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Article

Claude Laroche

(b Paris, Nov 9, 1812; d Chatou, Aug 2, 1884).

French architect and restorer. He was the son of a Neo-classical architect of the same name (1783–1868), who was a pupil of Charles Percier and architect to the département of Charente. The younger Paul Abadie began studying architecture in 1832 by joining the atelier of Achille Leclère and then entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1835. While he was following this classical training, he participated in the rediscovery of the Middle Ages by going on archaeological trips and then, from 1844, in his capacity as attaché to the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He undertook his first restoration work at Notre-Dame de Paris, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. Abadie was appointed deputy inspector at Notre-Dame in 1845, and in 1848, when the department responsible for diocesan buildings was created, he was appointed architect to the dioceses of Périgueux, Angoulême and Cahors. He subsequently completed about 40 restoration projects, mainly on Romanesque churches in Charente, in the Dordogne and the Gironde, and as a diocesan architect he was put in charge of two large cathedrals in his district: St Pierre d’Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux. In the former he undertook a huge programme of ‘completion’, returning to a stylistic unity that was in line with current episcopal policy (...

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

H. A. Meek, Harold Meek and Marion Meek

The stabilization, repair or reconstruction of buildings of historic, cultural or architectural significance. The history of building conservation is beset with ideological and aesthetic problems, including whether it should be practised at all and, if so, to what extent restoration should supervene in the original structure. Modern conservation principles, as set out in the Venice Charter (1964; see §3 below), are based on specific alternative approaches. Preservation involves minimal intervention, ensuring the stabilization and maintenance of remains in their existing state and retarding further deterioration. Restoration involves returning the fabric to a known earlier state of greater significance by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components, but without the introduction of new material. Reconstruction involves returning the fabric as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and is distinguished by the introduction of materials—new or old—to the fabric. Architectural conservation may include any of these approaches or a combination of more than one, as well as the adaptation or modification of a building to suit proposed new and compatible uses....

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Bucharest, Oct 27, 1902; d 1994).

Romanian restorer, architect and architectural historian . He studied (1922–8) at the High School of Architecture, Bucharest, under Petre Antonescu and Paul Smărăndescu. In 1928 he obtained a two-year bursary to study at the Accademia di Romania, Rome, where he specialized in architectural restoration. He attended the courses of Gustavo Giovannoni at the faculty of architecture at the Università La Sapienza, Rome, and studied Italian restoration projects. From 1930 he worked for the Historical Monuments Commission in Bucharest. Among his early restoration projects were the 18th-century churches of Kretzulescu (1932–9) and Antim (1945), Bucharest, and during this period he also designed a number of original works, such as the Gordon Hayward Villa (1936–7) in Cîmpina, the church in Balcic, and the Pherekyde and Constantinescu houses (1938), also in Balcic. Notable later restorations include the 17th-century monastery church (1943–4) at Iası, the church (...

Article

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...

Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

Article

Amedeo Bellini

(b Milan, Nov 13, 1854; d Rome, Aug 8, 1933).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. He attended both the Politecnico in Milan and the Accademia di Brera, studying as a pupil of Camillo Boito. He graduated in 1875 and the following year enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he attended Jean-Louis Pascal’s atelier, and came into contact with Charles Garnier, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine Davioud and Théodore Ballu. He also cultivated the interest in engraving that he had acquired under the painter Luigi Conconi and exhibited at the Salon of 1877. In 1880 Beltrami won the competition organized by the municipality of Milan for a monument (unexecuted) to the anti-Austrian uprising of 1848 and was appointed to the chair in architecture at the Accademia di Brera. The following year he also shared first prize with Carlo Ferrario (1833–1907) in a competition organized by the Accademia di Brera for a new façade for the cathedral. Between 1880 and 1886...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Florence, Feb 1819; d Florence, April 3, 1892).

Italian restorer. He was the most important restorer of wall paintings in Florence during the second half of the 19th century. A painter of modest talent, specializing mainly in murals, as seen in his Self-portrait (1858; Florence, Uffizi), he was a successful restorer, who worked in the context of the tradition advocated by Viollet-le-Duc. He restored wall paintings in several rooms in the Bargello, in the south transept of Santa Croce (c. 1870) and in the Castello di Vincigliata (1870–80), all in Florence.

Bianchi’s technical methods, for example the transfer of the entire intonaco on to reed matting, and his extensive knowledge of the techniques and treatment of the layers of paint are reflected in Forni’s handbook. All his projects involved extensive in-painting, but he was careful to conserve any original painting. His most famous restoration was that of Giotto’s frescoes in the Bardi Chapel in Santa Croce (...

Article

(b Château de Vérignon, Var, Jan 10, 1771; d Prague, Nov 17, 1839).

French patron and collector. A leading ultra-conservative political figure, he engaged in restoration of French royal properties. As Ministre de la Maison du Roi (March–June 1815) he tried to initiate the restoration of Versailles. As ambassador to Rome (1816–22) he restored the Spanish Steps and Domenichino’s frescoes (1612–15) in S Luigi dei Francesi. His Trinità dei Monti project involved Charles-François Mazois, Ingres, Pietro Tenerani and pensioners of the French Academy in Rome. He was the patron of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Horace Vernet and Vincenzo Camuccini as well as of artists of lesser renown such as François-Xavier Fabre, Pietro Tenerani, Auguste-Jean-Baptiste Vinchon (1789–1855), Auguste Forestier (1780–1850) and Louis-Vincent-Léon Pallière (1787–1820). Blacas’s extensive collection of ancient art (London, BM) comprised 950 gems, over 500 Greek vases, terracotta and bronze sculpture, Roman mural paintings, Greek and Roman glass, papyrus inscriptions, jewellery, over 400 Egyptian artefacts, Islamic vessels and over 2,000 Greek and Roman coins. He supported scholarly research that resulted in ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Strasbourg, March 2, 1815; d Paris, March 20, 1896).

French architect and restorer. After training as a mason, he visited Munich in 1836 and then studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Henri Labrouste. He soon joined the group of Gothic Revival architects that formed around Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc, and from 1843 he worked for the Commission des Monuments Historiques, with which he spent a large part of his career. He built very little, apart from the church of Ste Eugénie at Biarritz, but restored a large number of buildings, including the cathedrals of Toul and Laon (see Laon, §1, (i)) and the churches at Montiérender, Avioth (Notre-Dame), Chaumont (St Jean-Baptiste) and Guebwiller (St Léger). Boeswillwald began his career in the administration of diocesan buildings as Inspecteur (1845) at Notre-Dame, Paris, with Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc. He was successively appointed diocesan architect to Luçon (1846), Bayonne (...

Article

Giuliana Ricci and Amedeo Bellini

(b Rome, Oct 30, 1836; d Milan, June 28, 1914).

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. Boito was an important figure in many ways in the cultural life of Italy, and especially Milan, in the second half of the 19th century. He not only taught at the Accademia di Brera and the Istituto Tecnico Superiore for nearly 50 years but also took part in competitions (both as competitor and adjudicator), wrote articles on architecture and restoration for newspapers and periodicals, as well as numerous reports for private individuals and the government, and was active in numerous professional associations. He also served on numerous commissions, particularly after his appointment as Director of the Accademia di Brera in 1897.

Giuliana Ricci

Boito entered the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice in 1850 and won a prize there in 1852. In 1854 he entered the Studio Matematico at the Università degli Studi in Padua, and in 1855 he qualified as a professional architect. In ...

Article

Frank Arneil Walker

(b Cologne, Oct 18, 1845; d Zagreb, April 17, 1926).

German architect, active in Croatia. He was educated in Cologne, then continued his architectural studies in Vienna, where he entered the studio of Friedrich von Schmidt, and was later in Rome. Under Schmidt he worked on the restoration of the Stephansdom in Vienna, and in 1876 he was put in charge of similar work in Croatia, implementing Schmidt’s designs (1875–82) for the cathedral at Đakovo and his project (1876–82) to restore St Mark’s, Zagreb. His most notable restorations were at the church of Marija Bistrica (1878–83) and at Zagreb Cathedral (1879–1902), but his rather purist approach often failed to respect the organic accretions of later periods, and he destroyed many provincial Baroque buildings, for example in the Gornji Grad and Kaptol districts of Zagreb (and elsewhere). An earthquake in Zagreb in 1880 gave Bollé his greatest opportunities in terms of both architecture and urban planning. In addition to further restoration work and a number of new neo-Gothic and neo-classical churches he built several urban housing blocks and public buildings in a Renaissance Revival style reminiscent of works in Vienna. Of these the city’s Crafts School (...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Venice, April 25, 1859; d Rome, July 10, 1925).

Italian archaeologist. He was educated in Venice at a time when there was great controversy over the conservation of original works of art, especially in connection with the restorations (1875) in S Marco. In 1888 he moved to Rome, where he became an inspector of monuments and advocated the establishment of a photographic archive and a catalogue of monuments as a basis for restoration programmes. Having collaborated on excavations inside the Pantheon in 1892, from 1895 he superintended new excavations in the Forum Romanum (see Rome, §V, 1); the latter uncovered fundamental evidence concerning the origins of Rome, including the Lapis Niger (1st century bc; in situ), an archaic Latin inscription (c. 500 bc; Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, Academia Litterarum Borussicae, Berlin, 1863–, vi, 36840) and ‘pre-Romulan’ burial grounds. He was influenced by John Ruskin’s philosophy of art and argued that the prime function of restoration is to preserve original materials. In ...

Article

(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....

Article

Alessandro Conti

(b Pisa, Dec 9, 1829; d Turin, ?after 1907).

Italian restorer. He was a painter of stained-glass windows, completing those in Perugia Cathedral by 1868. Later he worked exclusively as a restorer, particularly of wall paintings. He achieved fame through his work, in 1856, on Benozzo Gozzoli’s Rape of Diana in the Camposanto, Pisa, in which his aim was solely that of conservation. To this end he removed unsafe sections and simply replaced them securely on the wall, leaving repainted areas intentionally visible, in a conscious renunciation of the ‘artistic’ approach to restoration work. A trusted collaborator of Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, he worked on the frescoes in both the Upper Church of S Francesco, Assisi (1873), and also the Lower, particularly those by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (1874). He began restoration work in the Arena Chapel at Padua (1868–71) but was removed on the grounds of technical incompetence and replaced by Antonio Bertolli, who practised the same methods but was deemed to be more reliable. In ...

Article

V. P. Tsel’tner

[Mikhail]

(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...

Article

Chris Brooks

(b London, Sept 7, 1814; d London, Feb 23, 1900).

English architect and designer. He committed his feelings and creative energies to the High Anglicanism of the Oxford Movement from the early 1840s and to its expression through the revival of Gothic architecture and design, then vociferously advocated by the Ecclesiological Society, of which he became an active member. Butterfield’s extensive output was almost exclusively confined to the building and restoration of churches and associated buildings, such as vicarages and schools.

He was the eldest son of a London chemist, and his parents were Nonconformists. From 1831 to 1833 Butterfield was articled to a Pimlico builder, Thomas Arber, from whom he must have derived the detailed understanding of practical building that was to be basic to his architectural practice. Between 1833 and 1836 he was the pupil of E. L. Blackburne, a London architect with strong antiquarian interests, and in 1838–9 he became assistant to a Worcester architect, probably Harvey Eginton, whose practice included church building and restoration. During this period Butterfield must have begun to acquire the profound knowledge of medieval architecture that was to underlie all his work. In ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...