You are looking at  1-20 of 84 results  for:

  • Gardens and Landscape Design x
  • 1600–1700 x
Clear All

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Died 1632.

Painter. Landscapes.

Antwerp School.

Jasper Adriaensen was a free master of the Guild of St Luke. When the landscape artist Abraham Goyvaerts died, leaving his work unfinished, friends of Adriaensen implored him to finish Goyvaerts's paintings - a testimony to the esteem in which he was held as an artist....

Article

Italian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Romec.1620.

Born 1570, in Sorrento.

Painter. Landscapes.

A pupil of Roncali known as 'delle Pomarancie', Giuseppe Agellio possessed remarkable talent as a landscape artist and was often employed by painters of that period to execute the landscapes and backgrounds of their works. He also demonstrated great ability in the painting of architectural motifs....

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

In 

Article

Kathleen Russo

In 

Article

Claudia Lazzaro

Italian estate near Viterbo, c. 65 km north-east of Rome. It was built for Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara, Bishop of Viterbo, from c. 1568, and the design of the whole estate, comprising small twin palaces (palazzine, called casinos in the 17th century), a formal garden and a park, is attributed to Jacopo Vignola. The garden and the first palazzina were mostly completed by 1578 under the direction of the local architect and hydraulic engineer Tommaso Ghinucci. Carlo Maderno built the second palazzina for Cardinal Alessandro Peretti Montalto between 1611 and 1613. The two buildings were planned from the start and have identical exteriors. Their cubical form, with hipped roof and central belvedere, resembles those of the Villa Vecchia at Frascati and the hunting-lodge at Caprarola, both designed by Vignola. Rural and urban architectural traditions were united in the design of the buildings. The simple block with central projection recalls the towers and dovecotes typical of the countryside, while the exterior stone revetment and classical articulation is reminiscent of urban palaces. The floor plan is a variation on a common tripartite plan with a long central space. In the second ...

Article

John Seyller

[Bālchand; Bālacanda]

(fl c. 1596–1640).

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of 1596–7 (Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 3, fols 152v–153r; alternatively dated c. 1604) also bear the mark of youthful apprenticeship. Among the few works known from the next two decades are a single illustration ascribed to him from a dispersed Shāhnāma (‘Book of Kings’) of c. 1610 (ex-Colnaghi’s, London, 1976, no. 88ii), a border decoration in an album prepared for Jahangir between 1609 and 1618 (Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Libr. pict. A117, fol. 13v), a portrait of the Dying ‛Inayat Khan...

Article

Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi

[botanical]

A type of Garden developed by university medical schools in Europe from the mid-16th century for the collection and scientific study of plants; its origins lie in the monastic herbal gardens of the medieval period. The observation of plant specimens for educational purposes led to the establishment of numerous ‘physic’ gardens (hortus medicus): both Pisa and Padua had a botanic garden by 1544, and that at Florence was established in 1545; other early important examples include Leipzig (1580), Leiden (1587), Montpellier (1593), Oxford (1621), the Jardin des Plantes (1626), Paris, Uppsala (1665), Chelsea Physic Garden (1673), London, and Amsterdam (1682). The experimental method that was gradually beginning to dominate scientific study, together with the requirements imposed by the cultivation of plants, soon began to overshadow the aesthetic qualities that had characterized the Renaissance and Baroque garden. Virtually all decorative elements, such as statues, grottoes, fountains or mazes, were excluded from the botanic garden, whose value resided in its collection of such rare and exotic plant species as the sunflower, the agave or the tomato, all from newly discovered parts of the world. Certain plants, including the tulip, fritillary, narcissus, iris and anemone, were particularly sought after in the 17th century because of their shape and colour....

Article

F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Saint-Jean-d’Angely, Charente-Maritime, c. 1562; d Paris, c. 1634).

French garden designer and theorist. Of Huguenot origin, he seems early to have enjoyed the favour of Henry of Navarre, later Henry IV. A respected member of the royal entourage, Boyceau was appointed Surintendant des Jardins du Roi in the succeeding reign of Louis XIII. Consequently, he was in a position to exert substantial influence in determining the nature of garden design at that time. In his Traité du jardinage, published in 1638, Boyceau succinctly summarized the history of French gardening and codified the rules that would govern the 17th-century formal garden. For the first time a French designer adopted an aesthetic point of view, thereby promoting the intellectual climate that was to establish gardening as a fine art. He introduced a new feeling for monumental scale to the French garden, insisting that it should reflect a strong sense of organic unity in which order, symmetry, and visual harmony would be all-pervasive....

Article

Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

Article

Cesi  

Donatella L. Sparti

Italian family of collectors. The family, whose origins were in the Umbrian town of Cesi, settled in Rome in the 15th century. In the 16th century they were celebrated for the splendour of the Giardino dei Cesi, a sculpture garden at their palace at the foot of the Gianicolo. This was established by Cardinal Paolo Emilio Cesi (b Rome, 1481; d Rome, 5 Aug 1537), who adorned the garden with antique (and contemporary) statuary. It was inherited by his brother Federico Cesi (b ?Rome, ?1 July 1500; d Rome, 28 Jan 1565), who became Cardinal in 1544 and who reorganized the garden and the palazzo so that it seemed like ‘the entrance to Paradise’ (Aldrovandi). He restored the statues and, above all, constructed an antique sculpture museum (destr. with the palazzo, 1940) with a Greek-cross plan, designed (1556–64) by Guidetto Guidetti and intended for small but precious pieces: it was one of the first buildings constructed purposely as a ...

Article

P. F. Smith

English country house and garden, near Bakewell, Derbys. The estate was purchased in 1549 by Sir William Cavendish (1505–57) and his wife, Elizabeth Talbot, later Countess of Shrewsbury, and the courtyard house was built from 1552. The 3rd Earl of Devonshire (1617–84) remodelled the interior and refenestrated the house (1676–80). The 1st Duke of Devonshire rebuilt it in stages between 1686 and 1706, following the plan of the earlier house (see Cavendish family §(1)). The four distinct fronts, each articulated with a giant order and topped with a balustrade, are among the finest and earliest Baroque façades in England: the south and west fronts are boldly ornamented with sculptural details, and the curved north façade shows strong Italian influence.

The south wing (1687–9), designed by William Talman (see Talman family, §1), contains the second-floor State Apartments and the chapel. In the State Drawing Room the ceiling (...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1565, in Xiuning (Anhui); died 1643.

Painter. Landscapes.

Cheng Jiasui was a poet and landscape artist who worked in the styles of the great masters of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). He lived in Jiading (Jiangsu).

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Cleve  

K. A. Ottenheym

[Fr. Cleves; Dut. Kleef; Ger. Kleve]

German town in North Rhine–Westphalia. In 1647 it became the official residence of John Maurice, Count of Nassau-Siegen, when he was appointed Stadholder of Cleve by the Elector of Brandenburg. From 1663 the Count restored and rebuilt Schloss Schwanenburg, and from 1671 he built the Prinzenhof as a successor to the Mauritshuis (1633, by Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post) in The Hague. The landscaped parks created by the Stadholder around the town were far more ambitious: a star-shaped network of paths and roads, begun in 1650, made use of the natural features of the land, with the visitor’s attention repeatedly caught by points of interest. Pleasure grounds were established next to the Prinzenhof, including the Springenberg, with the amphitheatre, and the neighbouring Fontana Miranda. This was an important attraction consisting of a series of ascending terraces, provided with fountains and memorials, rising from an ornamental pond with islands and a canal and culminating at its highest point in a semicircular colonnade. Two statues in the garden, the ...

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1586, probably in Rotterdam; died c. 1624.

Painter. Landscapes.

Willem Decker II was almost certainly the son of the landscape artist Jan Willemsz Decker. He was married to Barbara Symondsdr by 1609. In 1614 he disposed of his work through a lottery and died of the plague with his wife and four children. Hans Jordaens painted the figures in one of his landscapes....

Article

Susan B. Taylor

[Desgotz.]

French family of garden designers. They were related by marriage to André Le Nôtre and, together with the Mollet family, formed a loose grouping of designers and horticulturists that undertook the execution of Le Nôtre’s plans for the most important French formal gardens of the mid- and late 17th century. In 1614 Jean Desgots was responsible for the upkeep of the Tuileries gardens in Paris; in 1624 he was replaced by his brother Pierre, a celebrated draughtsman who in 1616 had married Elizabeth, Le Nôtre’s sister. Pierre Desgots and Le Nôtre collaborated on a number of garden designs, with Pierre often drawing up finished plans based on Le Nôtre’s sketches. He probably served as clerk of works at Chantilly, where, after 1644, Le Nôtre was working for Louis II, Prince de Condé; in 1673 Pierre made two detailed plans of the Chantilly gardens.

Pierre’s son Claude Desgots was sent on a bursary to the Académie de France in Rome in ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

(b Nagahami, Ōmi Prov. [now Shiga Prefect.], 1579; d Fushimi, nr Kyoto, 1647).

Japanese tea ceremony master, designer and construction supervisor of numerous palaces, castles and gardens. He was one of the most influential figures in Japanese art during the early 17th century. He is noted for the courtly refinement of his designs, which were elegant yet understated, innovative yet respectful of traditions. Few of the many buildings and gardens attributed to him remain in their original form, but his style is found throughout much of Japan. A disciple in his youth of Furuta Oribe, he practised an elaborate style of tea ceremony, and his name has become associated with a tea-room design that is spacious and luxurious without being ostentatious.

Enshū’s father, Kobori Masatsugu (d 1604), was a samurai who served the military leaders Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542–1616) as castle architect and construction supervisor. In 1596 Enshū assisted Masatsugu with work on Fushimi Castle (completed 1594...

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born at the beginning of the 17th century, in Florence.

Landscape artist.

Guasparre Falgani was a pupil of Valerio Marucelli. Examples of his work are housed in various museums and galleries throughout Italy.

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Casalec.1660.

Landscape artist.

Article

Fu Mei  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1628; died 1682.

Painter.

Fu Mei was the son of the painter Fu Shan (1605-1684). Like his father, he was a poet, calligrapher and seal carver, but above all a landscape artist, known for the atmosphere evoked in his paintings....

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1634, in Suzhou (Jiangsu); died 1708.

Painter. Landscapes.

Gao Jian is known as a landscape artist.

Beijing (Palace Mus.): River Landscape with Wooded Hills (colour)

London (British Mus.): Landscape in Autumn Rain (signed and dated 1694)