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Article

Ticio Escobar

(b Dobrzyn, 1906; d Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1972).

Paraguayan painter and engraver of Polish birth. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań and the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Düsseldorf. As a result of Nazi persecution he settled in Paraguay in 1936, where his work was particularly influential on the development of late 20th-century art. Although he was not an innovator from the point of view of form, he introduced into painting a dramatic content drawn from Paraguayan history and comment on social injustice and recent wars, thus giving new life to a school of painting that until then had been bucolic. His somber and moving oil paintings had vitality and an impassioned expressiveness. In the late 1930s and early 1940s this intensity of expression in his work provided a useful complement to the formal clarity of Jaime Bestard; both helped to undermine the prevailing academicism of art in Paraguay. Bandurek’s black-and-white wood engravings confirm the drama in his work and his persisting social concern. They were published in Buenos Aires in ...

Article

Esther Acevedo

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1898; d Honolulu, Mar 20, 1979).

French painter and printmaker, active in Mexico and the USA. As a child he was surrounded by the nostalgic presence of Mexico, as one of his great-grandmothers was Mexican, and one of his grandfathers had collected Pre-Columbian art. He specialized in murals, painting his first for the Exposition Saint-Jean, an exhibition of liturgical art at the Louvre in 1920. In 1921 he settled in Mexico to take up an offer of work from Alfredo Ramos Martínez at the open-air school in Coyoacán. He worked in Mexico City as one of Diego Rivera’s assistants on the mural The Creation (1923), executing two important murals of his own in the city during the same period: the Conquest of Tenochtitlán (1922–1923) in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, and Porters and Washerwomen (1923) in the building of the Secretaría de Educación Pública. Charlot collaborated on the magazine Mexican Folkways...

Article

Gego  

Gustavo Navarro-Castro

[Goldschmidt, Gertrudis ]

(b Hamburg, Aug 1, 1912; d Caracas, Sept 17, 1994).

Venezuelan architect, sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker of German birth. She studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart until 1938; one of her principal teachers was Paul Bonatz. The following year she travelled to Venezuela, where she combined her artistic career as a sculptor, draughtsman and engraver with teaching work. In 1952 she adopted Venezuelan nationality. She later began experimenting with the conversion of planes into three-dimensional forms, exploring the media of drawing, watercolour, engraving, collage and sculpture and integrating them into architectural spaces in defiance of artistic conventions. A pioneering example of her integration of art and architecture was her design (1962) for the headquarters of the Banco Industrial de Venezuela in Caracas, which comprised a 10-m tower of interlocking aluminium and steel tubes. Later works that explored the form of the web included Trunk No. 6 (wire, 1976; artists col., see exh. cat., p. 114). She participated in numerous one-woman and group shows in Venezuela and other countries, and in ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

revised by Alana Hernandez

(b Rio de Janeiro, Oct 31, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Feb 15, 1961).

Brazilian draftsman and printmaker. In 1901 he returned to Switzerland with his father, the Swiss naturalist Emil Goeldi, who served as the director of the Museu de História Natural e Ethnografia do Para (later the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) in Belém. In 1917 he enrolled in the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Geneva, but left soon after. He settled in Rio de Janeiro in 1919 and began a career as an engraver and illustrator for popular magazines, and became attached to a group of avant-garde artists. In 1921 Goeldi had his first solo exhibition, which later led to his participation in the 1922 Semana de Arte Moderna in São Paulo with a group of drawings.

Goeldi took up printmaking in 1924, particularly favoring woodcuts, and he illustrated numerous books, reviews, and literary supplements, especially after the success of his illustrations for Raul Bopp’s poem Cobra Norato (Rio de Janeiro, 1937...

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, Dec 18, 1920; d Bogotá, Apr 1, 2004).

Colombian painter, sculptor, printmaker, filmmaker, and stage designer. He studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1941 to 1943 and subsequently visited Italy, where he studied fresco and etching techniques before settling again in Colombia. Consistently devoted to the human form, he initially depicted figures with angular heads and striped tunics in a strong light, with symbolic objects such as eggs, masks, or cages.

In such later paintings as Boy with Umbrella (1964; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas) Grau’s figures were transformed into plump, fleshy, and voluptuous beings, richly arrayed with lace, feathers, hats, and fans, like characters taken from the theater or from popular turn-of-the-century postcards. His scenes were gradually filled with anecdotal details and numerous objects, including cupboards, easels, boxes, masks, and flowers, through which he suggested emotionally charged atmospheres. Grau also produced murals, prints, stage sets, films, and especially sculptures. The first of these were assemblages of antique and industrial objects, but he subsequently made cast-bronze sculptures that convey a sensuousness, mystery, and nostalgia similar to that evoked by his paintings....

Article

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....

Article

Alberto Cernuschi

(Julio)

(b Guatemala City, Dec 11, 1903; d Glen Ridge, NJ, April 4, 1981).

American painter and printmaker of Guatemalan birth. Of Polish, German, and Danish heritage, he started school in Denmark and completed high school in San Diego, CA, after working as a seaman and as a farmer in Guatemala. He eventually decided to train as a painter, studying at the San Diego Fine Arts School in 1925 and with Hans Hofmann in Munich in 1926–7. He settled permanently in the USA only in 1934. The patronage of Saidie Alder May (d 1951), a wealthy woman whom he met in 1927 as a fellow student of Hofmann, made it possible for him to dedicate himself to the study of colour theory (especially that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), Mayan and Inca cultures, science, mathematics, and philosophy. Much of this knowledge was later transposed into complex, diagrammatic pictures such as Family Portrait (1958) and The Great Mystery II (1960...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Kozienice, April 12, 1921).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, painter and photographer of Polish birth. He left Poland in 1943 to study in Minsk and Leningrad (now St Petersburg), followed by further study with Willi Baumeister in Stuttgart (1945–7). In 1948 he moved to Brazil, living in São Paulo and later in Paraná (1952–6) and Rio de Janeiro (1956–8). The Paraná jungle aroused an interest in nature that was first expressed in paintings and drawings of vegetable forms. After leaving Brazil for Ibiza (1963) he made reliefs in earth and stones, using nature as a raw material rather than merely as a subject. His subsequent engraved reliefs of leaves or sand furrows, and wooden sculptures of the Bahian coast mangrove trees or the Amazonian jungle, were as much an ecological as an aesthetic statement. He frequently used photography to draw attention to such issues as the scorched Brazilian forests, for example in his book ...

Article

Ana Tapias

revised by Susanna Temkin

(b Memel [now Klaipéda], Jun 9, 1914; d Caracas, Jan 22, 1998).

Venezuelan graphic designer, printmaker, painter, photographer, sculptor, museum curator, and teacher of Lithuanian birth. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hannover, at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Mainz, and, after briefly completing his obligatory military service, at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich with typographer Fritz H. Ehmcke (1878–1965). He moved to Venezuela in 1951, becoming a citizen in 1954. He is acknowledged for his contributions to the Venezuelan postwar art scene and, in particular, to the field of graphic design.

In Venezuela he briefly worked for the Grant Advertising company, and later as Director of Art of McCann Erickson, taking over the position from Carlos Cruz-Diez. In 1952 he met the artist Gego, who became his life partner and with whom he collaborated on projects at the Centro Comercial Cediaz (1967) and the Instituto de Cooperación Educativa (INCE) (1968). From 1957 to 1959 he was art director of the magazine ...

Article

Mari Carmen Ramírez

(b Santurce, Puerto Rico, 1939).

Puerto Rican printmaker, painter, draftsman, illustrator, and performance artist. He studied in Spain in 1961–1962 under Julio Martín Caro and with Lorenzo Homar at the graphic arts workshop of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña (1962–1965). He inherited a social and political commitment from Puerto Rican artists working in the 1950s, but introduced wit and irony to his satirical treatment of political themes in prints, posters, and illustrations. From the late 1960s, for instance, he produced portfolios of woodcuts in which he combined texts and images as a way of commenting on social and political events.

Martorell founded the Taller Alacrán in 1968 with the aim of mass-producing art at affordable prices. In the 1970s he began to experiment with innovative printmaking techniques, for example in a series of cut-out works influenced by Pop art, in which he played on stereotypes of authoritarianism in Latin America. In subsequent prints he explored the painterly qualities of woodcuts on a monumental scale. From the late 1970s, however, he was increasingly concerned with innovative live performances that combined printmaking and painting with the movement of actors. From ...

Article

Leonor Morales

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Guadalajara, Feb 19, 1887; d Mexico City, Oct 13, 1968).

Mexican mural and easel painter, printmaker, illustrator, and stage designer. In 1903 he began studying painting in Guadalajara under Félix Bernardelli, an Italian who had established a school of painting and music there. He produced his first illustrations for Revista moderna, a magazine that promoted the Latin American modernist movement and to which his cousin, the poet Amado Nervo, also contributed poetry. In 1905 he enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Arte in Mexico City; his teachers included Antonio Fabrés, Julio Ruelas, Leandro Izaguirre (1867–1941), and Germán Gedovius. Some of his fellow students were Diego Rivera, Francisco de la Torre, Saturnino Herrán, Angel Zárraga, and Jorge Enciso. In 1905 Montenegro won a grant to travel to Europe, first studying at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. In 1907 Montenegro moved to Paris, where he continued his studies and immersed himself in the world of contemporary art, meeting Cocteau, Picasso, Braque, and Gris, among others....

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Barcelona, 1920; d Cartagena, Apr 11, 1992).

Colombian painter, printmaker, draftsman, and sculptor of Spanish birth. After studying in Spain, France, and at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1937–41), he began his career in Colombia in the mid-1940s with paintings in a naturalistic style. He soon developed a more expressionist idiom based to some degree also on Cubism in its reconstruction of multiple fragmented figures. Gradually extending his range of color and defining his motifs as signs and symbols of his culture, he favored images such as mangrove swamps, volcanoes, condors, bulls, and gannets. Much of the expressive power of his work was based on striking contrasts, for example between energetic brushwork and fine detail, between mysterious glazes and imposing figures, or between muted gray areas and areas of bright contrasting colors. Direct references to reality co-exist with allusions to magic, enigmas, and fantasy. In 1956 he won the Gulf–Caribbean Art Prize for Cattle Crossing the Magdalena...

Article

Omar Olivares

(b Goiás, Apr 17, 1943).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, and teacher, active in the UK. She studied sculpture and music at the University of Goiás (1960–1964) and the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (1965). Through a British Council scholarship she went to London (1973), where she settled, later being appointed as Head of Fine Art at Norwich School of Art, Norfolk (1985–1989). For her artistic work she drew upon diverse sources: memories of the landscape of her childhood; the troubled and fantastic visions of Spanish art and literature, of Goya, Picasso, and Federico García Lorca. She explored themes of performance and masquerade in sculptural settings of life-size mannequins. Her polychromed woodcarvings, notably The Banquet (1985; artist’s col., see Brighton 1989, pl. 23) and Man and his Sheep (base, Jura marble, 1989; artist’s col.; exh. 1995, Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G., see Brighton 1989, pl. 1), place subjects in claustrophobic situations of entrapment and interrogation. It is perhaps in her extensive series of drypoint etchings, realized with consummate technical mastery, that Pacheco found her most complete expression, for example the playful charade of ...

Article

Marta Gili

(b Valencia, May 17, 1907; d E. Berlin, Oct 11, 1982).

Spanish photomontagist and printmaker, active in Mexico and Germany. He studied painting at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Carlos in Valencia (1919–26), subsequently becoming a graphic designer and photomontagist (1928–39) in Valencia, Madrid, and Barcelona. In his printmaking, which was influenced by John Heartfield and by Socialist Realism, he showed a strong commitment to the Republican cause and a talent for satire, often expressed through the use of colourful popular imagery. When the Spanish Civil War ended in 1939 he went into exile in Mexico, where he executed a series of photomontages entitled The American Way of Life (1949–66), in which he denounced American imperialism and capitalism. In 1958 he moved permanently to East Berlin, where he executed the series Fata Morgana U.S.A.

Fata Morgana U.S.A. (1967)The American Way of Life (Barcelona, 1977)Naggar, C. “The Photomontages of Josep Renau.” ...

Article

Luis Enrique Tord

(b Arequipa, Aug 19, 1940).

Peruvian painter and printmaker. He studied in the Netherlands and produced fantastic Surrealist-influenced pictures, in which he made reference to Flemish and Italian painting of the Renaissance. In a number of his dreamlike paintings figures appear to have emerged from a great box of robot toys, contributing to the painting’s disconcertingly cold atmosphere....

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Jan 23, 1890; d Guatemala City, Jan 24, 1929).

Guatemalan painter, sculptor, and printmaker. After studying in Guatemala under the Venezuelan sculptor Santiago González (1850–1909) he went to Spain, where he was a pupil of the stage designer Luis Muriel. Shortly after returning to Guatemala in 1915 he painted Self-portrait (Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.). He took part in several group exhibitions, winning a national first prize in 1920 and the first prize for painting in the Exposición Centroamericana held in 1921 on the centenary of independence. Works painted by him during the 1920s, such as Nude (c. 1920), Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (c. 1922), and Tamales (c. 1922, all Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.), all reveal the influence of Impressionism. He also produced two portraits of the Spanish Catalan painter Jaime Sabartés (1881–1968), who lived in Guatemala from 1904 to 1927 and became a close friend: one etching and one oil painting (Rodríguez Padilla family priv. col., on loan to Guatemala City, Mus. N. A. Mod.)....

Article

Leonor Morales

(b Zacatecas, Jun 21, 1870; d Paris, Sept 16, 1907).

Mexican painter, draftsman, and printmaker. He lived in Mexico City from 1876, later attending the Colegio Militar and the Escuela de Bellas Artes there before leaving for Karlsruhe, Germany, around 1892. There he came into contact with Romanticism and Jugendstil, both of which had a great influence on his drawings and prints, the most important part of his work. He studied under the academic painter Meyerbeer and seems to have been particularly attracted by the work of Arnold Böcklin.

Ruelas returned in 1895 to Mexico, where he met a group of intellectuals who three years later founded the Revista Moderna, including the writers Jesús E. Valenzuela, José Juan Tablada, Jesús Urueta, and Juan Sánchez Azcona, and the painters Germán Gedovius, Roberto Montenegro, and Leandro Izaguirre. Ruelas collaborated on several issues of the magazine, the voice of the Latin American modernist movement, from 1899, with reproductions of drawings, vignettes, and occasionally of his oil paintings, such as ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay and Pauline Antrobus

(b Cajabamba, Cajamarca, March 19, 1888; d Lima, Dec 15, 1956).

Peruvian painter, printmaker and teacher. From 1908 he visited Europe (Italy in particular) and North Africa before studying at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, from 1910. From 1913 to 1918 he taught art in Jujuy. He returned briefly to Buenos Aires before spending six months in Cuzco, where he became committed to portraying scenes of Cuzco and her inhabitants and thus pioneered Indigenism. The works from this period were exhibited in 1919 at the Casa Brandes, Lima, where they caused a considerable stir. In 1920 he began teaching at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lima, becoming Director in 1932; his ‘resignation’ in 1943 was the result of the government’s gratuitous appointments of staff without consultation.

A short visit to Mexico in 1922 and contacts with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros engendered in Sabogal that determination to promote Peruvian art internationally. He was involved with José Carlos Meriátequi’s review, ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Vilna [now Vilnius], Jul 7, 1890; d São Paulo, Aug 2, 1957).

Lithuanian painter and printmaker, active in Brazil. In 1906 he enrolled in the Berlin Akademie, where he was a student of Lovis Corinth and Max Liebermann. He took part in the Berlin Freie Sezession in 1909 and in 1910 held a one-man show of Expressionist paintings at the Galerie Gurlitt in Dresden. In 1912 he went to Brazil, introducing Expressionist paintings to the country for the first time when he exhibited his work in Rio de Janeiro and in the interior of São Paulo state during 1913. From 1914 to 1923 he lived in Dresden, where he participated in Expressionist exhibitions and published a book of five etchings, Souvenirs of Vilna (Dresden, 1919). In 1923 he returned to Brazil to marry and settle in São Paulo, where his activities included the founding of the Sociedade Pro-Arte Moderna in 1932.

Segall adapted his Expressionist style to Brazilian subjects and color schemes in paintings such as ...

Article

Jorge Glusberg

(b Córdoba, Jan 11, 1934).

Argentine painter and printmaker. Although he began to study law in 1950, he soon abandoned it for painting, which he studied while traveling in France and Spain in 1951–1952. In 1957, the year of his first one-man show at the Galeria Paideia, Córdoba, he moved to Mexico, where he lived until 1961. He settled in Paris in 1963. In the early 1960s he produced paintings of Expressionist origin (e.g. The President of the Company, 1963; see 1969 exh. cat., p. 5), their heavy impasto soon developing into a very personal form of Art informel presaging the theatrical devices of his later work. Although these established his reputation in Europe, in 1966–1968 he took up a bright, flat style related to Pop art, as in Roberto Climbing a Staircase (1966; see 1969 exh. cat., p. 13). This gave rise to painted assemblages with cartoon-like figures and settings cut out of wood, as in ...