(b Chorley, Lancs, March 11, 1819; d London, Dec 5, 1899).
English businessman and patron. After a rudimentary education, he set up his own grocery business in 1839. He opened a sugar refinery in 1859, becoming its sole owner in 1869 on the death of his partner. Here he introduced a revolutionary refining process and in 1876 began producing sugar in cubes instead of loaves; as a result he came to dominate the sugar market. In 1881, after opening a factory near the capital, he moved from Liverpool to London where he remained until his death.
Tate spent part of his vast wealth on collecting paintings and on building a gallery at his home, Park Hill, in Streatham. He favoured works by such contemporary British artists as John Everett Millais, Stanhope Forbes, Edwin Landseer, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Albert Joseph Moore and Frederic Leighton; among his purchases were Millais’s Ophelia (1851–2) and Moore’s Blossoms (1881; both London, Tate). In October 1889...