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Arroyo (Castillo), Miguel  

Jorge F. Rivas Pérez


(b Caracas, Aug 29, 1920; d Caracas, Nov 3, 2004).

Venezuelan designer, potter, educator, curator, and museum administrator. Arroyo was one of the first professional designers in Venezuela. He graduated in drawing and painting from the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Artes Aplicadas de Caracas in 1938. From 1938 to 1940 Arroyo lived in New York City, where he worked at the Venezuelan pavilion at the New York World’s Fair (1939–1940) and assisted Luis Alfredo López Méndez with painting La Vida Venezolana on the ceiling of the canopy of the pavilion. Back in Venezuela, from 1940 to 1946, Arroyo taught art at the Liceo de Aplicación in Caracas. During this period, he taught and also worked as an interior designer (Librería Magisterio (1944) and Gran Exposición Nacional de Industria y Comercio de Maracaibo (1945)). From 1946 to 1948 he studied design and pottery at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, PA.

In 1949...



Jorge G. Marcos

Pre-Columbian regional culture of coastal Ecuador that flourished c. 500 bcc. ad 500. Archaeological field research by Emilio Estrada and Matthew and Marion Stirling at Manta, Manabí, identified a platform-mounded Bahía urban and ceremonial centre. Since no extensive excavation of the area was conducted, the only evidence for Bahía houses is a number of terracotta models, similar in form to examples from China; some archaeologists, such as Meggers, consider them as evidence of transpacific influence. Excavation of a few test pits produced a relative ceramic sequence and some radiocarbon assays. In the Guayas Basin, to the south, Bahía-like Tejar and Guayaquil phases have been described by Meggers and Parducci. Bahía pottery appears to have evolved from the earlier Chorrera style developed by intensive farming communities in the rich alluvial valleys of central Manabí and the Guayas Basin. Bahía potters practised a highly developed craft, having mastered not only traditional coiled construction but also slip-casting, a technique introduced during the Chorrera period. They were proficient in controlled smudging and resist decoration, and excelled in the use of polychrome slips, employing a wide spectrum of mineral and organic pigments. Another characteristic was decoration encrusted after firing in brilliant yellows, reds, greens and blues. Flutes, ocarinas and flamboyantly decorated whistling bottles with spouts and strap handles imitated human and animal forms. At ...


Bermúdez, Cundo  

Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Sept 3, 1914; d Westchester, Oct 30, 2008).

Cuban painter, ceramicist, and printmaker. He studied at the Academia de S. Alejandro in Havana (early 1930s) and at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City (1938), where he also became familiar with the work of the muralists. He had his first one-man exhibition at the Lyceum in Havana in 1942.

Bermúdez shared with many of his contemporaries an interest in Cuban realities and themes painted in a manner that was in keeping with 20th-century art movements. His work from the 1940s is characterized by popular Cuban scenes and types depicted in an almost caricatural, naive style with loud tropical colors (e.g. The Balcony, 1941; New York, MOMA).

In the 1950s Bermúdez abandoned the folkloric themes and tropical voluptuousness of his earlier paintings, instead depicting elongated, barely human, Byzantine-like figures. The most accessible of these paintings are of acrobats and musicians. In 1967 Bermúdez left Cuba for political reasons and settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he continued to evolve metallic color harmonies and surrealistic imagery including clocks, ladders, and turbaned figures in his paintings. He also produced murals and lithographs, and his best-known print is the silkscreen entitled ...



Gordon Campbell

[bucaro; búcaro; buccaro]

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger at Meissen; the name is also applied to the red Chinese stoneware made in Yixing.

M. C. García Sáiz and J. L. Barrio Moya: ‘Presencia de cerámica colonial mexicana en España’, An. Inst. Invest. Estét., vol.58 (1987), pp. 108–10 M. C. García Sáiz and M. Ángeles Albert: ‘La cerámica de Tonalá en las colecciones Europeas’, Tonalá: Sol de barro, ed. S. Urutia and J. de la Fuente (Mexico City, 1991) J. C. Castro and M. C. McQuade: Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition (Albuquerque, NM, 2000) B. Hamann: ‘The Mirrors of Las Meninas: Cochineal, Silver, and Clay’, A. Bull., vol.92 (March–June 2010), pp. 6–35...


Bonnin & Morris  

Ellen Paul Denker

American porcelain manufacturer. Gousse Bonnin (b ?Antigua, c. 1741; d c. 1779) moved in 1768 from England to Philadelphia, where he established the first porcelain factory in America with money from an inheritance and with investments from George Morris (1742/5–73). The land was purchased late in 1769 and in January 1770 the first notice regarding the enterprise was published. The first blue-decorated bone china wares were not produced until late in 1770. Newspaper advertisements noted ‘three kilns, two furnaces, two mills, two clay vaults, cisterns, engines and treading rooms’ and listed such wares as pickle stands, fruit baskets, sauce boats, pint bowls, plates, plain and handled cups, quilted cups, sugar dishes in two sizes, cream jugs, teapots in two sizes, and breakfast sets. Well-established foreign competition, however, was too formidable for the new business, which had to charge high prices to meet large expenses; production ceased by ...


Brennand, Francisco  

Roberto Pontual

revised by Gillian Sneed

(b Recife, Jun 11, 1927).

Brazilian painter and ceramicist. Brennand began his training in 1942 under sculptor and ceramicist Abelardo da Hora (1924–2014), and later studied painting with Murilo Lagreca (1899–1985) and Álvaro Amorim, founder of the Pernambuco Escola das Belas Artes. Brennand’s early paintings depicted flowers and fruit with simple lines and bright colors. In 1947 he won the first prize at the Salon of the Museu do Estado de Pernambuco, Recife. He made an extended visit to Europe from 1949 to 1952, living mainly in Paris, where he studied with the Cubo-Purists André Lhote and Fernand Léger, whose tumescent forms had a lasting influence on his work. During this period, he also became familiar with the work of Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró, which inspired him to focus on pottery and ceramics. He was also inspired by the eccentric architecture of Antoni Gaudí, which he observed on a trip to Barcelona in the 1950s. On his return to Recife, where his family had long been responsible for a vast output of industrial ceramics, he dedicated himself increasingly to his work with art pottery. In 1954 he completed his first large-scale ceramic panel. Beginning in 1958 and throughout his career he carried out ceramic murals in several Brazilian cities and abroad, the most outstanding being the ...



Virginia Miller

Stone sculptures from Mesoamerica representing a supine male figure, approximately life-size, whose backbone is bent in an anatomically impossible position. His feet are flat on the ground, knees drawn up, and head turned sharply toward the viewer. The hands grasp a round or rectangular receptacle resting on the abdomen.

The largest number (eighteen) occurs at Chichen Itza, where the first excavated example was discovered in 1875 by the explorer Augustus Le Plongeon. He dubbed the sculpture “chacmool,” which he believed meant “powerful warrior” in Maya, although it is generally translated as “red” or “great” jaguar paw. The inaccurate term has since been applied to all examples, regardless of culture.

Although difficult to date, chacmools first appear between 800 CE and 1000 CE. They are found contemporaneously at Chichen Itza and Tula, where a dozen examples are known. The sculptures occur in the Tarascan region, and as far afield as Costa Rica and El Salvador. There are several Aztec ...



Jane Feltham

Pre-Columbian culture of South America. It centered on the Chancay Valley of the central Peruvian coast, ranging north and south to the Fortaleza and Lurín valleys, and is known for its distinctive pottery and textile styles. Chancay culture flourished between c. 1100 and 1470 ce, under Chimu rulership in the 15th century. Vessels and textiles have been found at such sites as Cerro Trinidad, Lauri, and Pisquillo, mostly in graves covered with stout timbers and a layer of earth.

Chancay vessels were made by coiling; modeled features sometimes occur, but elaborate jars were molded. The fabric, fired to a light orange, is thin and porous. Some vessels are covered with a plain white slip, but most are also painted with brownish-black designs. Forms include bowls, goblets, tumblers, cylindrical jars, and ovoid jars with rounded bases and narrow, bulging necks that sometimes end in a flaring rim. Vessel heights range from 60 mm for bowls to 750 mm for jars. Animals (especially birds and reptiles) and humans are frequently modeled on the upper shoulder or around a handle. More elaborate jars are zoomorphic or consist of two flasks connected by a bridge. Some show scenes, such as a dignitary being carried on a litter. Vertical black bands often divide design areas, within which are patterns of stripes, wavy lines, crosshatching, diamonds, triangles and dots, checkers, volutes, and stylized birds or fishes, sometimes in asymmetrical halves. Characteristic of the style are large, necked jars with faces (known as ...



Peter W. Stahl

Pre-Columbian culture, named after the site of La Chorrera on the River Babahoyo, in the Guayas Basin, Ecuador. It flourished between c. 1000 and c. 500 bc, during Ecuador’s Late Formative period (c. 1500 bcc. 500 bc). The terms ‘Chorrera’ and ‘Chorreroid series’ encompass a number of diverse but related cultures of the Guayas coast, ranging northwards from the province of El Oro to the northern area of the province of Manabí and reaching inland to the banks of the Daule and Babahoyo rivers.

The Chorrera style shows particular affinity to the earliest stages of the art of the Engoroy phase (c. 900–c. 500 bc). La Chorrera itself was discovered by F. Huerta Rendón, and later work was carried out by Emilio Estrada, Clifford Evans, and Betty Meggers.

The culture represents the apogee of the early art styles of Ecuador, having a wide geographical distribution and serving as a basic foundation for subsequent developments. During the Late Formative period, the use of metal was introduced, along with the manufacture of earrings and new types of figurines, figure modelling, red and white zoned ceramics, and negative-painted wares. The ...



Kimberly L. Jones

Pre-Columbian culture and art style of South America. The term “Cupisnique” was coined by Rafael Larco Hoyle to define early Andean visual arts and material culture on the north coast of Peru. During the 1930s and 1940s Larco, a hacienda owner, excavated funerary contexts in the Cupisnique quebrada, or dry ravine, north of the Chicama Valley. The burials included similar artifacts and arts, which Larco compared with cultures to the south. Certain burials stratigraphically predated Salinar and Moche tombs, situating Cupisnique early in Andean prehistory. Cupisnique burials consist of a single individual placed in a shaft pit; funerary offerings include ceramic vessels, bone rings, pendants, and anthracite mirrors, and many individuals were buried with bone spatulas and spoons. In addition to Larco’s research, similar burials have been excavated at Huaca Prieta in the Chicama Valley, Puémape in the Jequetepeque Valley, and Ventarrón and Collúd-Zarpán in the Lambayeque valley. The contexts span temporally from the Early to Late Formative Periods (...


Darié, Sandú  

Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...


Espinoza Dueñas, Francisco  

W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, 1926).

Peruvian painter, printmaker, and ceramicist, active in Europe. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1953 and then began to exhibit paintings, prints, murals, and ceramics on an annual basis in Lima. He continued his studies in Spain in 1956, and from then on remained in Europe, mainly in Paris and Madrid. In Paris he became an assistant at the printmakers’ workshop at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Following a period in Cuba where he worked at the Taller de Grabado de Cubanacán, Espinoza Dueñas returned to France to study ceramics at Sèvres, executing sculptural, symbolic works reminiscent of Pre-Columbian Peruvian ceramics. His paintings, which are expressionistic in style, are colorful, energetic and full of symbolism (e.g. Pampa Road, 1955; Lima, Mus. A.).

Lavalle, J. A. de and Lang, W. Pintura contemporánea II: 1920–1960, Col. A. & Tesoros Perú. Lima, 1976, pp. 158–159.Evento artesanal cerámico: Taller Museo de Cerámica Contemporánea, creado y dirigido por el maestro Francisco Espinoza Dueñas, con la colaboración del Ayto. de Pilas (Sevilla)...


Fernández Ledesma, Gabriel  

Karen Cordero Reiman

(b Aguascalientes, May 30, 1900; d Mexico City, Aug 26, 1984).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, and ceramicist. He enrolled at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, in 1917 and soon became active in the post-revolutionary nationalist cultural movement, attempting to recuperate folk-art motifs and techniques. In 1920 he designed a ceramic frieze for the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo, Mexico City. He edited the influential art magazine Forma (1926–1928) and was involved in creating the Escuela Libre de Escultura y Talla Directa, Mexico City, the ¡30–30! group (which promoted the democratization and de-academization of the arts), and the Centros Populares de Pintura, which offered art education to people in industrial areas, encouraging the representation of their surroundings without academic constraints. In the 1930s he directed an exhibition space funded by the Ministerio de Educación Pública, for which, with Roberto Montenegro and Francisco Díaz de León, he designed posters and catalogs noted for their innovative typography. Fernández Ledesma also produced prints inspired by popular graphics and figurative paintings influenced by Picasso and by Pittura Metafisica; he also wrote several books on popular traditions and stage and costume designs....



George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture and art style that flourished in northern coastal Peru during the Early Intermediate Period, between c. 300 bce and c. 200 ce. It was named after the site of Gallinazo (Sp. “turkey buzzard”) in the Virú valley, which was excavated by the American archaeologist Wendell Bennett in 1936. The Gallinazo culture has been shown to have succeeded that of Salinar in the Virú, Moche, and Chicama valleys. Gallinazo architecture in the Virú valley was characterized by a honeycomb dwelling pattern. Some of the walls of the buildings were decorated with cut-out designs in tapia (puddled clay) and adobe mosaics, such as the frieze at El Carmelo. The Gallinazo culture as represented in the Virú valley was subdivided by Bennett into three phases, on the basis of changes in building methods and pottery styles. Gallinazo I is characterized by incised and punch-decorated pottery with some use of negative-painted decoration, which involved covering the design areas in a heat-resistant substance and then firing it. The substance was removed after firing, leaving the negative design. In Gallinazo II most pottery was decorated using negative painting. Small lugs, mainly in bird and animal form, were often added. A basic change took place during Gallinazo III, due to outside influences from the ...



Jorge G. Marcos

Pre-Columbian culture of coastal Ecuador, which flourished c. 500 bcc. ad 500. Archaeological research initiated by Geoffrey Bushnell in 1951 has shown that the Guangala people occupied the forest of the Santa Elena Peninsula from the Chongón-Colonche Cordillera to the sea, extending north through the narrow coastal strip of southern Manabí Province. Like their predecessors, who made Engoroy style pottery, the Guangala people were experts at farming dry land, mostly using condensed fog for irrigation, as well as being accomplished sailors. Ceramic wares similar to those of Engoroy and Guangala have been found in Guatemala, suggesting that a long-distance trade network between Ecuador and Mesoamerica already existed at this period. Studies of settlement patterns in the Chanduy Valley show that Guangala people established permanent hamlets in diverse micro-environments, as well as larger sites, which served as centres of economic, religious, and political power, and regional and long-distance trade. Guangala houses were built on a rectangular plan and had wooden frames and wattle-and-daub construction, with ornate baked clay eaves, window, and door frames....


Gutiérrez Alarcón, Sérvulo  

W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, Jul 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter, and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learned to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...


Herrería, Julián de la  

Ticio Escobar

[Cervera, Andrés Campos]

(b Asunción, 1888; d Valencia, Spain, 1937).

Paraguayan painter, engraver, and ceramicist. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, and spent six years studying in Paris in private studios. His first exhibition, in Asunción in 1920, marked a turning-point in the history of Paraguayan art. He showed oil paintings inspired principally by Cézanne and the Fauvists, and the arbitrary colors and heavy impasto of his stylized landscapes introduced local artists to the innovations of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism previously unknown in Paraguay; as a result, other painters began to use them in their work. In his engraving, Herrería used a simplified line based on flat contrasts of color. From 1922 he began to work in ceramics, developing themes derived from Pre-Columbian Latin American traditions and scenes of daily rural life in Paraguay. His plates and small sculptures had designs influenced by Art Deco. The series of motifs used in his ceramics show a deep understanding of Paraguayan humor and popular art and give a vivid portrait of everyday life that transcends the merely picturesque....



George Bankes

Pre-Columbian culture of South America that extended throughout several valleys on the south coast of Peru and flourished between c. 1000 and 1476 ce. The Ica–Chincha pottery style was first recognized by the German archaeologist Max Uhle, and regional variations have since been defined by archaeologists from the University of California at Berkeley, especially by Dorothy Menzel. The Ica Valley appears to have been the main cultural center, while the Chincha Valley seems to have had greater political significance. Commerce was important; pottery was clearly held in high esteem, since it has been found at sites on the central coast and inland in the Río Pampas area near Ayacucho, and it seems, moreover, to have formed the principal indicator of cultural cohesion and diversity between the valleys. The main feature of the decorated wares is a polychrome style, usually with a red base overpainted with white and black designs. Motifs are frequently geometric, with many designs taken from textiles, including diamonds, stepped lines, and zigzag lines. There are also many depictions of birds and fish that are difficult to see in the maze of angular designs. A characteristic vessel shape is a jar with a rounded base, globular body, narrow neck, and flaring rim. Dishes with a flanged rim are also common. As on ...


Lara, Magali  

Mark A. Castro

(b Mexico City, Nov 5, 1956)

Mexican painter, draftsman, engraver, and video artist. From 1976 to 1980 Lara studied visual arts at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas (ENAP). Her first exhibition, entitled Scissors, was held at ENAP in 1977 and consisted of ten cartoon drawings and an artist’s book.

Lara’s work during the late 1970s explored the conditions of women in Mexican society, interrogating everyday household objects—irons and ironing boards, refrigerators, baby bottles—and their role as traditional symbols of femininity. Her later paintings further examine female identity via images of flowers, often distorted to convey both beauty and horror.

In addition to painting, Lara is known for her artist’s books and has spoken to the deep relationship in her practice between literature and the visual arts. A series of engravings entitled Alzheimer (2007), exhibited at the Museo de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público in Mexico City, explore the construction and unraveling of memory. The series later inspired one of the artist’s video animations, ...



H. B. Nicholson

Stylistic and iconographic tradition in Mesoamerica during the Postclassic period (c. 900–1521).

The term was coined in 1938 by the American archaeologist George Vaillant for what he variously defined as a “culture,” “civilization,” or “culture complex” that developed after the Teotihuacan collapse in the region of the modern Mexican state of Puebla and the western portion of Oaxaca, an area known as the Mixteca (from the predominant indigenous language of the region). He hypothesized that Mixteca–Puebla diffused into the Basin of Mexico during what he termed the “Chichimec” period, providing “the source and inspiration of Aztec civilization.” He believed that aspects of the complex spread widely throughout Mesoamerica during its final major era, the Postclassic, which he suggested should be labeled the “Mixteca–Puebla period.”

Although Vaillant never defined his concept with precision, he clearly had in mind a distinctive artistic style and its concomitant iconography, particularly exemplified by the members of the “Codex Borgia group” of ritual and divinatory screenfolds (...