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Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

Astrid Schmetterling

[Baumann, Hans Felix Siegismund]

(b Freiburg im Breisgau, Nov 30, 1893; d London, Jan 30, 1985).

British photographer, writer and collector of German birth. He began to study fine art and art history in Munich and Berlin in 1912, but had to interrupt his studies in 1914 on the outbreak of World War I. While serving as an officer at the front he began to take photographs. He resumed his studies in 1918 and in 1926 moved to Berlin, where he worked as an illustrator. Soon he gave up drawing and concentrated on photography, adopting his professional name in 1929. Between 1929 and 1934 he worked for the Münchner Illustrierte Presse and the Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, for which he travelled all over Europe and North Africa and spent eight months in Canada.

Man was a leading photojournalist who contributed particularly to what later became known as ‘candid camera’ photography. His use of the light available instead of a flash made him unobtrusive, allowing him to catch his subjects unawares. Forced out of Germany by the Nazis, Man emigrated in ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Leyla Dunia

(b Milan, Dec 20, 1938; d Holguín, Cuba, Feb 10, 1997).

Venezuelan conceptual artist of Italian birth. Best known for his conceptual work and photography, Perna experimented profusely with mixed media through his innovative career. Alert to the movements within the avant-garde since the late 1960s, he worked with film, performance, photocopy, plastic assemblages, cartographies, painting, Polaroids, projections, and Fluxus, among others. He was also an intellectual and reflective thinker with extensive academic activity, often concerned by the artist’s role within the contemporary artistic system.

Born to an Italian father and a Venezuelan mother, Perna was affected as a child by the events of World War II and the hard years of the postwar period in Italy. He completed his first studies in the Italian city of Brescia and arrived in Venezuela at the end of 1955, and in 1958 he finished his secondary studies at the Liceo Andrés Bello in Caracas. After abandoning architecture studies at the Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, in ...