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Mari Carmen Ramírez

(b Bayamón, Jun 17, 1833; d Cataño, May 17, 1917).

Puerto Rican painter. He studied from 1851 to 1853 at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid under Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and in Paris from 1858 to 1863 under Thomas Couture and Charles Gleyre at the École Impériale et Spéciale de Dessin and at the Académie Suisse. There he met Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, and Armand Guillaumin, who together with Couture and the work of Courbet influenced his work towards Realism and Impressionism. His masterpiece The Wake (1893; Río Piedras, U. Puerto Rico, Mus. Antropol., Hist. & A.), with its penetrating insights into 19th-century Puerto Rican rural society, is a monumental tribute to the artistic tenets championed by Courbet.

Oller, however, cannot be characterized exclusively as a Realist or Impressionist. In the course of his prolific career he produced portraits, landscapes, and still lifes, adapting his style to the subject. In the Ponce Silk-Cotton Tree...


Anthony Páez Mullan

revised by Omar Olivares

(b Venezuela, c. 1810; d New York City, c. 1894).

Venezuelan painter, author, diplomat, and botanist. Páez was the son of José Antonio Páez, one of Bolívar’s most trusted generals and the colorful first president of Venezuela. Little is known of his childhood. Páez himself refers to his education in Caracas as a boy and later on in 1841 as a student at the Jesuit college of Stonyhurst in England. Early sources of artistic inspiration were most likely Páez’s cousin, Carmelo Fernández (1810–1887; a landscape artist who was a member of the Comisión Corográfica, the first national expedition to survey Colombia for more precise information on indigenous groups, the topography, and the natural resources of the country); the English portrait painter, Lewis Adams (1809–1853), who painted most members of the Páez family; Charles Thomas, an English miniature painter; and the German landscape painter Ferdinand Bellermann (1814–1889).

In 1849 General Páez was exiled and was accompanied by Ramón. From ...