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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476), Chancellor under Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza (reg 1466–76), added to the family’s wealth. His grandson Francesco Archinto (d 1551), a jurist, was the favoured commissary of Louis XII in the area of Chiavenna; a portrait of him, preserved by the family, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Francesco’s cousin Filippo Archinto (1500–58) was appointed Senator by Duke Francesco Maria Sforza and in 1530 represented Milan at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V in Bologna. Filippo held various Imperial posts, including that of Ambassador to Rome, where Pope Paul III ordained him Bishop. In 1566 the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Milan, in which capacity his portrait (...



Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons. Pietro Boncompagni (d 1404), a reader in civil law from 1378 to 1391, was buried in a tomb in S Martino, Bologna, where a Boncompagni family chapel, outstanding for its works of art, was completed in 1534. Its richly carved decoration is attributed to Amico Aspertini, and it features an Adoration of the Magi (1532) by Girolamo da Carpi on the wooden altar (attrib. Bartolomeo Ramenghi Bagnacavallo I). A great-grandson of Pietro Boncompagni, Cristoforo Boncompagni (1470–1546) was a draper and financier. He built a palazzo (1538–45) near the cathedral of S Pietro; its decorations were completed by his sons after his death. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola may have contributed to this elegant and dignified structure. Restored in 1845, the palazzo, now called Palazzo Benelli, stands at Via del Monte 8. Interior restoration work began in 1980.

Cristoforo Boncompagni’s ten children included a son Ugo Boncompagni, who became ...



Carrand, Louis  

G. Gaeta Bertelà

(b Lyon, April 22, 1827; d Florence, Sept 21, 1888).

French collector. His father Jean-Baptiste Carrand (1792–1871) was a collector of medieval and Renaissance decorative objects (Byzantine and Gothic ivories, Renaissance maiolica, enamelwork, arms, bronzes and coins) and a connoisseur of manuscripts and documents, first in Lyon and then in Paris, where Louis worked in partnership with him. Their most prestigious purchases were some early medieval and Gothic ivory pieces and the famous flabellum (9th century, court of Charles the Bald) from the Benedictine abbey of Tournus in Burgundy. In 1867 they exhibited ivories, bronzes, arms, wood-carvings and secular gold items in the Exposition Universelle, Paris. After his father’s death Louis continued to enlarge the collection. In particular he added early medieval and Renaissance textiles. In 1880 he moved to Nice and in 1881 to Pisa, where he remained until 1886, continuing to buy artefacts not only from French and Italian sales but also from England, Germany, Greece and Turkey. In ...


Courajod, Louis(-Charles-Léon)  

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b Paris, Feb 22, 1841; d Paris, June 26, 1896).

French art historian and collector. After studying at the Ecole des Chartes in Paris (1864–7), he worked at the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliothèque Nationale and then at the Louvre (1874), becoming curator of the newly formed department of medieval and modern sculpture in 1893. Courajod’s initial interests were in local history, but his work at the Bibliothèque Nationale kindled an enthusiasm for art history, and he became noted for his study of documents and precocious attention to the social context of art. Sculpture was his particular interest. He collected Italian plaquettes, and, as curator at the Louvre, he secured the acquisition of such prestigious Italian works as the Virgin and Child by Jacopo della Quercia. He bequeathed to the museum the Courajod Christ, one of the finest examples of Burgundian Romanesque wood sculpture, which the Louvre committee had refused to acquire.

Courajod was professor of the history of sculpture at the Ecole du Louvre (...


Ephrussi, Charles  

(b Odessa, Dec 24, 1849; d Paris, Sept 30, 1905).

Russian collector and writer. He studied in Odessa and Vienna before settling in Paris in 1871. The following year he visited Italy and started collecting Italian Renaissance work. His interest in drawings and engravings and his desire to provide information for an enthusiastic public led to his collaboration on a catalogue of a collection of drawings bequeathed to the Louvre by Horace His de La Salle in 1878. Between 1879 and 1881 he bought about 20 contemporary paintings, including Monet’s Bathers at La Grenouillère (1869; London, N.G.), and he was represented in Renoir’s Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881; Washington, DC, Phillips Col.). In 1881 he stopped buying and writing about contemporary work and returned to his Renaissance studies, helping the Louvre to acquire two frescoes by Botticelli from the Villa Lemmi, Florence, in 1882 (Lorenzo Tornabuoni Presented by Grammar to Prudentia and the Liberal Arts and ...


Figdor, Albert  

(b Baden, nr Vienna, May 16, 1843; d Vienna, Feb 22, 1927).

Austrian collector. During the late 19th century he assembled an extensive collection of approximately 6000 works of art, primarily from the medieval and Renaissance periods, most of which were in an excellent state of preservation. His collection was considered to be one of the most comprehensive in Austria before World War II. As well as simple but skilfully crafted objects for domestic and ecclesiastical use, there were pieces of higher quality, including metalwork, ivories, tapestries and ecclesiastical objects. The collection was particularly noted for its fine chairs. The paintings represented the major European schools, with the greatest concentration on the period from the 15th century to the early 16th. The most significant painting was Hieronymus Bosch’s Vagabond (c. 1510; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen;. After Figdor’s death in 1927, his niece and heiress Margarete Becker-Walz was forbidden by a newly enacted Austrian law to export and sell the collection, except in its entirety. She eventually sold its entire contents to the art dealer ...


Massimo family  

J. L. de Jong

[Massimi; Massimo alle Colonne]

Italian family of nobles, bankers and patrons. It is one of the oldest Roman families, and its members have held important offices in the secular and ecclesiastical administration of Rome and the Church. In 1826 Pope Leo XII conferred on them the rank of Principe. According to tradition, as recorded by Onofrio Panvinio c. 1550, the family owes its origins to the Roman general Fabius Maximus (3rd century bc). By the 12th century they owned a house in the Parione district of Rome, on the site of the present Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, Corso Vittorio Emanuele. Pietro Massimo (d 1489) housed the printing firm of Konrad Sweynheim and Arnold Pannartz in his palazzo in Rome (destr. 1527), and founded the chapel of St Peter Martyr in S Maria della Strada (destr. 16th century), Rome. His son Domenico Massimo (d 1531/2) amassed enormous riches and expanded the palazzo. After his death, Domenico’s sons ...


Moore, Morris J.  

(b 1811; d Rome, Dec 18, 1885).

English writer and collector. He took part in the Greek War of Independence in 1830 and then settled in Rome, though still keeping a residence in London. While in Italy he studied the work of the Renaissance masters, particularly Raphael, and built up a collection of paintings. He achieved notoriety in Britain, however, through a series of letters he wrote to The Times in 1846 and 1847 (which he subsequently collected and published), attacking the management of the National Gallery, then under the keepership of Sir Charles Locke Eastlake (see Eastlake, Charles Locke). His outrage was first provoked by the new policy of cleaning works, which he thought had seriously damaged such paintings as Rubens’s War and Peace and Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne. This view was shared by many and reflected the contemporary belief that Old Master paintings were characteristically subdued in colour. John Ruskin, who thought the general indignation exaggerated, became the object of further letters from Moore, who referred to Ruskin merely as ‘the Oxford Graduate’. The outcry over the cleaning actually forced Eastlake to resign (...


Richter, Jean Paul  

Jaynie Anderson

(b Dresden, Jan 7, 1847; d Lugano, Aug 25, 1937).

German art historian, collector and dealer. The son of a Lutheran clergyman, he first studied theology at Leipzig but while travelling in Italy in 1869 became interested in early Christian archaeology, in which field he determined to continue. His first publications were on the sources of Byzantine art history and the mosaics of Ravenna. In 1876 he met Giovanni Morelli, whose disciple he became. Their lengthy correspondence constitutes an important source for the early history of connoisseurship. Richter published a short biography of Leonardo in 1880, then a series of articles in the Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst and finally his edition of the Literary Works of Leonardo (1883), the work that established his reputation as a scholar. This was the first scholarly edition of Leonardo’s writings, illustrated, moreover, with a selection of mostly authentic drawings at a time when books on Leonardo were normally illustrated by his pupils’ works....