General Abbreviations

The following standard abbreviations are found in Grove Art:

4to quarto
8vo octavo
A. Art, Arts
A.C. Arts Council
Acad. Academy
Add. Additional, Addendum
addn addition
Adv. Advances, Advanced
Aesth. Aesthetic(s)
Afr. African
Afrik. Afrikaans, Afrikaner
A.G. Art Gallery
Agrar. Agrarian
Agric. Agriculture
Agron. Agronomy
Agy Agency
AH Anno Hegirae
A. Inst. Art Institute
Alb. Albanian
Alg. Algerian
Alta Alberta (Canada)
Altern. Alternative
Amat. Amateur
Amer. American
An. Annals
Anatol. Anatolian
Anc. Ancient
Annu. Annual
Ant. Antique
Anthol. Anthology
Anthropol. Anthropology
Antiqua. Antiquarian, Antiquaries
app. appendix
ARA Associate of the Royal Academy
Arab. Arabic
Archaeol. Archaeology
Archit. Architecture, Architectural
Archv, Archvs Archive(s)
Arg. Argentine
ARHA Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy
ARIBA Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects
Armen. Armenian
ARSA Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy
Asiat. Asiatic
Assist. Assistance
Astron. Astronomy
AT&T American Telephone & Telegraph Company
Aust. Austrian
Austral. Australian
Auton. Autonomous
Aux. Auxiliary
Azerbaij. Azerbaijani
B. Bartsch [catalogue of Old Master prints]
BA Bachelor of Arts
Balt. Baltic
bapt baptized
BArch Bachelor of Architecture
Bart Baronet
Bask. Basketry
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
BE Buddhist era
Behav. Behavioural
Belarus. Belarusian
Belg. Belgian
BFA Bachelor of Fine Arts
Bibl. Bible, Biblical
Biblioph. Bibliophile
Biol. Biology, Biological
Bkbinder Bookbinder
bk, bks book(s)
Bklore Booklore
Bkshop Bookshop
BL British Library
Bld Build
Bldr Builder
BLitt Bachelor of Letters/Literature
BM British Museum
Boh. Bohemian
Boliv. Bolivian
Botan. Botany, Botanical
BP Before present (1950)
Braz. Brazilian
BRD Bundesrepublik Deutschland [Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)]
Brez. Brezonek [lang. of Brittany]
Brit. British
BSc Bachelor of Science
Bulg. Bulgarian
Bull. Bulletin
bur buried
Burm. Burmese
Byz. Byzantine
Cab. Cabinet
C.A.G. City Art Gallery
Cal. Calendar
Callig. Calligraphy
Cam. Camera
can canonized
Can. Canadian
Cant. Canton(s), Cantonal
Carib. Caribbean
Cartog. Cartography
Cat. Catalan
cat. catalogue
Cath. Catholic
CBE Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Celeb. Celebration
Celt. Celtic
Cent. Centre, Central
Centen. Centennial
Cer. Ceramic
Chem. Chemistry
Chil. Chilean
Chin. Chinese
Christ. Christian, Christianity
Chron. Chronicle
Cie Compagnie [French]
Cinema. Cinematography
Circ. Circle
Civ. Civil, Civic
Civiliz. Civilization(s)
Class. Classic, Classical
Clin. Clinical
Cod. Codex, Codices
Col., Cols Collection(s); Column(s)
Coll. College
Collct. Collecting
Colloq. Colloquies
Colomb. Colombian
Colon. Colonies, Colonial
Colr Collector
Comm. Commission; Community
Commerc. Commercial
Communic. Communications
Comp. Comparative; compiled by, compiler
Concent. Concentration
Concr. Concrete
Confed. Confederation
Confer. Conference
Congol. Congolese
Congr. Congress
Conserv. Conservation; Conservatory
Constr. Construction(al)
Convalesc. Convalescence
Convent. Convention
Coop. Cooperation
Copt. Coptic
Corp. Corporation, Corpus
Corr. Correspondence
Cors. Corsican
Cost. Costume
Cret. Cretan
Crim. Criminal
Crit. Critical, Criticism
Croat. Croatian
Cttee Committee
Cub. Cuban
Cult. Cultural, Culture
Cumb. Cumberland (GB; old)
Cur. Curator, Curatorial, Curatorship
Curr. Current(s)
CVO Commander of the [Royal] Victorian Order
Cyclad. Cycladic
Cyp. Cypriot
Czech. Czechoslovak
d. denarius, denarii [penny, pence]
Dalmat. Dalmatian
Dan. Danish
DBE Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire
DDR Deutsche Demokratische Republik [German Democratic Republic (East Germany)]
Dec. Decorative
ded. dedication, dedicated to
Democ. Democracy, Democratic
Demog. Demography, Demographic
Denbs Denbighshire (GB; old)
dep. deposited at
Des. Design
Dev. Development
Dial. Dialogue
diam. diameter
Diff. Diffusion
Dig. Digest
Dip. Eng. Diploma in Engineering
Dir. Direction, Directed
Directrt Directorate
Disc. Discussion
Distr. District
Div. Division
DLitt Doctor of Letters/Literature
Doc. Document(s)
Doss. Dossier
DPhil Doctor of Philosophy
Drg, Drgs Drawing(s)
DSc Doctor of Science/Historical Sciences
Dut. Dutch
Dwell. Dwelling
EC European (Economic) Community
Eccles. Ecclesiastical
Econ. Economic, Economies
Ecuad. Ecuadorean
Educ. Education
Egyp. Egyptian
Elem. Element(s), Elementary
Emp. Empirical
Emul. Emulation
Enc. Encyclopedia
Encour. Encouragement
Eng. English
Engin. Engineer, Engineering
Engr., Engrs Engraving(s)
Envmt Environment
Epig. Epigraphy
Episc. Episcopal
Ess. Essays
Ethnog. Ethnography
Ethnol. Ethnology
Etrus. Etruscan
Eur. European
Evangel. Evangelical
Excav. Excavation, Excavated
Exch. Exchange
Excurs. Excursion
Exp. Exposition
Expermntl Experimental
Explor. Exploration
Expn Expansion
Ext. External
Extn Extension
F.A. Fine Art(s)
Fac. Faculty
facs. facsimile
Fam. Family
fasc. fascicle
fd feastday (of a saint)
Fed. Federation, Federal
Fem. Feminist
Fest. Festival
f, ff following page, following pages
Filip. Filipina(s), Filipino(s)
Fin. Finnish
Flem. Flemish
Flints Flintshire (GB; old)
Flk Folk
Flklore Folklore
fol., fols folio(s)
Found. Foundation
Fr. French
frag. fragment
FRIBA Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects
FRS Fellow of the Royal Society, London
Furn. Furniture
Futur. Futurist, Futurism
Gael. Gaelic
Gal., Gals Gallery, Galleries
Gaz. Gazette
Gdn, Gdns Garden(s)
Gdnr(s) Gardener(s)
Gen. General
Geneal. Genealogy, Genealogist
Gent. Gentleman, Gentlemen
Geog. Geography
Geol. Geology
Geom. Geometry
Georg. Georgian
Geosci. Geoscience
Ger. German, Germanic
G.I. Government/General Issue (USA)
Gr. Greek
Graph. Graphic
Green. Greenlandic
Gr.-Roman Greco-Roman
Gt Great
Gtr Greater
Guat. Guatemalan
Gym. Gymnasium
ha hectare
Hait. Haitian
Hb. Handbook
Heb. Hebrew
Hell. Hellenic
Her. Heritage
Herald. Heraldry, Heraldic
Hib. Hibernia
Hisp. Hispanic
Hist. History, Historical
Horiz. Horizon
Hort. Horticulture
Hosp. Hospital(s)
Human. Humanities, Humanism
Hung. Hungarian
ICA Institute of Contemporary Arts
Ice. Icelandic
Iconog. Iconography
Iconol. Iconology
Imp. Imperial
inc. incomplete
Ind. Indian
Indep. Independent
Indig. Indigenous
Indol. Indology
Indon. Indonesian
Indust. Industrial
Inf. Information
Inq. Inquiry
Inscr. Inscribed, Inscription
Inst. Institute(s)
Inst. A. Institute of Art
Instr. Instrument, Instrumental
Int. International
Intell. Intelligence
Inter. Interior(s), Internal
Interdiscip. Interdisciplinary
inv. inventory
Inven. Invention
Invest. Investigation(s)
Iran. Iranian
irreg. irregular(ly)
Islam. Islamic
Isr. Israeli
It. Italian
J. Journal
Jam. Jamaican
Jap. Japanese
Jav. Javanese
Jew. Jewish
Jewel. Jewellery
Jord. Jordanian
Juris. Jurisdiction
KBE Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
KCVO Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Knowl. Knowledge
Kor. Korean
Kyrgyz. Kyrgyzstani
l. length
Lab. Laboratory
Lang. Language(s)
Lat. Latin
Latv. Latvian
Leb. Lebanese
Lect. Lecture
Legis. Legislative
Lex. Lexicon
Liber. Liberian
Lib., Libs Library, Libraries
Libsp Librarianship
Lit. Literature
Lith. Lithuanian
Liturg. Liturgical
LLB Bachelor of Laws
LLD Doctor of Laws
MA Master of Arts; Massachusetts (USA)
Mag. Magazine
Maint. Maintenance
Malay. Malaysian
Man. Manitoba (Canada); Manual
Manuf. Manufactures
Mar. Marine, Maritime
Mason. Masonic
Mat. Material(s)
MBE Member of the Order of the British Empire
MD Doctor of Medicine; Maryland (USA)
Mech. Mechanical
Med. Medieval; Medium, Media
Medic. Medical, Medicine
Medit. Mediterranean
Mem. Memorial(s); Memoir(s)
Meso-Amer. Meso-American
Mesop. Mesopotamian
Met. Metropolitan
Metal. Metallurgy
Mex. Mexican
MFA Master of Fine Arts
Mgmt Management
Mgr Monsignor
Micrones. Micronesian
Mid. Amer. Middle American
Mid. E. Middle Eastern
Mid. Eng. Middle English
Mil. Military
Mill. Millennium
Min. Ministry; Minutes
Miss. Mission(s)
Mnmtl Monumental
Mnmt, Mnmts Monument(s)
Mod. Modern, Modernist
Moldav. Moldavian
Moldov. Moldovan
MOMA Museum of Modern Art
Mongol. Mongolian
Mor. Moral
Morav. Moravian
Moroc. Moroccan
Movt Movement
MPhil Master of Philosophy
MSc Master of Science
MS., MSS manuscript(s)
Mthly Monthly
Mun. Municipal
Mus. Museum(s)
Mus. A. Museum of Art
Mus. F.A. Museum of Fine Art(s)
Music. Musicology
N. North(ern); National
n refractive index of a medium
n. note
N.A.G. National Art Gallery
Nat. Natural, Nature
Naut. Nautical
n.d. no date
Neth. Netherlandish
Newslett. Newsletter
N.G. National Gallery
N.G.A. National Gallery of Art
Niger. Nigerian
nm nanometre (10-9 metre)
nn. notes
Nord. Nordic
Norm. Normal
Norw. Norwegian
n.p. no place (of publication)
N.P.G. National Portrait Gallery
Nr E. Near Eastern
n. s. new series
NT National Trust
Ntbk Notebook
Numi. Numismatic(s)
OBE Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Obj. Object(s), Objective
Occas. Occasional
Occident. Occidental
Ocean. Oceania
OFM Order of Friars Minor
Olymp. Olympic
OM Order of Merit
op. opus
opp. opposite; opera [pl. of opus]
Orient. Oriental
Orthdx Orthodox
OSB Order of St Benedict
Ott. Ottoman
p pence
p.a. per annum
Pak. Pakistani
Palaeontol. Palaeontology, Palaeontological
Palest. Palestinian
Pap. Paper(s)
para. paragraph
Parag. Paraguayan
Parl. Parliament
Paroch. Parochial
Patriarch. Patriarchate
Patriot. Patriotic
Patrm. Patrimony
Pav. Pavilion
Per. Period
Percep. Perceptions
Perf. Performance, Performing, Performed
Period. Periodical(s)
Pers. Persian
Persp. Perspectives
Peru. Peruvian
PhD Doctor of Philosophy
Philol. Philology
Philos. Philosophy
Phoen. Phoenician
Phot. Photograph, Photography, Photographic
Phys. Physician(s), Physics, Physique, Physical
Physiog. Physiognomy
Physiol. Physiology
Pict. Picture(s), Pictorial
pl. plate; plural
Plan. Planning
Planet. Planetarium
Plast. Plastic
pls plates
Polit. Political
Poly. Polytechnic
Polynes. Polynesian
Pop. Popular
Port. Portuguese
Port. Portfolio
Posth. Posthumous(ly)
Pott. Pottery
PRA President of the Royal Academy
Pract. Practical
Prefect. Prefecture, Prefectural
Preserv. Preservation
priv. private
PRO Public Record Office
Prob. Problem(s)
Proc. Proceedings
Prod. Production
Prog. Progress
Proj. Project(s)
Promot. Promotion
Prop. Property, Properties
Prov. Province(s), Provincial
Proven. Provenance
Prtg Printing
Prt, Prts Print(s)
Psych. Psychiatry, Psychiatric
Psychol. Psychology, Psychological
pt part
Ptg(s) Painting(s)
Pub. Public
Publ. Publicity
PVA polyvinyl acetate
PVC polyvinyl chloride
Q. quarterly
QuŽ. QuŽbec (Canada)
R reprint
r recto
RA Royal Academician
Radnors Radnorshire (GB; old)
RAF Royal Air Force
Rec. Record(s)
red. reduction, reduced for
Ref. Reference
Refurb. Refurbishment
reg regit [ruled]
Reg. Regional
Relig. Religion, Religious
remod. remodelled
Ren. Renaissance
Rep. Report(s)
Represent. Representation, Representative
Res. Research
rest. restored, restoration
Retro. Retrospective
Rev. Reverend; Review
RHA Royal Hibernian Academician
RIBA Royal Institute of British Architects
RJ Rio de Janeiro State
Rlwy Railway
RSA Royal Scottish Academy
RSFSR Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
Rur. Rural
Rus. Russian
s. solidus, solidi [shilling(s)]
Scand. Scandinavian
Sch. School
Scot. Scottish
Sculp. Sculpture
Sel. Selected
Semin. Seminar(s), Seminary
Semiot. Semiotic
Semit. Semitic
Serb. Serbian
Serv. Service(s)
Sess. Session, Sessional
Settmt(s) Settlement(s)
Siber. Siberian
Sig. Signature
Sil. Silesian
Sin. Singhala
sing. singular
SJ Societas Jesu [Society of Jesus]
Skt Sanskrit
Slav. Slavic, Slavonic
Slov. Slovene, Slovenian
Soc. Society
Social. Socialism, Socialist
Sociol. Sociology
Sov. Soviet
SP S‹o Paulo State
Sp. Spanish
Sri L. Sri Lankan
SS Saints, Santi, Santissima, Santissimo, Santissimi; Steam ship
SSR Soviet Socialist Republic
Stud. Study, Studies
Subalp. Subalpine
Sum. Sumerian
Sup. Superior
Surv. Survey
Swed. Swedish
Swi. Swiss
Symp. Symposium
Syr. Syrian
Tap. Tapestry
Tas. Tasmanian
Tech. Technical, Technique
Technol. Technology
Territ. Territory
Theat. Theatre
Theol. Theology, Theological
Theor. Theory, Theoretical
Tib. Tibetan
Top. Topography
Trad. Tradition(s), Traditional
Transafr. Transafrican
Transatlant. Transatlantic
Transcarpath. Transcarpathian
Triq. Triquarterly
Tropic. Tropical
Turk. Turkish
Turkmen. Turkmenistani
Ukrain. Ukrainian
Un. Union
Underwtr Underwater
Univl Universal
Urb. Urban
Urug. Uruguayan
v verso
V&A Victoria and Albert Museum
Var. Various
Venez. Venezuelan
Vern. Vernacular
Vict. Victorian
Vid. Video
Viet. Vietnamese
viz. videlicet [namely]
Vulg. Vulgarisation
Wkly Weekly
Wtrcol. Watercolour
Yb., Y.-b. Yearbook, Year-book
Yem. Yemeni
Yug. Yugoslavian
Zamb. Zambian
Zimb. Zimbabwean