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Deborah J. Haynes


(b Budapest, Dec 21, 1887;d London, April 4, 1954).

Hungarian art historian. He studied art history in Vienna with Max Dvořák and wrote a thesis on French Neo-classical and early Romantic painting. After residing for brief periods in Budapest, Florence, Vienna and Berlin, he settled in London in 1933. He never held a regular teaching position but lectured occasionally at the Courtauld Institute of Art. He wrote on Florentine painting in relation to its social setting, on the origins and evolution of Mannerism and on the interaction of Romanticism and Classicism from the French Revolution to the death of Gericault. His interpretative stance, as set forth in ‘Remarks on the Method of Art History’ (1949), was Marxist. Style, for Antal, was not restricted to formal features but included subject-matter and the social, political and economic context of the artist and work of art. His outlook enabled him to give such artists as Hogarth and Fuseli, who had previously been considered of only limited interest, a context in art history. For instance, he demonstrated how Hogarth’s thematically and formally innovative art revealed the views and tastes of a broad cross-section of English society. He followed Aby Warburg in his rejection of a view that valued ‘art for art’s sake’....


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener


(b Sofia, Aug 11, 1891; d Poland, Oct 10, 1962).

Bulgarian architect, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, in 1920. On returning to Bulgaria he formed a practice with Ivan Danchov (1898–1972). Belkovski espoused the revival of Neo-classicism that was prevalent in much of Europe in the 1930s and actively resisted the modernist trends of Functionalism and Constructivism. Notable examples of his collaboration with Danchov in Sofia are the Bulgaria Hotel and Concert Hall (1934–7), originally with frescoes (destr. 1944), the Balkan Cinema and Hotel (1935–7; from 1944 Youth Theatre) and the Telephone Exchange (1942–7), with sculptures by Lyouben Dimitrov (b 1904). Belkovski and Danchov also designed Kuyumdzhiiski House (1931; now the French Embassy), Oborishte Street, Sofia. From 1943 Belkovski was a professor at the Higher Institute for Architecture and Building, Sofia, and Director of the Institute of Town Planning and Architecture of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, where he published papers in the field of standardized designs and the industrialization of construction....


Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Madrid, Feb 23, 1845; d Madrid, Dec 20, 1924).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Francisco Bellver (1812–89), with whom he undertook his first studies until attending the Madrid Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. Ricardo soon started to submit to the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes works on historical subjects, such as Tucapel (1862), on mythology, such as Satyr Playing the Flute and a Young Faun Playing with a Goat (both 1864), and others that were religious, such as Piety (1866).

In 1874 Bellver y Ramón obtained a grant to study at the Academia Española de Bellas Artes in Rome; there his most significant works included a bust of Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, El Gran Capitán (1453–1515), executed in 1875, and a relief entitled the Burial of St Agnes, which shows traces of Neo-classicism (Madrid, S Francisco el Grande). During this period he sculpted his popular and dynamic ...


Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....


(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).

Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...


Stephen Clarke

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...


American architectural partnership formed in 1903 by William A(dams) Delano (b New York, 21 Jan 1874; d New York, 12 Jan 1960) and Chester H. Aldrich (b Providence, RI, 4 June 1871; d Rome, 26 Dec 1940). Aldrich graduated from Columbia University, New York, in 1893. After a year with the New York architects Carrère & Hastings he attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (diploma 1900). He returned to Carrère & Hastings until he formed the partnership with Delano. The latter also studied architecture at Columbia University and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (diploma 1902). After about a year with Carrère & Hastings working as a draughtsman, he became Aldrich’s partner. Their initial commissions were private residences in the stately neo-classical styles fashionable in the early 20th century, for example the John D. Rockefeller House (1906–8), Pocantico Hills, New York, and 925 Park Avenue (...


Nicholas Bullock

(b Linz, Oct 15, 1889; d Vienna, March 27, 1957).

Austrian architect, furniture designer and teacher. He trained first in Linz and from 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, under the Neo-classicist Karl König (1841–1915). He completed a year in Josef Hoffmann’s studio at the Wagnerschule in 1913–14, and after World War I he returned to work with Hoffmann, rising to be his senior assistant and helping with the development of the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1926 he left to work in Clemens Holzmeister’s studio, teaching with him at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. Active in the Österreichischer Werkbund during the 1920s and 1930s, Fellerer built two houses (1932) for the Werkbundsiedlung in Vienna. In 1934 he was appointed Director of the Kunstgewerbeschule and succeeded Hoffmann as head of its architectural section until he was dismissed by the Nazis in 1938. From 1934 he was also in private practice with Eugen Wörle (b 1909) and won a Grand Prix at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris in ...


Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Kloster-Veilsdorf, nr Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Nov 28, 1868; d Munich, Aug 18, 1945).

German sculptor. He entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich in 1887 and a year later went to the Akademie where he studied under Wilhelm von Rümann until 1892. In 1896 he took over Rümann’s teaching at the Akademie; he became an honorary professor in 1902 and was appointed full professor in 1912, training a whole generation of sculptors who were nicknamed the ‘Münchner Archaiker’. Although he became a member of the National Socialist Party, he was compelled to give up his teaching post in 1937. The small bronze statue Eva (e.g. Munich, Ver. Bild. Kstler) established Hahn’s reputation as a Jugendstil artist. It was only in his middle years that he developed into an outstanding representative of neo-classicism, as is demonstrated in particular by his two monuments to Moltke, one made in 1899 for Chemnitz, in the Hauptmarkt, and the other in 1909 for Bremen, on the façade of the north tower of the Liebfrauenkirche, and the monument to ...


(Ernst Emil)

(b Darmstadt, July 30, 1852; d Berlin, Nov 11, 1932).

German architect and writer. He attended the Kunstakademie, Kassel (1873), and the Bauakademie, Berlin (1874–9), where his teachers included Johann Heinrich Strack and Richard Lucae, and he won the Schinkel prize. In 1879 he took the government examination in architecture and became a government architect (1884). In 1885 he won a competition, with Peter Dybwad (1859–1921), for the Reichsgericht in Leipzig and a subsequent commission to revise the design; work was carried out on this monumental, neo-classicist law court between 1887 and 1895. In early April 1896 Hoffmann was elected city architect of Berlin, a post he retained until 1924 (see Berlin §I 4.). As city architect he was responsible for all types of public buildings in Berlin: swimming baths, bridges, fountains, monuments, fire stations, hospitals, arts and festival buildings, residential buildings, schools, social facilities, municipal and administration buildings. Notable examples include the swimming baths (...


Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...


Nils-Ole Lund


(b Slagelse, Sept 10, 1894; d Copenhagen, Dec 22, 1984).

Danish architect. He trained at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, graduating in 1921. His early buildings of the 1920s were neo-classical in style, but by the beginning of the 1930s he had become a leading exponent of Functionalism. Lauritzen successfully combined the latter with a refined use of materials and detailing, designing Functionalist buildings that were both elegant and intimate in scale. Such qualities were apparent in his airport building on Amager, outside Copenhagen (1937–9). Its wave-shaped concrete roof was very advanced for the time; the plan also was unusually detailed and well developed for this type of building.

Lauritzen’s Radiohuset (1937–45), the broadcasting complex in Copenhagen, was built according to the principles of Functionalism. Offices with continuous bands of windows, studios and the concert hall were housed in separate, tile-covered blocks. The concert hall was covered with a shell-like roof. Its largely windowless volume reflects the interior space of the hall. During the 1950s his designs became more systematic and less experimental. In ...


Asko Salokorpi


(b Helsinki, May 19, 1867; d Helsinki, May 17, 1939).

Finnish architect. He studied architecture (1884–8) at the Polytechnic Institute, Helsinki, and with F. A. Sjöström (1840–85), an architect who designed several important Neo-classical buildings in Helsinki and elsewhere in Finland. Sjöström’s influence is clearly evident in Lindqvist’s student projects and early independent designs. His first important work, the Merkurius Building (1888–90), 33 Pohjoisesplanadi, Helsinki, was designed when he was 21. The façade of this building, a residential block with shops and offices on the ground and mezzanine floors, demonstrates Lindqvist’s assured handling of Neo-classical forms. It is also notable for the use of modern construction techniques, whereby the upper storeys are supported on cast-iron pillars that allow the office storeys below to be fronted with large plate-glass windows. It is not clear whether this innovation, which represented a completely new approach in Finnish architecture, was the work of Lindqvist or the master builder ...


Oscar E. Vázquez

Spanish family of artists, teachers, critics and museum directors. Its members included some of the most important artists in 19th-century Spain. José de Madrazo y Agudo was a Neo-classical painter who had trained under David in Paris and also in Rome. He remained faithful to the tenets of Neo-classicism in subject-matter and style and became director of both the Real Academia de S Fernando and the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Two of his sons, Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and Luis de Madrazo y Küntz (b Madrid, 27 Feb 1825; d Madrid, 9 Feb 1897), were also painters. Federico became the foremost portrait painter in Spain as well as holding all the significant posts in the art establishment. José’s other sons were the art historian and critic Pedro de Madrazo y Küntz, whose work includes studies of the Prado collection, and the architect Juan de Madrazo y Küntz (...


Emily Braun

(b Rome, Feb 15, 1902; d Rome, March 31, 1965).

Italian painter. Mafai was the central figure of a group of artists called the Scuola Romana. His preference for lyrical, intimate subject-matter contrasted with the monumental neo-classicism of the Novecento Italiano. From 1922 until 1925 he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. There he met his future wife, the artist Antonietta Raphael, who introduced him to the work of the Ecole de Paris. By 1927 the painter Scipione and the sculptor Marino Mazzacurati (1907–1969) gathered regularly in Mafai’s studio, giving rise to an association known as the ‘Scuola di Via Cavour’. During this period Mafai painted views of the River Tiber in a deliberately unschooled manner, self-portraits and still-lifes such as Quartered Bullock (1930; Milan, Brera), reminiscent of Chaïm Soutine. His series of still-lifes called Dried Flowers was begun after a year in Paris in 1930.

While Scipione went on to develop an increasingly expressionist style, Mafai responded to the formal research of Giorgio Morandi by stressing the tonal qualities in his paintings. This concentration on the subtle gradation of values endowed the commonplace objects of his still-lifes with a heightened, magical reality. After ...


Louise Noelle

Mexican family of architects. Nicolás Mariscal (b Mexico City, Sep 10, 1875; d Mexico City, Apr 13, 1964) and his brother Federico Mariscal (b Querétaro, Nov 7, 1881; d Mexico City, Aug 19, 1969) both received a neoclassical architectural education at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, graduating in 1899 and 1903 respectively. Despite this traditional background they showed themselves predisposed to change, especially with respect to a national architecture. Both later became professors at the Escuela Nacional de Arquitectura, Mexico City, of which Federico was also dean between 1935 and 1938. Nicolás Mariscal is particularly notable for his militancy on behalf of his profession in Mexico, which he defended against the privileges of the engineers. This activity culminated in 1919 with the creation of the Sociedad de Arquitectos Mexicanos. From 1899 to 1911 he published the prestigious magazine El Arte y la Ciencia...


John Wilton-Ely

Term coined in the 1880s to denote the last stage of the classical tradition in architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts. Neo-classicism was the successor to Rococo in the second half of the 18th century and was itself superseded by various historicist styles in the first half of the 19th century. It formed an integral part of Enlightenment, the in its radical questioning of received notions of human endeavour. It was also deeply involved with the emergence of new historical attitudes towards the past—non-Classical as well as Classical—that were stimulated by an unprecedented range of archaeological discoveries, extending from southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and the Near East, during the second half of the 18th century. The new awareness of the plurality of historical styles prompted the search for consciously new and contemporary forms of expression. This concept of modernity set Neo-classicism apart from past revivals of antiquity, to which it was, nevertheless, closely related. Almost paradoxically, the quest for a timeless mode of expression (the ‘true style’, as it was then called) involved strongly divergent approaches towards design that were strikingly focused on the Greco-Roman debate. On the one hand, there was a commitment to a radical severity of expression, associated with the Platonic Ideal, as well as to such criteria as the functional and the primitive, which were particularly identified with early Greek art and architecture. On the other hand, there were highly innovative exercises in eclecticism, inspired by late Imperial Rome, as well as subsequent periods of stylistic experiment with Mannerism and the Italian Baroque....


Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen


(b Copenhagen, Jan 17, 1871; d Copenhagen, June 19, 1923).

Danish architect. After attending technical school and serving an apprenticeship as a carpenter, he was admitted to the Arkitektskole of the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1896), but he left in protest at the teaching (1902) to work independently. At an exhibition in 1901 he saw Gottlieb Bindesbøll’s drawings for the Thorvaldsens Museum, C. F. Harsdorff’s model for the unbuilt Frederikskirke and drawings by C. F. Hansen. He concluded that architecture and art of the late 18th and early 19th century constituted an organic unity, submitting to a common ideal. He studied the play of light and shadow to create space and how form, texture and colour had an effect on the interior space. He also studied Chinese furniture and stoneware in museums because of his desire to grasp superior manipulation of colour and textural effects of art of the Far East, as well as the command of line and shape of Neo-classicism. He worked with ceramics (...


Harley Preston and Lin Barton



József Sisa

(b Biala, Galicia [now Bialsko-Biala, Poland], Oct 14, 1846; d Budapest, July 11, 1915).

Hungarian architect, painter and interior designer of German descent. He studied in Karlsruhe and Vienna, and in 1868 he went to Budapest where he worked first in the offices of Antal Szkalnitzky and Miklós Ybl. His designs included the sepulchral monument (1871–2) of Count Lajos Batthyány in the Kerepesi cemetery, Budapest, and other monuments and pedestals for statues. In 1894 he entered into partnership with Fülöp Herzog (1860–1925), with whom he designed the neo-classical architectural ensemble of Heroes’ Square, which terminates the 2.5 km long Radial Avenue (Sugár út, now Andrássy út). In the middle stands the Millenary Monument (1894–1900), a semicircular double colonnade with bronze figures of Hungarian sovereigns and a single, tall Corinthian column with sculpture by György Zala, which commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest. On opposite sides of the square they built the Art Hall (1895–6), a porticoed red-brick structure with multicoloured terracotta decoration, and the ...