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date: 30 September 2020


  • Richard Louis Edmonds,
  • Bonnie Abiko,
  • F. G. Notehelfer,
  • Christine M. E. Guth,
  • William Samonides,
  • Sylvan Barnet,
  • H. Byron Earhart,
  • William H. Coaldrake,
  • Mary Neighbour Parent,
  • H. Mack Horton,
  • J. Edward Kidder jr,
  • Eizo Inagaki,
  • Nobuo Ito,
  • Lucie R. Weinstein,
  • Anne Nishimura Morse,
  • Donald F. McCallum,
  • Samuel C. Morse,
  • Hiromichi Soejima,
  • Chie Ishibashi,
  • Tamon Miki,
  • Kyotaro Nishikawa,
  • John Winter,
  • Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis,
  • Kōzō Sasaki,
  • Karen L. Brock,
  • Joan H. O’Mara,
  • Ken Brown,
  • Richard P. Stanley-Baker,
  • Carolyn Wheelwright,
  • Shugo Asano,
  • Richard L. Wilson,
  • Mitsuro Sakamoto,
  • Carol Morland,
  • Stephen Addiss,
  • Sadako Ohki,
  • Motoaki Kono,
  • Michiyo Morioka,
  • Ellen Conant,
  • Shigeo Chiba,
  • Claire Illouz,
  • Audrey Yoshiko Seo,
  • John T. Carpenter,
  • Fumiko E. Cranston,
  • Helmut Brinker,
  • Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter,
  • Masaaki Arakawa,
  • Richard L. Mellott,
  • Gina L. Barnes,
  • Rupert Faulkner,
  • David Hale,
  • Andrew Maske,
  • Hiroko Nishida,
  • Frederick Baekeland,
  • Matthi Forrer,
  • Amy Reigle Stephens,
  • Ellis Tinios,
  • Richard Kruml,
  • Lawrence Smith,
  • Ann Yonemura,
  • Monica Bethe,
  • Kazutoshi Harada,
  • Thomas Leims,
  • Victor Hauge,
  • Takako Hauge,
  • Terry Hiener,
  • Patricia J. Graham,
  • Jerald P. Stowell,
  • Joe Cribb,
  • Lea Baten,
  • George Kuwayama,
  • Elizabeth Palmer,
  • David Waterhouse,
  • Kazuko Koizumi,
  • Tal Streeter,
  • Raymond Bushell,
  • B. Hickman,
  • Henryk Jurkowski,
  • Norihisa Mizuta,
  • Willem van Gulik,
  • Peter Bleed
  •  and Laurance P. Roberts


East Asian country composed of some 3900 islands stretching north-east to south-west along the east coast of the Asian continent (see fig. ). The four main islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku. Japan occupies an area of 377,708 sq. km, with a population (in 1992) of slightly over 124 million.

Richard Louis Edmonds

In this dictionary the modified Hepburn or Hyōjun romanization (rōmaji) of Japanese phonemes is used. Macrons are used throughout in all romanized Japanese, except on very well-known place names such as Tokyo, Kyoto and Honshu. For names of people born (or active) before the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the family name precedes the given name; the reverse order of names is used for people born (or active) after 1868. Individuals are, however, variously known in Japan by their family names, given names, nicknames (...

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Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, 9 vols (Tokyo and New York, 1983), suppl. (Tokyo and New York, 1986)
L. Roberts: A Dictionary of Japanese Artists (New York, 1976)