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Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

(b Jan 25, 1930; d Lomé, Jan 4, 2010).

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Mieke van der Wal

(b The Hague, Jan 6, 1876; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1955).

Dutch sculptor and ceramicist. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1894–7) and in various sculpture studios. In 1898 he decorated the shop-front of the gallery Arts and Crafts in The Hague after a design by Johan Thorn Prikker, who advised him to set up on his own. From 1901 Altorf exhibited regularly and successfully; he was represented at the Prima Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa Moderna in Turin in 1902, where he won a silver medal, and at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925.

Altorf was a leading exponent of Dutch Art Nouveau. His work is characterized by a strong simplification of form. It is often compared with that of Joseph Mendes da Costa but is somewhat more angular and austere. At first Altorf made mainly animal forms from various types of wood, ivory, bronze and ceramic. In firing his modelled figures, he worked with the ceramicist ...

Article

Lisa M. Binder

(b Anyako, Ghana, June 13, 1944).

Ghanaian sculptor, active in Nigeria. He earned a bachelor’s degree in sculpture (1968) and a postgraduate diploma in art education from the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (1969). After graduation he taught at the Specialist Training College (now University of Winneba), Ghana, in a position vacated by the eminent sculptor Vincent Kofi. From 1975 he was Professor of Sculpture at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Anatsui’s practice often makes use of found objects including bottle caps, milk-tins and cassava graters. However, he is not concerned with recycling or salvaging; instead he seeks meaning in the ways materials can be transformed to make statements about history, culture and memory.

His early work consists of ceramic sculptures manipulated to reconfigure pieces of memory. In 1978 he began his Broken Pots series, which was exhibited the following year at the British Council in Enugu, Nigeria. Several of the ceramic works were made of sherds that were fused together by a grog-like cement of broken pieces. Making art historical references to ...

Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

Laure de Margerie

(b Longwy, Meurthe et Moselle, July 3, 1837; d Capbreton, Landes, Aug 23, 1916).

French sculptor. In 1851 he entered the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, Paris, also studying with Antoine-Laurent Dantan, and in 1854 moved to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A grant from his native département enabled him to travel to Italy in 1866–7, though he was evidently little influenced by antique or Renaissance works of art. Apart from his bronze monument to Dante Alighieri (1879–80; Paris, Square Monge), his work is in a neo-Rococo style, as exemplified in his terracotta bust of his daughter Marcelle Aubé (1910; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). Besides many portrait busts he also executed public monuments to notable Frenchmen, several of which were destroyed on the orders of the Vichy government in 1941. The most important, and most controversial, was that to Léon Gambetta (bronze, 1884–8), built in collaboration with the architect Louis-Charles Boileau in the courtyard of the Louvre in Paris; it was damaged during World War II and dismantled from ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1926, Butte, MT; d Missoula, MT June 20, 2007).

American potter and sculptor of Finnish descent who is best known as a figurative ceramicist but has also worked in bronze, concrete, glass and metal. His works are normally in stoneware with incised decorations, but Autio began to work in porcelain while working at the Arabia Porcelain Factory in Helsinki in the 1980s....

Article

Valerie Holman

(b Mennecy, Seine-et-Oise, Feb 3, 1895; d Paris, June 6, 1979).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic artist, ceramicist and tapestry designer. He attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, from 1911, until he joined the army in 1915. After World War I he devoted himself primarily to painting. In 1922 he met Juan Gris with whose encouragement his early Matisse-influenced rhythmical compositions acquired greater stability. In the late 1920s he was promoted by Tériade as a successor to the Cubists, with such works as The Mirror (1929; Paris, Pompidou), in which a highly simplified figure and its mirror-image are defined by patches of flat colour and fragments of linear contrast, and by the 1940s he was seen as one of the major representatives of the Ecole de Paris. In the 1950s his earlier predilection for curvilinear shapes gave way to a more angular and dynamic geometry, as in the First Race (1952; Paris, Pompidou). His subject-matter was taken from daily life, with marked preferences for the nude in movement, as in ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Valcartier, Qué., May 16, 1836; d Trenton, NJ, May 4, 1922).

American sculptor, ceramic modeller and teacher of Canadian birth. Broome received his artistic training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he was elected an Academician in 1860 and taught (1860–63) in the Life and Antique department. In 1854 he assisted Thomas Crawford with the statues on the pediment of the Senate wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC, and tried unsuccessfully to establish a firm for architectural terracotta and garden ornaments in Pittsburgh and New York.

From 1875 Broome was employed as a modeller by the firm of Ott & Brewer in Trenton, NJ. The parian porcelain sculpture he created for their display at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia won him medals for ceramic arts (e.g. Plaque; New York, Met.). Following his success at the Exhibition and at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, for which he was Special Commissioner from the USA, he was active as a teacher and lecturer and was keenly interested in educational, political and industrial reforms. He also continued as a modeller for potters in Ohio and Trenton, including the ...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

Silvia Lucchesi

(b Pescara, Feb 2, 1921; d Pietrasanta, May 23, 2008).

Italian sculptor, painter, ceramicist, mosaicist and designer. He learnt the first rudiments of his art in the workshop of his father Tommaso, experimenting with painting, sculpture and applied arts. At the end of the 1930s, he moved to Rome, where he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti. He was initially a painter and after World War II collaborated with architects on various decorative projects, including the base of the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Genoa and the ceiling of the Salone delle Riunioni in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome (1955–6). At the same time he was active as a ceramicist and mosaicist, and between 1949 and 1956 he produced large polychrome compositions that were influenced by Picasso (e.g. a mosaic made in collaboration with his first wife, Maria Cesarini Sforza, c. 1949; Rome, Stazione Termini). In 1950 he exhibited for the first time at L’Obelisco in Rome, with his brother the sculptor ...

Article

Susan Compton

[Shagal, Mark (Zakharovich); Shagal, Moses]

(b Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], Belarus’, July 7, 1887; d Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, March 28, 1985).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, designer, sculptor, ceramicist, and writer of Belarusian birth. A prolific artist, Chagall excelled in the European tradition of subject painting and distinguished himself as an expressive colourist. His work is noted for its consistent use of folkloric imagery and its sweetness of colour, and it is characterized by a style that, although developed in the years before World War I, underwent little progression throughout his long career (see.g. I and the Village, 1911; New York, MOMA). Though he preferred to be known as a Belarusian artist, following his exile from the Soviet Union in 1923 he was recognized as a major figure of the Ecole de Paris, especially in the later 1920s and the 1930s. In his last years he was regarded as a leading artist in stained glass.

Chagall spent his childhood, admirably recorded in his autobiography, in a warm Hassidic family in Vitebsk [now Viciebsk], with frequent visits to his grandfather’s village home. He attended the traditional Jewish school but afterwards succeeded in entering the local Russian high school, where he excelled in geometry and drawing and determined to become an artist. At first he studied locally in the studio of ...

Article

Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...

Article

A. K. C. Petersen

(b Bromley, Kent, March 3, 1899; d Auckland, Feb 18, 1987).

English painter, sculptor, potter and teacher, active in New Zealand. He studied from 1919 to 1924 at the Royal College of Art in London, where he first became interested in the modern movement in painting and experimented with direct carving. In 1925 he emigrated to New Zealand to take up a position at the King Edward Technical College, Dunedin. There he proved an influential teacher. He established the Six and Four Art Club, partly in response to the English 7 & 5 Society, and inspired several students who were to become leading New Zealand painters, notably Colin McCahon and M. T. Woollaston.

Mostly small-scale, Field’s work was experimental and helped to free art in New Zealand from representational values. Paintings such as Christ at the Well of Samaria (1929; Wellington, Mus. NZ, Te Papa Tongarewa) were striking for their pure colour and pointillist brushwork. Carvings such as Wahine (...

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, Jul 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter, and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learned to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...

Article

Richard Cork

(b India, Feb 15, 1884; d Cookham, Berks, March 13, 1959).

English painter, designer, ceramicist and sculptor. He studied at the Slade School of Fine Art between 1899 and 1903, where Wyndham Lewis was a fellow student, and then taught art at Clifton College (1907–10). It seems that Hamilton was in sympathy with avant-garde developments since he was involved c. 1912 with the Cave of the Golden Calf, the audacious cabaret club decorated with murals and sculpture by Jacob Epstein, Eric Gill, Charles Ginner, Spencer Gore and Wyndham Lewis. His work was shown in the final month of Roger Fry’s Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition (January 1913) in London, and later that year he joined the Omega Workshops, designing furniture, clothes and avant-garde interiors. In October 1913, however, he left Omega with Frederick Etchells, Lewis and Edward Wadsworth in protest against Fry’s policy.

Hamilton’s work was included in the ‘Cubist Room’ section of the Camden Town Group and Others...

Article

Troels Andersen

[Jørgensen, Asger Oluf]

(b Vejrum, Jutland, March 3, 1914; d Århus, May 1, 1973).

Danish painter, printmaker, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor and writer, also active in France. His personality and work exerted a decisive influence on his contemporaries, and he is recognized as one of the most important Scandinavian artists since Edvard Munch. He grew up in the provincial town of Silkeborg, Jutland, but after qualifying as a teacher in 1935 he went to Paris to study under Fernand Léger. He also worked as an assistant to Le Corbusier in 1937 during the Exposition Universelle. In 1938 he held his first exhibition in Copenhagen, with Pierre Wemaëre (b 1913). Jorn had to return to Denmark shortly before the outbreak of World War II. In 1941 he set up Helhesten, a magazine dealing with art, literature and archaeology. Among its contributors were Ejler Bille, Henry Heerup, Egill Jacobsen and Carl-Henning Pedersen; they developed a concept of spontaneous–abstract art, based partly on the pioneer work of Richard Mortensen and Ejler Bille during the 1930s....

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

[Fusajirō]

(b Kyoto, March 23, 1883; d Kanagawa, Dec 21, 1959).

Japanese potter, calligrapher and medallist. At an early age he taught himself seal-carving and calligraphy, for which he won a prize in 1904; soon after he became a commercial calligrapher and medallist. In 1915 he had his first experience of decorating pottery at a kiln in the district of Hokuriku. In 1919 he opened an art shop in Tokyo, and in 1920 he founded the Gourmet’s Club on the second floor of the store, serving food in traditional ceramic vessels that he had himself collected. Kitaōji soon began to produce his own pottery, creating forms drawn from studying the vessels that he used for his cuisine. In 1925 he opened the Gourmet’s Club Hoshigaoka Restaurant in Tokyo. In 1926 he established a studio and kiln known as Hoshigaokayō in Kita Kamakura. He often surpassed the classical forms on which his works were based, becoming well known for his simple but original designs. He used red enamels and gold in his work and was influenced by blue-and-white wares and coloured porcelain from the Ming period (...

Article

Ida Bod-Bobrovszky

(b Győr, Nov 30, 1902; d Budapest, June 4, 1977).

Hungarian ceramicist and sculptor. She studied at Álmos Jaschik’s school of drawing in Budapest. In 1926 she moved to Vienna to study under the ceramicist Hertha Bucher, and in 1928–9 she studied ceramics and sculpture at the Staatsschule für Angewandte Kunst in Munich. She visited Copenhagen and Paris in 1932–4 on study tours. She exhibited regularly from 1928, later gaining major awards for her work.

Kovács concentrated on decorative figural representation, producing ceramic sculptures as well as murals, reliefs, tableware and monumental works on buildings. Principally inspired by medieval and folk art, she used potters’ and sculptors’ techniques in her extraordinarily inventive and imaginative compositions, often combining various materials (clay, fire-clay, or a vitrified stone and clinker mixture), paint (in earth colours) and glazes. Her ceramic sculptures, shaped on the potter’s wheel and decorated with a few colours, are particularly rich characterizations that speak eloquently about the human condition, for example the beautiful ...

Article

Gjergj Frashëri

(b Libohovë, Gjirokastër, Dec 25, 1938).

Albanian sculptor. He worked as a painter in the porcelain factory in Tiranë (1958–68) before studying in the Department of Applied Arts at the Higher Institute of Arts of Tiranë (1969–73). After graduating he concentrated on ceramics, extending his range to include sculpture. His work is known for its remarkable stylization of figures, as well as for the intricacy of geometrical patterns on large vases such as Vases in the Interior of the Scanderbeg National Museum (1982; Krujë, Mus. N. Hist.). Important commissions include reliefs on the façades of museums in Tiranë, Burrel and Lushnje. He has also specialized in the production of high-quality plates. In such examples as Artistet e reja [Young girl artists] (1980; Tiranë, A.G.) and Vallja e Dropullit [Dance of the Dropulli region] (1981; Tiranë, A.G.) he achieves a pleasing balance between subject-matter and form. In such later works as ...