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Article

Anglés, Juan Carlos  

Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...

Article

Araujo, Ceferino  

Pilar Benito

(b Santander, 1824; d Madrid, 1897).

Spanish painter and writer. He was a pupil of the landscape painter Carlos de Haes at the Escuela Superior in Madrid and exhibited at the National Fine Arts Exhibitions of 1858, 1860, 1862 and 1866. His artistic career, however, is less significant than his profound knowledge of art. He published articles in La Ilustración española y americana, El Día, Arte en España and the Revista de bellas artes (all published in Madrid), at a time when art criticism, understood as ‘a commentary on work, made with some degree of authority’, was still in its infancy in Spain. He gave several lectures at the Ateneo Cientifico, Literario y Artístico in Madrid, such as: ‘Observaciones sobre el concepto del Arte’ (15 May 1884), ‘Los desenvolvimientos de la pintura—López, Madrazo, Rosales, Fortuny’ (1887) and ‘La España del siglo XIX: Goya y su época’ (1895). His publications include the monographs ...

Article

Atl, Dr.  

Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...

Article

Barvitius, Viktor  

Roman Prahl

(b Prague, March 28, 1834; d Prague, June 9, 1902).

Bohemian painter and art historian, brother of Antonín Barvitius. Viktor Barvitius studied at the Prague Academy of Visual Arts from the age of 15. From 1865 to 1867 he lived in Paris and in the village of Cernay-la-Ville, where he joined the successors of the Barbizon school. While in France he abandoned his older urban genre scenes in favour of more visually appealing records of city life (e.g. National Festivity in the Hvězda Deer Park, 1861; Prague, Hradčany Castle). At the same time his work was transformed by a new use of light and a more painterly style expressed on larger canvases (e.g. Horse Trial in Paris, c. 1866; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). After his return to Prague he gradually abandoned painting to devote himself to the study of art history, writing the first extensive study of Czech 19th-century painting, an essay on the history of Czech artists’ associations, and a catalogue of the leading picture gallery of Prague, of which he was inspector from ...

Article

Baugniet, Marcel-Louis  

Anne van Loo

(b Liège, March 18, 1896; d 1995).

Belgian painter, designer and writer. He was a pupil of the Symbolist painter Jean Delville but started using geometric forms after discovering the work of František Kupka. In 1923 he began to collaborate on the avant-garde journal 7 Arts together with Pierre-Louis Flouquet (1900–67) and Karel Maes (1900–74). Also in 1923 he married the dancer Akarova (b 1904) who inspired his ‘Kaloprosopies’ (1925), an album of nine woodcuts, and for whom he designed costumes and stage sets. At the same time he embarked on the design of functional furniture, first in traditional materials and then in metal tubing (1930) and polychrome, cellulose-based lacquer. He opened his own decorating business in Brussels (1930–70) and showed his ‘Standax’ furniture, which could be assembled and dismantled, at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) in Paris. Baugniet was a promoter of the ...

Article

Bernard, Emile  

Belinda Thomson

(b Lille, April 28, 1868; d Paris, April 15, 1941).

French painter and writer. He was the son of a cloth merchant. Relations with his parents were never harmonious, and in 1884, against his father’s wishes, he enrolled as a student at the Atelier Cormon in Paris. There he became a close friend of Louis Anquetin and Toulouse-Lautrec. In suburban views of Asnières, where his parents lived, Bernard experimented with Impressionist and then Pointillist colour theory, in direct opposition to his master’s academic teaching; an argument with Fernand Cormon led to his expulsion from the studio in 1886. He made a walking tour of Normandy and Brittany that year, drawn to Gothic architecture and the simplicity of the carved Breton calvaries. In Concarneau he struck up a friendship with Claude-Emile Schuffenecker and met Gauguin briefly in Pont-Aven. During the winter Bernard met van Gogh and frequented the shop of the colour merchant Julien-François Tanguy, where he gained access to the little-known work of Cézanne....

Article

Bianchini, Antonio  

Franco Bernabei

(b Rome, Sept 18, 1803; d Rome, Feb 27, 1884).

Italian writer and painter. He studied theology and Classical literature at the Seminario in Rome and took a degree in theology at the Università degli Studi in Rome, then becoming a respected translator of Ancient Greek. His literary interests led him to join the Arcadia Academy, Rome, and he came into contact with such linguistic scholars as Antonio Cesari (1760–1828) and Pietro Giordani. Like them, he was greatly interested in Italian writers of the 14th century and also in the 19th-century movement called Purismo. As a painter Bianchini specialized in watercolours and miniatures, producing mainly copies of Renaissance masters. He painted an altarpiece of S Giovanni Battista de’ Rossi (Rome, Santa Trinità dei Pellegrini). He was secretary of the Società degli Amatori e Cultori di Belle Arti in Rome (1833–53), where he gave several lectures that developed aesthetic doctrines linking literary and pictorial Purismo. He was engaged in restoration, in the Galleria delle Carte Geografiche of the Vatican and in the chapel of S Scolastica in Subiaco, and also took part in the Amministrazione Comunale of Rome....

Article

Bloch, Carl  

Gitte Valentiner

(Heinrich)

(b Copenhagen, May 23, 1834; d Feb 22, 1890).

Danish painter and etcher. He studied under Wilhelm Marstrand at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. His early work includes genre scenes, prompted by the art historian Niels Laurits Andreas Høyen, who called for painting representing the everyday life of the people. Bloch depicted farm life, as in a Boy Waking a Girl with a Feather (1856), and the life of the fishermen, as in Fisher Families Awaiting the Return of the Men in an Impending Storm (1858; both Copenhagen, Hirschsprungske Saml.). From 1859 to 1866 Bloch lived in Italy, and this stay provided him with a rich source on his return, as in such humorous scenes of daily life as a Monk with Toothache (1871; untraced; see Magnussen, p. 66).

Bloch’s stay in Italy was particularly important for his history painting. He was influenced by contemporary examples of the genre, and he produced large-scale historical works there. He achieved his greatest success when ...

Article

Calderini, Marco  

(b Turin, July 20, 1850; d Turin, Feb 26, 1941).

Italian painter, critic and writer. From 1867 to 1873 he studied at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, and when Antonio Fontanesi arrived in 1869 to teach landscape painting, Calderini became one of his first and most able pupils. He took a studio with a fellow student, Francesco Mosso (1849–77), and in 1870 made his début at the Società Promotrice with Solitary Statues (Rome, G.N.A. Mod.), a painting depicting the statues and gardens of the Palazzo Reale in Turin after rainfall. Fontanesi’s expressive and fluid style with its emphasis on the sensuous qualities of a particular landscape (e.g. Stillness, 1860; Turin, Gal. Civ. A. Mod.) inspired Calderini to approach landscape painting in a similarly evocative manner (e.g. Spring, Hills near Turin, 1878; see Lombroso, p. 251). However, he created an equilibrium between Fontanesi’s lyricism and his own more objective portrayal of nature. He shared the older artist’s fervent belief in direct experience and would not paint a landscape unless he had spent at least six months in the area. Together with Fontanesi, he introduced an expressive naturalism into Piedmontese landscape painting in contrast to the finely ‘finished’ landscapes of Massimo D’Azeglio. Effects of light and colour at different times of day and at different seasons are the subjects of a number of works, including ...

Article

Calvi, Girolamo-Luigi  

Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Milan, 1791; d Milan, March 28, 1872).

Italian painter and art historian. He was trained as a painter in the Neo-classical school of Giuseppe Bossi, and by Vincenzo Camuccini and Pietro Benvenuti. He was the author of Notizie sulla vita…e degli Sforza, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century, which largely established the canon of early Milanese artists. Calvi’s book was founded on his perceptive connoisseurship of painting and sculpture, and a good understanding of secondary literature. He made a thorough, intelligent use of primary sources including lapidary inscriptions, documents from the archives of Milan and Pavia, and also the then unpublished manuscript (compiled c. 1775) of Antonio Francesco Albuzzi. This work consisted of a collection of notes on the lives of Milanese artists, its author being the first secretary of the Accademia Braidense, where Giuseppe Bossi taught. Both Bossi and Calvi possessed copies of Albuzzi’s manuscript.

Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti, scultori e pittori che fiorirono in Milano durante il governo dei Visconti e degli Sforza...

Article

Calvi, Jacopo Alessandro  

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

Castillo (Guash), Teófilo  

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher, and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he traveled through France, Italy, and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny, y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades, and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

Chenavard, (Claude-)Aimé  

(b Lyon, 1798; d Paris, June 16, 1838).

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the 1833 Sèvres exhibition and designs for the Duc d’Orléans (future King Louis-Philippe), such as a silver-gilt ewer made by M. Durant and shown at the 1834 Paris Exposition Universelle. Chenavard exhibited designs at the Paris Salons of 1827, 1831, 1833 and 1834, among them his Gothic-style designs, in collaboration with Achille Mascret, for the decoration of the chapel at the château of Eu, and his sketches for the restoration of the Théâtre Français and Opéra Comique in Paris. Material by Chenavard is preserved in the Musée National de Céramique at Sèvres and the ...

Article

Tanomura Chikuden  

Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...

Article

Cicognara, Conte Leopoldo  

Valeria Farinati

(Francesco)

(b Ferrara, 26 Nov 1767; d Venice, 5 March 1834). Italian critic, art historian, theorist, bibliophile and painter. He was educated at the Collegio dei Nobili in Modena (1776–85). From 1788 to 1790 he lived in Rome, where he was admitted to the Società dell’Arcadia in 1788, and became interested in ancient ruins and contemporary artists (particularly Anton Raphael Mengs) as well as in the theories of Francesco Milizia. After 1807 he abandoned a stormy political career, and, having settled in Venice, devoted himself to scholarship and painting. In 1808 he published his treatise on aesthetics, Del bello, in which he laid out the principal tenets of his Enlightenment and Neo-classical aesthetics. He upheld the important role played by philosophy in education and in the practice of art, championed the cause of progress in art, and dealt with the concepts of ‘absolute beauty’, ‘relative beauty’, ‘ideal beauty’, ‘grace or grazia’, and ‘the sublime’. From ...

Article

Costa, Giovanni  

[Nino]

(b Rome, Oct 15, 1826; d Pisa, Jan 31, 1903).

Italian painter and critic. He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti and Francesco Coghetti at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Legione Romane; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome. Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Emile François David (1824–91) and the English painter Charles Coleman (1807–74), who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton and George Heming Mason, and they became lifelong friends. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, ...

Article

Debschitz, Wilhelm von  

A. Ziffer

(b Görlitz, Feb 21, 1871; d Lüneburg, March 10, 1948).

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in 1901 at the first Ausstellung für Kunst im Handwerk in Munich. In 1902 he founded the Lehr- und Versuch-Atelier für Angewandte und Freie Kunst with the Swiss artist Hermann Obrist, developing a modern co-educational teaching system based on reformist pedagogy and popular psychology. In preliminary courses, classes and workshops, a broad practical training was offered primarily in arts and crafts. This precursor of the Bauhaus encouraged contact with dealers and collectors and was widely accoladed. When Obrist resigned from the school in 1904, Debschitz founded the Ateliers und Werkstätten für Angewandte Kunst and the Keramischen Werkstätten production centres attached to the school. In ...

Article

Delaborde, Henri  

Hélène Guicharnaud

(b Rennes, May 2, 1811; d Paris, May 24, 1899).

French painter and critic. He trained from 1829 with Paul Delaroche, with whom he made his first trip to Italy in 1834. A second visit to Italy in 1839 and then a three-year stay (1842–5) resulted in a large number of drawings and watercolours, including a series of copies after the masters of the Italian Renaissance, some of which were published as prints in Les Maîtres florentins du quinzième siècle (Paris, 1878). Delaborde exhibited at the Salon between 1836 and 1850, showing such works as Hagar in the Desert (1836) and Offering to Hygeia (1842; both Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). The inspiration for some of his subjects is Romantic, but their conception is classical in the manner of the school of Ingres, whom Delaborde admired all his life.

The State bought a number of Delaborde’s paintings, including Dante at La Verna for the château of Saint-Cloud (untraced, possibly destr. ...

Article

Delécluze, Etienne-Jean  

Paul Gerbod

(b Paris, Feb 26, 1781; d Versailles, July 12, 1863).

French writer and painter. The son of the architect Jean-Baptiste Delécluze, in 1796 he entered the studio of Charles Moreau (1762–1810), who introduced him to Jacques-Louis David. He tried to make a career as a painter between 1808 and 1814, exhibiting pictures, such as The Rape of Europa (exh. Salon 1808) and Augustus and Cinna (exh. Salon 1814; Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), that show his loyalty to the Neo-classical school. He also produced three watercolours depicting the events of 1814 (Versailles, Château).

In 1815 Delécluze abandoned painting in favour of writing art criticism. After travelling in Italy and England, he wrote his first article, published in the Lycée français, and he subsequently wrote an account of the Salon of 1822 in the Moniteur universel. In November 1822 he wrote an obituary of Antonio Canova for the Journal des débats and continued to contribute to that newspaper until his death. He wrote for several other journals, including ...

Article

Denis, Maurice  

Belinda Thomson

(b Granville, Nov 25, 1870; d Paris, Nov 13, 1943).

French painter, designer, printmaker and theorist. Although born in Normandy, Denis lived throughout his life in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, just west of Paris. He attended the Lycée Condorcet, Paris, where he met many of his future artistic contemporaries, then studied art simultaneously at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and at the Académie Julian (1888–90). Through fellow student Paul Sérusier, in 1888 he learnt of the innovative stylistic discoveries made that summer in Pont-Aven by Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard. With Sérusier and a number of like-minded contemporaries at the Académie Julian—Pierre Bonnard, Paul Ranson, Henri-Gabriel Ibels and others—Denis found himself fundamentally opposed to the naturalism recommended by his academic teachers. They formed the Nabis, a secret artistic brotherhood dedicated to a form of pictorial Symbolism based loosely on the synthetic innovations of Gauguin and Bernard. Denis’s first article, ‘Définition du néo-traditionnisme’, published in Art et critique in 1890 (and republished in ...