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Arpino, Cavaliere d’  

[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...


Büsinck, Ludolph  

(b Hanoversch Münden, 1599 or 1602; d Hanoversch Münden, 1669).

German engraver, draughtsman and painter. His presence in the northern Netherlands c. 1620 is suggested by the woodcut Holy Family under a Tree (Hollstein, no. 4), which renders a design taken from Abraham Bloemaert in a chiaroscuro produced with one line and two tone blocks—a technique developed by Hendrick Goltzius. Between 1623 and 1629–30 Büsinck lived in Paris, producing woodcuts for the publisher Melchior Tavernier (1564–1641) after drawings by Georges Lallemand. The Holy Family with the Infant St John (1623; h 3) shows a more Italian technique, restricting contours to the black line and placing less emphasis on the use of the tone blocks. Subsequent work, such as the Moses (h 1) and the Apostles series (h 5–19) after Lallemand, synthesizes the clear black outlines of the Italian tradition with a lively decorative sway characteristic of the Dutch 17th-century style; while the systematic layers of parallel lines and crosshatching used in the ...



Nancy Ward Neilson

[Crespi, Giovanni Battista]

(b ?Cerano, nr Novara, c. 1575; d Milan, Oct 23, 1632).

Italian painter and designer. He is one of the most prominent of the Milanese artists of the early 17th century whose work represents a transitional phase between Mannerism and Baroque. He was highly esteemed in his day and patronized by the Fabbrica of Milan Cathedral, the civic authorities and highly distinguished private patrons, such as the Borromeo and Gonzaga families and the House of Savoy. Much of his work for private patrons is lost. Although he is chiefly famous as a painter, he also did much work as a designer, from church façades to sacred vestments.

From 17th-century sources both Busto Arsizio and Cerano have been proposed as his birthplace. The latter seems the more likely since the artist adopted its name, but it is also possible that he was born in Milan, where his father, Raffaele Crespi, a minor decorative fresco painter, was active from the late 1550s. His date of birth is based on his age as given in the Milanese census of ...


Crespi, Daniele  

Nancy Ward Neilson

(b ?Milan, 1597–1600; d Milan, July 19, 1630).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the most original artist working in Milan in the 1620s, the first to break with the wilfully exaggerated manner of Lombard Mannerism and to develop an early Baroque style, distinguished by clarity of form and content. In this context his Supper of St Carlo Borromeo (Milan, S Maria della Passione; see fig. below) is one of the most famous early 17th-century pictures in northern Italy. Crespi’s style, both as a painter and as a draughtsman, is a fusion of Lombard and Emilian sources.

In the Milanese census of 1610 Crespi was listed as a ten-year-old living with his family in the parish of S Eufemia. The family is thought to have come from Busto Arsizio, north of Milan, but Daniele may have been born in the Lombard capital; certainly his education should be considered Milanese. His teacher is unknown, but in 1619 Crespi was already described as a promising painter (Borsieri) and is documented (Delfinone) as working with ...


Tanzio da Varallo  

Francesco Frangi

[Enrico, Antonio d’; il Tanzio]

(b Riale d’Alagna, 1575–80; d 1632–3).

Italian painter. He is best known for his dramatic oil paintings executed in a unique style of Caravaggesque realism modified by the elegance of Lombard Late Mannerism. He also adopted elements of a robust and unsophisticated realism from Piedmontese art, as is evident in his frescoes for the sacromonte at Varallo (see Varallo, Sacro Monte, §2). His drawings are in the highly refined and meticulously finished technique associated with Renaissance draughtsmanship.

Tanzio’s family had lived at Varallo since 1586, and he had two brothers who were also artists: the fresco painter Melchiorre d’Enrico, with whom he may have trained, and the sculptor and architect Giovanni d’Enrico (c. 1560–1644). On 12 February 1600 a safe conduct was issued to Melchiorre and Tanzio to leave Valsesia to visit Rome for the Holy Year. Tanzio’s first biographer, Cotta, wrote that the artist studied ‘in the Academies of Rome’ and that in ...


Douffet, Gérard  

Pierre-Yves Kairis

(bapt Liège, Aug 6, 1594; d Liège, 1660).

Flemish painter. He was trained in Liège by Jean Taulier (d ?1636), probably one of the late Mannerists of the school of Lambert Lombard. It seems likely that he next went to a painter in Dinant known only as Perpète. Abry recorded that Douffet worked in Rubens’s workshop from 1612 to 1614; this is doubtful, though he probably did study in Antwerp. After 1614 Douffet probably went to Italy, and in 1620 and 1622 he is recorded, with Valentin de Boulogne, in Rome. He knew such Caravaggisti as Bartolomeo Manfredi and Nicolas Tournier. No work from this period is known.

Douffet’s oeuvre consists of only about 20 known paintings. The earliest is the Finding of the True Cross (1624; Munich, Alte Pin.). In this he appears uninfluenced by the Rubensian Baroque style of painting then current in the Spanish Netherlands, a surprising fact considering the proximity of the town of Liège to the Flemish border. Instead he introduced Italian-style Caravaggism to Liège. This canvas seems closer to Simon Vouet than to Valentin and the other followers of Manfredi, which is one of the reasons for rejecting the identification of Douffet with the ...


Empoli, Jacopo da  

Elena Testaferrata

[Chimenti, Jacopo]

(b Florence, April 30, 1551; d Florence, Sept 30, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He lived and worked in Florence all his life, and he followed Santi di Tito in the return to the clarity of the Florentine High Renaissance. He absorbed the ideas of his more innovative contemporaries and became one of the most popular painters of altarpieces for churches in Florence and Tuscany. He was also a distinguished still-life painter and received many commissions from private patrons, among them the Medici. Empoli’s painting is distinguished by simple, lucid forms, strong colour and direct and clear interpretation of the subject.

He was the son of Chimenti di Girolamo, a cloth merchant, and of Alessandra Tatti, the daughter of the sculptor Jacopo Sansovino. He trained under the Mannerist painter Maso da San Friano. The Adoration of the Shepherds (Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G.) is one of a small number of paintings attributed to his earliest years (Bianchini, 1980). The two framing figures and the hooded shepherd on the left echo Maso’s style, while the full, sharply modelled forms suggest that Empoli had studied the art of Giorgio Vasari. However, these sources are modified by Empoli’s greater naturalism, and the ruined hut, the simple, devout shepherds and demure little angels recall the accessible and direct religious paintings of Santi di Tito. In the ...


Erardi family  

Mario Buhagiar

Maltese family of painters. Stefano Erardi (b 1630; d 1716) was of French extraction and would seem to have been trained in the workshop of a Mannerist artist, though much of his apprenticeship probably consisted of copying paintings in Maltese collections and studying prints after works by famous artists. This may account for his eclecticism, but it would be wrong to dismiss him as a plagiarist. His best works reveal him to have been an excellent draughtsman with a good sense of colour, who never completely renounced his Mannerist formation. His contacts with Mattia Preti broadened his artistic horizons and introduced him to Neapolitan Baroque art. His work had great popular appeal and helped to stimulate the emergence of a Maltese school of Baroque painting in the 18th century. His most prestigious commission, and one of his best works, is the Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, St John). Equally remarkable are the huge altarpiece of the ...


Finoglia [Finoglio], Paolo Domenico  

Riccardo Lattuada

(b Orta di Atella or Naples, c. 1590; d Conversano, 1645).

Italian painter. He signed himself Neapolitanus and probably trained in Naples under the late Mannerist painter Ippolito Borghese (d 1627). Borghese’s influence, though lasting, was not as strong as that of Caravaggio, whose art Finoglia came to admire. His work before 1626 is exemplified by the ten lunettes representing the Founders of Religious Orders in the Sala Capitolare (1620–c. 1626) of the Certosa di S Martino, Naples, which demonstrate his accomplished blending of late Mannerist and Caravaggesque styles. The Circumcision (1626), also in the Sala Capitolare, reveals the strong influence of Battistello Caracciolo, as does Finoglia’s first important work in fresco, the decoration of the chapel of S Martino in the Certosa di S Martino with scenes from the Life of St Martin (c. 1632), which were provided to accompany Caracciolo’s altarpiece of St Martin (1622–6) already in the chapel. Caracciolo’s influence was lasting, observable later in the ...


Finson, Louis  

[Finsonius, Ludovicus]

(b Bruges, c. 1580; d Amsterdam, 1617).

Flemish painter. He was the son of the painter Jacques Fynson (d before 1609) and trained in his father’s studio in Bruges; the influence of Netherlandish Mannerism is strong in his work. At some time early in the 17th century he travelled to Italy; he was certainly in Naples by 1608 and may also have previously spent some time in Rome. It is not certain whether he was a pupil of Caravaggio, but he is known to have copied many of Caravaggio’s works and to have owned at least two of his paintings, one of which was the Madonna of the Rosary (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), which Finson bought with Abraham Vinck (1580–1621), perhaps as early as 1607. After 1612 Finson visited Spain and then France, arriving in Marseille early in 1613. He was already a painter of considerable repute and continued to enjoy much success in Provence and to command large sums for his paintings. From Marseille he was called to Aix-en-Provence by ...


González, Bartolomé  

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Valladolid, c. 1564; d Madrid, c. 1627–8).

Spanish painter. He spent his early years in Valladolid and Madrid. According to Palomino, he was trained with Patricio Cajés, but also important was the influence of Italian Mannerism at the court (1600–06) of Philip III in Valladolid. Knowledge of naturalistic works by such Italians as Orazio Borgianni, with their monumental forms and chiaroscuro, also determined González’s style, especially as a religious painter. González is first documented in 1606, after which he worked for the court in Burgos, Lerma, El Pardo and El Escorial. In 1608 he witnessed the will of the court portraitist, Pantoja de la Cruz, who died that year. González succeeded Pantoja de la Cruz in the completion of the royal portaits for the gallery of the palace of El Pardo, which replaced those destroyed by fire in 1604. One of his earliest known portraits is that of Margaret of Austria (1609; Madrid, Prado), which shows the influence of Pantoja de la Cruz....


Juarez family  

Maria Concepción García Sáiz


Mexican family of painters. Luis Juarez (b c. 1585; d Mexico City, c. 1638) painted in the Mannerist style of the Spanish painters settled in Mexico, such as Baltasar de Echave Orio and Alonso Vázquez, although his figures are softer than those of his teachers. He began working in the first decade of the 17th century. His signed St Teresa (Guadalajara, Mus. Guadalajara) dates from that time and his St Anthony of Padua and the Ascension (both Querétaro, Mus. Reg.) from 1610. In 1611 he was commissioned to make the triumphal arch for the reception of the Viceroy of New Spain, Fray García Guerra. During the 1620s he painted the retables in the church of Jesús María, Mexico City, and in S Agustín, Puebla. The finest of his numerous religious works are the Annunciation, the Agony in the Garden, the Visitation, the Archangel Michael, and St Raphael (all Mexico City, Pin. Virreinal); the ...


Kupferman, Moshe  

(b Jaroslav, Galicia, Aug 12, 1926; d Tel Aviv, June 21, 2003).

Israeli painter of Polish birth. He first began to draw in 1947 after seeing the Renaissance and Baroque works in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. He emigrated to Israel in 1948 and in 1953 and 1955 attended the summer art courses held at Kibbutz Na’an under Yossef Zaritsky and Avigdor Stematsky. Under the influence of the lyrical abstract style of these artists his work became increasingly abstract by the late 1950s, as in Painting (1959; see 1984 exh. cat., p. 16). In 1960 he had his first one-man show at the Chemerinsky Gallery in Tel Aviv, and the following year he travelled in Europe.

In 1963 Kupferman exhibited at the New Horizons show at the Museum of Art in Ein Harod, and the same year ‘basic forms’ appeared in his work. These were abstract, geometrical elements such as X and Y shapes and grids; the works of the 1960s, while including these forms, are very expressive and often created in an uncontrolled manner, as in ...


Lione, Andrea di  

[Lione, Andrea de; Leone, Andrea di]

(b Naples, Sept 8, 1610; d Naples Feb 12, 1685).

Italian painter. An eclectic and varied artist, he painted scenes from the Old and New Testaments, Roman history and mythology as well as still-lifes. He studied in Naples with the late Mannerist artist Belisario Corenzio, with whom he collaborated on frescoes of battle scenes for the Palazzo Reale in Naples (in situ). Then, attracted by the battle paintings of Aniello Falcone, he entered Falcone’s studio, and his red chalk studies of the nude (e.g. Male Nude, Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.) and of parts of the body reflect the rigorous academic training that he received there. He became known as a painter of battles himself, and his works in this genre include two signed paintings, the Battle between the Hebrews and the Amalekites and the Combat between David and Goliath (both Naples, Capodimonte), and the signed and dated Battle against the Turks (1641; Paris, Louvre). In these works Lione moved away from the rather static compositions of Falcone and created more dramatic scenes, with richer colour and looser brushwork. Between ...


Manetti, Rutilio  

(b Siena, bapt Jan 1, 1571; d Siena, July 22, 1639).

Italian painter. He was a student of the Late Mannerist artists Francesco Vanni and Ventura Salimbeni. His earliest paintings, and especially his frescoes illustrating the Story of St Catherine and Pope Gregory (1597; Siena, Pal. Pub.) and his altarpiece of the Baptism (1599–1600; Siena, S Giovannino in Pantaneto), are strongly influenced by their works and also those of Federico Barocci. Although his style changed considerably during his career, Manetti never fully abandoned the fleshy, oval facial types with delicate, sweet features and the cluttered compositions that typify Sienese Mannerism. From 1600 to 1610 his paintings, for example the fresco cycle of the Story of St Roch (1605 to 1610; Siena, S Rocco alla Lupa), drew on the clear narrative style, naturalistic light effects and particularized figure types of Florentine painters such as Bernardino Poccetti and Domenico Passignano.

By the early 1620s Manetti had turned to Roman and Bolognese sources. Although the painter is not documented in Rome, it is generally assumed that he was there some time between ...



Manfred Wundram

[It. maniera]

Name given to the stylistic phase in the art of Europe between the High Renaissance (see Renaissance, §4) and the Baroque, covering the period from c. 1510–20 to 1600. It is also sometimes referred to as late Renaissance, and the move away from High Renaissance classicism is already evident in the late works of Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, and in the art of Michelangelo from the middle of his creative career. Although 16th-century artists took the formal vocabulary of the High Renaissance as their point of departure, they used it in ways that were diametrically opposed to the harmonious ideal it originally served. There are thus good grounds for considering Mannerism as a valid and autonomous stylistic phase, a status first claimed for it by art historians of the early 20th century. The term is also applied to a style of painting and drawing practised by artists working in Antwerp slightly earlier, from ...


Martínez (y Lurbe), Jusepe  

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Saragossa, Dec 6, 1600; d Saragossa, Jan 6, 1682).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He was a son of the Flemish painter Daniel Martínez (d 1636), with whom he first trained, following late Mannerist trends. In 1623 he went to Italy, and in 1625 he was in Rome, where he met Guido Reni, Domenichino and, shortly afterwards in Naples, Jusepe de Ribera. This contact with Italian classicism and naturalism influenced his work, and he always maintained a preference for classical balance and structure. He combined this with chromatic tones and a chiaroscuro that became progressively softer. The extensive documentation on Martínez deals only intermittently with his paintings, and it is not always possible to trace his stylistic development. His earliest recorded work is the series of five engravings on the Life of St Pedro Nolasco (c. 1625), which were engraved in Rome by Johann Friedrich Greuter (d 1662) after Martínez’s drawings (untraced). In ...


Massari, Lucio  

Ugo Ruggeri

(b Bologna, 1569; d Bologna, 1633).

Italian painter. He was taught by Bartolomeo Passerotti, from whom he developed a naturalistic Late Mannerist style. The most important influence on his early development, however, was Bartolomeo Cesi, whose revival of the classicism of the High Renaissance remained of fundamental importance to Massari’s art. In 1592, on the death of Passerotti, Massari moved into the orbit of the Carracci family, attracted by Annibale and Agostino’s lucid treatment of space and form rather than by Lodovico’s emotional and romantic style. This can be seen in his frescoes (1600) of the oratory of S Colombano, Bologna, where the Crucifixion is characterized by an archaizing symmetry and clarity. The altarpiece of the Virgin with Saints (1603) in S Maria dei Poveri, Bologna, while drawing closer to Annibale Carracci, looks back directly to the classicism of Raphael; Massari’s contributions (1604–5) to the decoration of the cloister of S Michele in Bosco, Bologna, are more indebted to Ludovico Carracci, although the classical architectural framing of each scene seems to foreshadow his later contacts with Domenichino. In his ...


Passignano [Cresti], Domenico  

Joan L. Nissman

(b Passignano, bapt Jan 29, 1559; d Florence, May 17, 1638).

Italian painter. Around the age of nine he was sent to Florence, where, according to Baldinucci, he studied first with Girolamo Macchietti and then with Giovan Battista Naldini. His most important teacher, however, was Federico Zuccaro with whom he worked, from 1575 to 1579, on completing the decoration of the interior of the cupola at the cathedral, which had been left unfinished at the death of Giorgio Vasari in 1574. In 1580 Passignano accompanied Zuccaro to Rome, staying there two years. No works are known from this period, but a few are extant from the following years spent in Venice (1582–8), where exposure to the works of Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese and Palma Giovane seems to have enhanced his use of colour and added a rich atmospheric quality to his Florentine style.

In 1588 he returned to Florence and in the following year received a major commission to fresco the vestibule of the ...


Pellegrini, Giovanni Antonio  

Bernard Aikema


(b Venice, April 29, 1675; d Venice, Nov 5, 1741).

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France.

His father, a glover, came from Padua. At an early age Pellegrini was apprenticed to the Milanese Paolo Pagani (1661–1716), with whom he travelled to Moravia and Vienna in 1690. In 1696 Pellegrini was back in Venice, where he painted his first surviving work, a fresco cycle in the Palazzetto Corner on Murano, with scenes from the life of Alexander the Great and allegorical themes on the ceiling. Here his figure style is clearly derived from Pagani, but the effects of light and the free handling suggest the art of Giordano or even Cortona, whose work Pellegrini could not then have known. By contrast, brushwork in a series of paintings of the ...