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Adams, Maurice B(ingham)  

T. Affleck Greeves

(b Burgess Hill, Sussex, 1849; d London, Aug 17, 1933).

English architect, editor and draughtsman. After completing his articles with H. N. Goulty of Brighton, he became assistant to William Ralph Emerson, and Architect to Brighton Council. Between 1872 and 1923 he was Editor of Building News. He instituted the Building News Designing Club, which enabled young architects to submit designs for his criticism. He contributed largely to the paper’s illustrations, redrawing designs for lithographic reproduction, and covered a wide range of subjects in a skilful and accurate, if somewhat dull, linear style. He also published several architectural books. Through the owner of Building News he obtained his major architectural commissions, notably Camberwell Polytechnic and Art Gallery (1902). He also designed country houses near London, for example Queensmead Cottage, Kings Road, Windsor, Berks (1883), for Reginald Talbot, as well as in Australia (e.g. Bellevue Hill, Double Bay, for Charles B. Fairfax in the mid-1880s) and America, where he designed timber houses in New Jersey for E. S. Wilde in ...

Article

Avery, Samuel P(utnam)  

Madeleine Fidell-Beaufort

(b New York, March 17, 1822; d New York, Aug 11, 1904)

American wood-engraver, art dealer, collector and philanthropist. Avery’s career as a wood-engraver and his involvement with the New York publishing trade began in the early 1840s. He worked for, among others, Appleton’s, the New York Herald and Harper’s and produced illustrations for trade cards, religious tracts, adventure stories and children’s books. By the early 1850s Avery had begun compiling humorous books and commissioning drawings from such artist-illustrators as Felix Octavius Carr Darley, John Whetten Ehninger, Augustus Hoppin (1827–96), Tompkins Harrison Matteson and John McLenan (1827–66). His business contacts led to close relationships with such artists as Frederick Church, John F. Kensett and William Trost Richards.

By the late 1850s Avery had begun to collect drawings and small cabinet pictures by local artists. Other art collectors, notably William T. Walters, asked Avery’s advice when commissioning works of art. In 1864 he turned his engraving practice over to ...

Article

Bastianini, Giovanni  

Giancarlo Gentilini

(b Camerata, Florence, Sept 17, 1830; d Florence, June 29, 1868).

Italian sculptor. He began as a stonecutter in the quarries at Fiesole. He was sent by the learned printer Francesco Inghirami to study in Florence, first (1844–5) with Pio Fedi (1816–92) and then (1845–8) with Girolamo Torrini (d before 1858), with whom he collaborated on the statue of Donatello for the portico of the Uffizi. In line with the prominence of the Purismo movement in Florence in that period, Bastianini greatly admired Renaissance sculpture, which became his main source of inspiration. From 1848 to 1866 he was under contract to the antique dealer Giovanni Freppa (fl 1842–66), who supplied him with casts and models as well as a stipend in exchange for which he executed numerous neo-Renaissance works, especially busts and bas-reliefs, most of which were sold as authentic.

Among Bastianini’s first forgeries are two probably stone bas-reliefs: The Singer...

Article

Bottomley, William Lawrence  

Elizabeth Meredith Dowling

(b Richmond, VA, Feb 24, 1883; d Glen Head, Long Island, NY, Feb 1, 1951).

American architect, preservationist, author, and editor. His wealthy patrician family provided the opportunity for a fine education and connections to future clients. In 1906 he received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Columbia University. His education continued in Rome at the American Academy through receipt of the McKim Fellowship in Architecture in 1907. In 1908 he passed the entrance examination for the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and remained in Paris until 1909.

Best known for his residential work, Bottomley combined his extensive knowledge of architectural history with his own observations to produce personal interpretations of past styles. Of his approximately 186 commissions, 90 were located in New York and 51 in Virginia. His most recognized residential commissions are found on Monument Avenue in Richmond, VA. Produced during the 1920s and 1930s, these residences, like many of his other projects, have exteriors inspired by nearby 18th-century James River Georgian mansions. Their interiors deviate from the Georgian models with creatively arranged plans that display a particular delight in the use of curving stairs within a variety of different shaped foyers....

Article

Bowyer, Robert  

David Blayney Brown

(b London, c. 1758; d Byfleet, Surrey, June 4, 1834).

Miniature painter and publisher. He was originally self-taught and then a pupil of John Smart (1741–1811), whose work he copied and whose style he imitated: between 1783 and 1828 he was an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy, being appointed in 1789 painter in watercolours to George III and miniature painter to Queen Charlotte (1744–1818). He was a keen promoter of history painting and in 1792 launched a prospectus for an edition of David Hume’s History of England, to be ‘superbly embellished’ with illustrations engraved after historical paintings by leading artists, including Benjamin West, Robert Smirke, Francis Wheatley and Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg. Bowyer also published the Historic Gallery, which, until its failure, with great financial loss, in 1806, provided substantial patronage to history painters and fostered a taste for national history paintings, especially of medieval subjects. The five folios that appeared contained, in addition to engravings of historical paintings, engraved portraits, manuscripts and antiquarian material. Bowyer also published ...

Article

Bridgwater, Henry  

(Scott)

(b 1864; d 1946).

English mezzotint engraver. He lived in Bushey, Herts, and worked for most of the leading London print publishers and dealers. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, in 1889, with A Schoolgirl after Luke Fildes, and continued to show there until his death in 1946, when his only exhibited original work, ...

Article

Camera Work  

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

Cardon, Anthony  

David Alexander

[Antoine]

(b Brussels, May 15, 1772; d London, April 16, 1813).

Flemish engraver and print publisher, active in London. The son of Antoine Alexandre Joseph Cardon (1739–1822), a painter and engraver in Brussels, he was persuaded by the troubled times to go to London in 1792. He entered the Royal Academy Schools on 3 November 1792 and was engaged by Paul Colnaghi to engrave, under the direction of Luigi Schiavonetti, three of the Cries of London after Francis Wheatley in 1794–6. Cardon was an enterprising man, soon establishing himself as an independent publisher. He took advantage of the peace of 1801, in that year engraving and publishing in Paris and London Joseph Boze’s painting of The First Consul and General Berthier at the Battle of Marengo (untraced) jointly with the painter. He was known to Joseph Farington, who noted some of his activities, such as his purchase of two paintings by Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg for engraving (4 March 1805...

Article

Cave, Henry William  

Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...

Article

Chant, James  

(John)

(b London, c. 1819; d c. 1883).

English mezzotint engraver. He was a prolific engraver in London and was employed by most of the leading publishers and dealers. He specialized in large-scale portrait, historical and genre prints engraved after a wide variety of contemporary artists and 18th-century portrait painters including Joshua Reynolds. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in ...

Article

Colman, Samuel (ii)  

Merrill Halkerston

(b Portland, ME, March 4, 1832; d New York, March 26, 1920).

American painter, interior designer and writer. Colman grew up in New York, where his father, Samuel Colman, ran a successful publishing business. The family bookstore on Broadway, a popular meeting place for artists, offered Colman early introductions to such Hudson River school painters as Asher B(rown) Durand, with whom he is said to have studied briefly around 1850. Having won early recognition for his paintings of popular Hudson River school locations (see Storm King on the Hudson), he was elected an Associate of the National Academy of Design in New York in 1854. Most of Colman’s landscapes of the 1850s, for example Meadows and Wildflowers at Conway (1856; Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar Coll., Frances Lehman Loeb A. Cent.), reveal the influence of the Hudson River school. An avid traveller, he embarked on his first European tour in 1860, visiting France, Italy, Switzerland and the more exotic locales of southern Spain and Morocco. His reputation was secured in the 1860s by his numerous paintings of romantic Spanish sites, notably the large ...

Article

Cromek, Robert Hartley  

David Alexander

(b Kingston upon Hull, 1770; d London, 12 or March 14, 1812).

English publisher and engraver. He studied in London under Francesco Bartolozzi and engraved a number of book illustrations but was best known as a publisher, issuing the designs by William Blake for Robert Blair’s poem The Grave (London, 1743). In 1805 Cromek commissioned Blake to draw and engrave the designs, but Blake felt betrayed when Cromek engaged Luigi Schiavonetti instead because he saw that Blake’s style of engraving would not please the public (for further discussion see Blake, William). Blake was further annoyed when Cromek commissioned Thomas Stothard to paint the Canterbury Pilgrims (1806; London, Tate; for illustration see Stothard, Thomas), an idea that Blake thought had been stolen from him; in 1809 Blake published a very successful singly issued print of it. Bentley has shown that although Cromek had considerable understanding and sympathy for Blake his treatment of him helped to increase the artist’s isolation....

Article

De Zayas, Marius  

Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...

Article

Delâtre, Auguste  

Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, 1822; d Paris, July 26, 1907).

French printmaker. From the age of 12 he worked for the same jobbing printer, but c. 1840–41 he was employed by two well-known printmakers, Charles Jacque and Louis Marvy (1815–50), to handle their presses. Jacque and Marvy taught him how to paint and draw, and his experience with them turned him into an artist’s printer. He then set up his own studio. In 1848 he completed his first series of etchings, mainly landscape scenes. Although Delâtre was versatile in the various forms of etching, he is best known for the excellence and sensitivity of his work as a printer. He developed the ‘mobile etching’ technique, a way of painting ink on to the plate so that up to 40 unique impressions could be made from the same plate, rather than a uniformly wiped edition. This skill served the Impressionists and influenced the practice of monotype in such artists as Ludovic Lepic and Degas. It also inspired fierce debate on the question of printer intrusion. He quickly established a considerable reputation and soon became the only printer to whom the majority of talented etchers would entrust their work. His print shop became a meeting place for such etchers as Charles-François Daubigny and James McNeill Whistler. The cult of Japonisme is said to have begun there through the ...

Article

Dickinson, William  

David Alexander

(b London, 1747; d Paris, 1823).

English engraver and print publisher. He worked first for the painter Robert Edge Pine, exhibiting mezzotints of Pine’s pictures at the Society of Artists between 1769 and 1773. He then began publishing some of his own mezzotints independently: his portrait of Joseph Banks (Chaloner Smith, no. 4), made in 1774, was the first of 22 excellent mezzotints made after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 12 of which appeared during the 1770s. His 100 or so portrait mezzotints were well drawn and finely scraped; their brilliance was often enhanced by the use of warm brown inks. From 1776 to 1781 Dickinson published prints with Thomas Watson from New Bond Street, London; they engraved and published stipples as well as mezzotints and became the principal publishers of humorous stipples after the amateur artist Henry William Bunbury. In the decade after 1783 Dickinson engraved only two mezzotint portraits, while publishing plates by other engravers, such as his pupil ...

Article

Didot family  

Linda Whiteley

French family of typographers, printers, publishers and collectors. The first to settle in Paris was Denis Didot (2nd half of 17th century), whose son François Didot (1689–1759) founded in 1713 the family publishing business. His sons François-Ambroise Didot (1730–1804) and Pierre-François Didot (1731–93) developed the business, adding a type foundry and a paper-mill. The elegance of their publications brought them the patronage of the brothers of Louis XVI: Monsieur (later Louis XVIII) and the Comte d’Artois (later Charles X). The sons of François-Ambroise included Pierre Didot, a publisher, among whose illustrators were some of the most distinguished artists of the day, and Firmin Didot (1764–1836), who designed the Didot typeface for his brother’s use. Firmin Didot’s son Ambroise Firmin-Didot was a notable collector of prints. The cadet branch of the family, Didot Jeune, the descendants of Pierre-François Didot, included Saint Marc Didot, who assembled a fine collection of paintings....

Article

Ehrenreich, Adám Sándor  

Júlia Papp

[Antal]

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovak Republic], 1784; d Vienna, July 13, 1852)

Hungarian engraver, publisher and dealer. He studied under his father József Ehrenreich (1765–1842), a seal engraver, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibányi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788–1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, József Ürményi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, István Ferenczy, Ferdinánd Jakab Miller and Benedek Virág. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudományos Gyüjtemény...

Article

Engelmann, Godefroy  

Arsène Bonafous-Murat

(b Mulhouse, Aug 17, 1788; d Mulhouse, April 25, 1839).

French lithographer and publisher of German birth. After commercial training in Switzerland and in France at La Rochelle and Bordeaux, he studied painting and drawing in Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in Paris. In July and August 1814 he visited Munich to study the new art of lithography. In March 1815 he founded La Société Lithotypique de Mulhouse, and in June 1816 he opened a workshop in Paris. Engelmann was instrumental in introducing lithography to France. He developed numerous improvements (see Lithography, §I), including lithographic wash in 1819 and a frame for registration (patented in 1837), which gave chromolithography the technical means needed for its commercial and artistic development. His presses produced large numbers of prints; particularly noteworthy are numerous plates for Baron Taylor’s monumental work Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–63).

Manuel du dessinateur lithographe (Paris, 1823)Traité théorique et pratique de la lithographie...

Article

Etty, William  

Richard Green

(b York, March 10, 1787; d York, Nov 13, 1849).

English painter. Born into a Methodist family, he was the seventh child of a miller and baker in Feasegate, York, and in 1798 he was apprenticed as a printer to Robert Peck, publisher of the Hull Packet. Financial support from his uncle, a banker, allowed him to go to London in 1805, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1806. For a year, in 1807–8, he was a pupil of Thomas Lawrence, who greatly influenced him. Following the death of his uncle in 1809 he became financially secure. From 1811 he exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the British Institution and in 1816 worked in the studio of Jean-Baptiste Regnault in Paris.

At the Royal Academy in 1820 Etty exhibited his first substantial figure composition, the Coral Finders: Venus and her Youthful Satellites Arriving at the Isle of Paphos (London, priv. col., see Farr, pl. 12). He visited France, Italy and the Low Countries and, in ...

Article

Flandrin, Jules  

(b Corenc, nr Grenoble, July 9, 1871; d Corenc, May 1947).

French painter, printmaker and draughtsman. While still at the Lycée de Grenoble he took courses in drawing and modelling. Abandoning his baccalauréat he joined a firm of printers in Grenoble in 1889 where he learnt the techniques of lithography while continuing his other art courses. Having done his military service he moved to Paris in 1893 and enrolled at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, which he attended during 1894. Late in 1894 he also enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where, impressed by his ability, Gustave Moreau took him into his studio in 1895 even before he had passed the entrance examination. He remained there until Moreau’s death in 1898 and also received encouragement and advice from Pierre Puvis de Chavannes at this time.

Flandrin first exhibited in 1896, at the Salon du Champ de Mars in Paris, with a number of paintings and lithographs. After becoming an associate member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in ...