Medieval Art and Architecture in Grove


Wyvern Swallowing a Man, copper alloy aquamanile, 8 3/4 x 7 1/4 in, 4365.108lb. (22.2 x 18.4 cm, 1980kg) overall PD: 8 3/8 x 4 3/8 x 7 3/16 in. (21.2 x 11.1 x 18.2 cm) thickness PD: 3/25 in. (0.3 cm), c. 1200 (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters Collection, 1947, Accession ID: 47.101.51); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Wyvern Swallowing a Man, copper alloy aquamanile, c. 1200


Grove Art Online is pleased to present new and significantly updated material devoted to medieval art and architecture. The 264 new articles added over the past few years grew out of an even larger undertaking: the development of the award-winning Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture, published in late 2012. This landmark print project, expertly guided by Colum P. Hourihane (Director, Index of Christian Art, Princeton University), updates and expands Grove’s existing coverage of this important field of study.

The new articles added to the site include contributions from over one hundred international scholars and dozens of extraordinary art images. The articles cover art from the 3rd–4th centuries to the mid- to late 16th-century in a wide variety of media: architecture, painting, sculpture, books and manuscripts, metalwork, jewelry, mosaic, and textiles. New thematic essays include topics of interest to today’s scholars, among them extended discussions of liturgy and art, gender studies, pilgrimage, courtly love, Arma Christi imagery, beast fables, amulets, scientific manuscripts, diagrams, classical themes, death, drama, visions, and the virtues and vices in medieval art. The group also features articles on important works, including the Alfred Jewel, Beatus manuscript, Ebbo Gospels, and Gloucester Candlestick; significant sites, including Hereford Cathedral and Somogyvár Abbey; and key figures, including Spanish illuminator and scribe Maius and art historian T. S. R. Boase.

Updated biographies include Giovanni da Modena and Michael Wolgemut, as well as family articles Morel, Valois, and Habsburg. Expanded subject entries cover Islamic gardens in Iran and western Central Asia, Classicism, Jewish art, and the Romanesque and Gothic periods, and also include technical terms Manuscript, Moulding, Tracing, Roll, Retable, and Mudéjar. Bibliography items have been added to medieval sections of England, Rome, Military architecture and fortification, as well as articles on Roman buildings and monuments such as the Vatican, Pantheon, and S. Constanza.

We are grateful to the authors and editors for their invaluable contributions of new scholarship. This material complements Grove’s excellent coverage of medieval art history, which encompasses nearly 2,000 articles. Grove Art Online’s regular editorial updates serve to broaden existing areas of coverage and encourage the exploration of new subjects in the field of global art history. Please enjoy this new content and keep in touch with our editors.

Alodie Larson, Editor
Lillyan Ling, Assistant Editor

Editor in Chief
Colum P. Hourihane, Index of Christian Art, Princeton University

Area Editors
Debra Higgs Strickland, University of Glasgow
Marcello Simonetta, Institut d’Études Avancées, Paris

Contributors (to 2010–15 online updates):
Lars-Olof Albertson, Independent Scholar
Kirk Ambrose, University of Colorado Boulder
Rocío Sánchez Ameijeiras, University of Santiago de Compostela
Katrin Kogman Appel, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Michele Bacci, University of Fribourg
János M. Bak, Central European University
Renana Bartal, Hebrew University
Jonathan B. Bengtson, University of Toronto
Alison Beringer, Princeton University
Sarah Blick, Kenyon College
Peter Bokody, Central European University
Stacy Boldrick, University of Edinburgh
Axel Bolvig, Københavns Universitet
Mariapia Branchi, Università degli Studi di Parma
Charles Buchanan, Ohio University
Annemarie Weyl Carr , Southern Methodist University
Manuel Castiñeiras, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya
Madeline H. Caviness, Tufts University
Quitterie Cazes, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
Fulvio Cervini, University of Florence
Betsy L. Chunko, University of Virginia
Laura Cleaver, The Courtauld Institute of Art
Michael Clifford, Princeton Theological Seminary
Laura E. Cochrane, Middle Tennessee State University
Adam S. Cohen, University of Toronto
Rafael Cornudella, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya
Rebecca W. Corrie, Bates College
Michael Curschmann, Princeton University
Michele D’Elia, Fondazione Zètema
Pina Belli D’Elia, Università degli Studi di Bari
James D’Emilio, University of South Florida
Stefano D’Ovidio, University of Naples
Laurinda Dixon, Syracuse University
Rachel Dressler, SUNY, University at Albany
Stephen T. Driscoll, The University of Glasgow
Martha W. Driver, Pace University
Joan Duran-Porta, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
Mary Agnes Edsall, Bowdoin College
Richard K. Emmerson, Manhattan College
Libby Karlinger Escobedo, Aurora University
Richard Fawcett, University of St Andrews
Eric Fernie, The Courtauld Institute of Art
John V. Fleming, Princeton University
Ilene H. Forsyth, University of Michigan
Katherine Forsyth, University of Glasgow
Carmela Vircillo Franklin, Columbia University
José Luis Hernando Garrido, Escuela Superior de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales de Madrid
Jane Geddes, Kings College, The University of Aberdeen
Kathryn B. Gerry, Walters Art Museum
Elina Gertsman, Case Western University
Manuela Gianandrea, Sapienza – Università di Roma
Judith K. Golden, Princeton University
Dillian Gordon, Emeritus, National Gallery, London
Vladimir Peter Goss, University of Rijeka
Giuseppe Antonio Guazzelli, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata
Louis I. Hamilton, Drew University
Catherine Harding, University of Victoria
Marius Hauknes, Princeton University
David A. Hinton, University of Southampton
Melanie Holcomb, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Peter Murray Jones, King’s College, Cambridge
Danielle B. Joyner, University of Notre Dame
Søren Kaspersen, Københavns Universitet
Beatrice Radden Keefe, Princeton University
Kirstin Kennedy, Victoria and Albert Museum
Herbert L. Kessler, Johns Hopkins University
Dale Kinney, Bryn Mawr College
Holger A. Klein, Columbia University
W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Indiana University Bloomington
Yoshie Kojima, Sophia University
Eberhard König, Freie Universität Berlin
Joseph R. Kopta, Pratt Institute
Delia Kottmann, Independent Scholar
Susan L’Engle, Saint Louis University
Anne-Françoise Leurquin , Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes
Charles T. Little, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Saverio Lomartire, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale
Immaculada Lorés-Otzet, University of Lleida
Esther Lozano López, University of Girona
Stephanie Luther, Yale University
Gerhard Lutz, Dom-Museum Hildesheim
Clark Maines, Wesleyan University
Elizabeth Struthers Malbon, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Janet T. Marquardt, Eastern Illinois University
Charles B. McClendon, Brandeis University
Bernard Meehan, Trinity College Library
Mitchell B. Merback, Johns Hopkins University
M.A. Michael, Christie’s Education, London
Antonio Milone, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Rachel Milstein, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Zoe Mindell, Independent Scholar
Laura Minervini, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Scott Montgomery, University of Denver
Griffin Murray, Kerry County Museum
Stephen Murray, Columbia University
Lawrence Nees, University of Delaware
Robert S. Nelson, Yale University
Margot McIlwain Nishimura, Rhode Island School of Design
Alison Manges Nogueira, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Michael T. Orr, Lake Forest College
Valentino Pace, Università di Udine
Sophie Page, University College London
Eric Palazzo, Université de Poitiers
Stella Panayotova, The Fitzwilliam Museum
Elizabeth C. Parker, Fordham University
Gregory A. Pass, Saint Louis University
Pamela A. Patton, Southern Methodist University
Heather Pulliam, University of Edinburgh
David Raizman, Drexel University
Lynn Ransom, University of Pennsylvania
Matthew M. Reeve, Queen’s University, Ontario
Diane J. Reilly, Indiana University Bloomington
Elisheva Revel-Neher, Independent Scholar
Michael Richter, University of Konstanz
Daniel Rico, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe, University of Cambridge
Lucy Freeman Sandler, New York University
Jessica Savage, Princeton University
Martina Schilling, Freie Universität Berlin
Elisabetta Scirocco, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Elizabeth Sears, University of Michigan
José Luis Senra Gabriel y Galán, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
Sarit Shalev-Eyni, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
James R. Simpson, University of Glasgow
Don C. Skemer, Princeton University
Elizabeth B. Smith, Pennsylvania State University
Harriet Sonne de Torrens, University of Toronto
Jordi Camps I Sòria, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya
Zachary D. Stewart, Columbia University
Patricia Stirnemann, Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes, Paris
Alison Stones, University of Pittsburgh
Debra Higgs Strickland, University of Glasgow
Béla Zsolt Szakács, Central European University
Leslie Bussis Tait, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Paola Tarantelli, Università degli Studi di Udine
Elizabeth C. Teviotdale, Western Michigan University
Ben C. Tilghman, Walters Art Museum
Achim Timmermann, University of Michigan
Carlos Tosco, Politecnico di Torino Adelaide Trezzini, Association Internationale Via Francigena
Jelena Trkulja, Princeton University
Maddalena Vaccaro, Università degli Studi di Milano
J.W. Van Arenthals, Universiteit Utrecht
Theresa Vann, Saint John’s University
Dorothy Verkerk, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Marina Vidas, Royal Library Copenhagen
William M. Voelkle, The Morgan Library & Museum
Cordelia Warr, The University of Manchester
Daniel H. Weiss, Lafayette College
Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen, Schnütgen-Museum (emerita)
Niamh Whitfield, Independent Scholar
John Williams, University of Pittsburgh
Benjamin C. Withers, University of Kentucky
Matthew Woodworth, Duke University
Nancy Wu, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Catherine Yvard, The Courtauld Institute of Art
Giuseppa Z. Zanichelli, Università degli Studi di Salerno