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Brian Austen


(b ?Sheffield, 1785; d Port of Spain, Trinidad, Nov 1846).

English sculptor, designer and architect. In 1810 he exhibited at the first Liverpool Academy Exhibition and showed models and drawings there in 1811, 1812 and 1814. These included designs for the restoration of the screen in Sefton church, Merseyside, and for a chimney-piece for Speke Hall, Liverpool, and two drawings of Joseph Ridgway’s house at Ridgmont, Horwich, Lancs. Bridgens designed furniture and furnishings in Gothic and Elizabethan styles for George Bullock. In 1814 he moved to London with Bullock, using his address at 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, and prepared designs for Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster (1789–1836) for improvements to Battle Abbey, E. Sussex, and similarly for Sir Walter Scott’s home, Abbotsford House, at Melrose on the Borders. Two chair designs for Battle Abbey were published in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in September 1817, and Bridgens was also involved in the design of chairs supplied to Abbotsford House in ...


Jorge Glusberg

[Fallik, Fernando ]

(b Košice, Czechoslovakia [now Slovak Republic], 1924).

Argentine sculptor, theorist and poet of Slovak birth. A resident of Argentina from 1928, he studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes ‘Manuel Belgrano’ in Buenos Aires, and in 1944 he collaborated with Joaquín Torres García and the Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (1919–90) on the magazine Arturo (one issue only), which proposed geometric abstraction for the first time in Argentina. He was also a leading figure of Arte Madí, together with Carmelo Arden Quin (b 1913). During this period he produced his first articulated mobiles (e.g. Royi, 1944; see Glusberg, p. 73), which involved the active participation of the spectator, and early examples of sculptures made of neon (e.g. Madí Aluminium Structure No. 3, 1946;). Like his colleagues in Arte Madí, he proposed the radical autonomy of the art object, and in his later work he explored the possibilities of a diverse range of materials, including even water in his ...


Mónica Martí Cotarelo


(b Sauceda, Zacatecas, Sept 2, 1862; d Aguascalientes, 1945).

Mexican architect and sculptor. He was self-taught and studied engravings, photographs, and the treatises of Vitruvius and Jacopo Vignola. His artistic production was consequently highly original and fitted into the pattern of contemporary eclecticism and Mexican neo-Baroque. In 1876–81 he worked on the railways of Zacatecas, where he learnt to calculate the resistance of materials and came to appreciate the architectural potential of iron. His interest in traditional Mexican architecture, its conservation and interpretation, is evident in his design (1919), which was only partly constructed, for the completion of the 18th-century façade and the towers of the sanctuary of Guadalupe in Aguascalientes. This harmonizes successfully with the building as a whole and the imaginative qualities of Mexican Baroque. The church of San Antonio (1908) in Aguascalientes exemplifies Reyes’s spontaneously eclectic architecture. The dome of the crossing is the most complex feature, where Reyes achieved a disconcerting feeling of weightlessness. It has a double circular drum, with the lower part, of smaller diameter, composed solely of a triple row of supporting Doric columns. He had a considerable practice in Aguascalientes, where he built the Banco Nacional de México (...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, May 11, 1911; d Lambayeque, Peru, Aug 23, 2004).

Peruvian painter, sculptor, teacher and critic. His adolescence was spent in Germany and Spain. In 1929 he went to Buenos Aires, studying first (until 1932) at the Escuela Superior Nacional de Artes and then (1933–6) at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes ‘Ernesto de la Cárcova’. In 1940 he returned to Lima, where he struggled against being absorbed into the Indigenist movement and joined the group Los Independientes, whose members promoted European styles, although not to the exclusion of Peruvian subject-matter (see also Peru, Republic of §IV 2.). In 1944 he began teaching at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lima, becoming its Director in 1956. Ugarte Eléspuru’s paintings are characterized by rich textures and colours and are often purely abstract (e.g. Death of Pachacamac the Bullfighter, 1961; Lima, Mus. A.), although in such murals as Urban Education (5.0×6.0 m, 1956; Lima, Ministerio de Educación) he refers broadly to the strong figures and social comment of Mexican murals by Diego Rivera and others. His sculptures include the bust of ...