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Robert Saltonstall Mattison

(b Aberdeen, WA, Jan 24, 1915; d Princetown, MA, July 16, 1991).

American painter, printmaker, and editor. A major figure of the Abstract Expressionist generation (see Abstract Expressionism), in his mature work he encompassed both the expressive brushwork of action painting and the breadth of scale and saturated hues of colour field painting, often with a marked emphasis on European traditions of abstraction.

Motherwell was sent to school in the dry climate of central California to combat severe asthmatic attacks and developed a love for the broad spaces and bright colours that later emerged as essential characteristics of his abstract paintings. His later concern with themes of mortality can likewise be traced to his frail health as a child. From 1932 he studied literature, psychology, and philosophy at Stanford University, CA, and encountered in the poetry of the French Symbolists an expression of moods that dispensed with traditional narrative. He paid tribute to these writers in later paintings such as ...


Ingrid Severin

(Georg Lewin)

(b Berlin, Sept 16, 1879; d Saratov, Russia, Oct 31, 1941).

German writer, editor and critic, active also in Russia. He attended the Königstätter Gymnasium and the Leibnizgymnasium in Berlin and studied the piano, composition and musicology under Conrad Ansorge, becoming a notable pianist. He visited Florence in 1897–8 on a Franz Liszt scholarship, subsequently working in Berlin as a pianist and composer of operas, symphonies, pantomimes, piano works and songs. His acquaintances included Arnold Schoenberg, who aroused his interest in 12-note music and the theories of the German musicologist Else Lasker-Schüler, whom Walden married. The first society founded by Walden was the Beethoven-Verein; in 1904 he founded the ‘Verein für Kunst’ in Berlin and then the society’s publishing house, which published Schoenberg. From 1908 he was co-editor of the weekly Morgen; he was also joint-editor of Der Komet and Nord und Süd in 1908, and chief editor of Der neue Weg. On 3 March 1910 the first issue of ...