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Gordon Campbell

(b London, 1744; d Philadelphia, PA, 1821).

English calico printer, active in America. He was the son of a draper, and trained as a calico printer at Talwin and Foster, a textile printworks at Bromley Hall (Middx). He was assisted by Benjamin Franklin to emigrate, and in 1774 sailed to Philadelphia, where he opened a calico factory in the Kensington area. He printed material for dresses, handkerchiefs and furnishing fabrics, notably bedspreads with medallions depicting urns (e.g. Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A. and Winterthur, DE, Du Pont Winterthur Mus.). When Hewson retired in ...


Molly Sorkin

[Bocher, Main Rousseau]

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 24, 1890; d Munich, Dec 27, 1976).

American fashion designer and editor, active also in France (see fig.). For 50 years Mainbocher defined and promoted the elegance and exclusivity associated with haute couture. As an American working in the rarefied world of Paris fashion, his early careers as editor and couturier were groundbreaking. He later became New York’s most exclusive couturier, eschewing trends in favour of a timeless style that was treasured by the fashion élite.

Born Main Rousseau Bocher, he combined his first and last names into Mainbocher when he opened his couture house in Paris. As a young man he studied art in Chicago and New York and eventually moved to Europe. After military service during World War I, he settled in Paris. An unsuccessful attempt at becoming an opera singer led him to work full time in fashion and in 1921 he became an illustrator for Harper’s Bazaar. His friend, the Vogue...


Peter Stansky

(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).

English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....


Ruth Rosengarten

(b Lisbon, May 19, 1921).

Portuguese painter, printer, tapestry designer and illustrator. He studied architecture and painting, without completing either course, at the Escola Superior de Belas Artes in Lisbon. His early works show an affinity with Neo-Realism in their melancholic atmosphere and ironic depiction of daily life in Lisbon. This tendency was tempered by his love of Bonnard and interest in the abstract qualities of colour and light. A sojourn in London (1962–4) marked the beginning of a new phase in which a revivalism deriving from the influence of British Pop art overlaid his own innate nostalgic lyricism. The canvases treated with photosensitive emulsion of the late 1960s and early 1970s are of a greater eroticism and violence, and were followed by paintings on intimist themes with a local flavour and an emphasis on light.

M. T. Chicó, A. Vieira Santos and J.-A. Fraņca: Diccionário universal da pintura, 3 (Lisbon, 1973)


Clare Woodthorpe Browne

(b Wiesenbach, June 11, 1738; d Jouy-en-Josas, Oct 6, 1815).

French textile manufacturer of German birth. He was the son of a textile dyer and printer and was trained in these skills in both Switzerland and the region of Mulhouse in Alsace. In 1758 he went as engraver and colourist to Paris but left soon after to direct a new workshop at Jouy-en-Josas, near Versailles, where he produced his first printed piece in May 1760. Oberkampf developed Jouy into the most important factory making printed cottons in France. His success was due to several factors: his exceptional qualities as a manager, his use of good-quality products and fast dyes, and his constant attention to scientific progress. In 1770 he introduced copperplate printing at Jouy, and in 1797 he put the first roller-printing machine into production in France. In 1783, the year in which Jouy became a Manufacture Royale, Oberkampf commissioned his first design from Jean-Baptiste Huet I, which started a successful 28-year collaboration. Huet’s Neo-classical and genre scenes, printed in single colours on to fine cotton fabric, were the textiles that made Oberkampf’s reputation and continue to be associated with him. In addition to these the factory continued to make high-quality floral fabrics using woodblocks (...