glover, came from Padua. At an early age Pellegrini was apprenticed to the Milanese Paolo Pagani (1661–1716), with whom he travelled to Moravia and Vienna in 1690. In 1696 Pellegrini was back in Venice, where he painted his first surviving work, a fresco cycle in the Palazzetto Corner on Murano, with scenes from the life of Alexander the Great and allegorical themes on the ceiling. Here his figure style is clearly derived from Pagani, but the effects of light and the free handling suggest the art of Giordano or even Cortona, whose work Pellegrini could not then have known. By contrast, brushwork in a series of paintings of the ...


French family of cabinetmakers of Dutch origin. Bernard van Risamburgh (i) (b Groningen, c. 1660; d Paris, 2 Jan 1738) was active in Paris before 1694. The rediscovery of his work makes an important contribution to the analysis of the furniture of the period, providing a striking illustration of the transition from the Baroque to the Louis XV style. Risamburgh used tortoiseshell and brass marquetry in a manner quite different from that of André Charles Boulle. He often collaborated with the Bérain and the Slodtz families. Extant examples of his work include desks (Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.) for the Duchesse de Retz and for the Elector of Bavaria (Paris, Louvre), and a commode (ex-Comte de la Panouse col., Thoiry) for Machault d’Arnouville. His final work was a clock decorated with hinds (London, Wallace) on which Jean-Pierre Latz based one of his clocks (Berlin, Schloss Charlottenburg).

Bernard’s son ...


Ulrike Knall-Brskovsky

(b Laufen, bapt Dec 11, 1654; d Vienna, Oct 25, 1730).

Austrian painter and draughtsman. He is most notable for large-scale religious and secular decorative schemes, and his career heralded the important 18th-century German contribution to late Baroque and Rococo fresco painting. He was probably taught by his mother, who was a painter of wooden sculpture. Between 1675 and 1687–8 he was in Venice as a pupil and assistant of the Munich artist Johann Carl Loth, whose studio attracted many painters from Austria and southern Germany. It is possible that Rottmayr also visited other Italian cities, in particular Bologna and Rome. He returned to Salzburg in the late 1680s a mature painter and immediately received commissions for panels and frescoes. In 1689 he painted mythological scenes for the Karabinierisaal at the Residenz in Salzburg (in situ); in composition and style these are close to high Baroque models, particularly the work of Pietro da Cortona and Peter Paul Rubens. Such models, as well as the example of Loth, and Venetian painting, had an important influence on Rottmayr’s panel paintings of this period, for example the ...


Vernon Hyde Minor

(b Milan, July 14, 1658; d Rome, Dec 9, 1728).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the last great Roman sculptors to practise in the Grand Manner. His career began in the late Baroque period and continued into the early Rococo or Barocchetto (as it came to be known for Italian art). There are elements of both periods in his style, yet he favoured the earlier, more dynamic and universalizing way of expressing artistic ideas.

Rusconi’s career followed a traditional and successful pattern. He was schooled in Milan by the Jesuits, and at the age of 15 he went to study with Giuseppe Rusnati (d 1713), a Milanese sculptor who had been part of Ercole Ferrata’s workshop in Rome. Rusconi had therefore felt the influence of Roman High Baroque sculpture before he went to Rome to work with his master’s master at the age of 28. Ferrata unfortunately died shortly afterwards, in 1686. Rusconi inherited from his masters the styles of Algardi and Bernini, the two most influential Roman sculptors of the previous generation. In particular he was influenced by Bernini’s copious forms and expansive gestures: although he did not tap the expressive energies of the Baroque in the same way as Bernini, the Grand Manner, revealing powerful human passions and depicting virtuous actions, remained prominent in his work. The most important influence on Rusconi was, however, that of the painter Carlo Maratti, who dismissed many of the more extreme conventions of Baroque composition in favour of ordered grouping and clear presentation of individual figures and narrative; his manner became the court style that dominated late Baroque art in Europe....