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Bertotti Scamozzi [Bertotti], Ottavio  

Valeria Farinati

(b Vicenza, April 5, 1719; d Vicenza, Oct 25, 1790).

Italian architect and theorist. He was the son of Antonio Bertotti, a local barber, and Vittoria Scabora; through the patronage of Marchese Mario Capra, an amateur poet and architect, he was able to study architecture in the private school opened in Vicenza in 1748 by Domenico Cerato, and he became curator of the Accademia Olimpica in 1753. This gave him a small annual income and the use of the house attached to the Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, for which he was responsible for the maintenance. For the rest of his life Bertotti Scamozzi superintended the restoration works on the theatre, to which he published an excellent guide in 1790.

In his will the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi had left a legacy for the support of a promising young student of architecture in Vicenza. As executor the Marchese Capra awarded this to Bertotti, who added Scamozzi to his name in accord with the provisions of the will. In ...


Campbell, Colen  

T. P. Connor

(b 1676; d London, ?Sept 13, 1729).

Scottish architect and writer. He was the key propagandist for the Palladian revival in early 18th-century England (see Palladianism). First as an architectural publisher and then as an architect, he did as much as any contemporary to determine the lines of development of secular architecture for a generation.

Campbell was a nephew of Sir Hugh Campbell of Cawdor, Nairnshire, and his first career was as an advocate in Edinburgh, where he began to establish a reputation at the outset of the 18th century. Between c. 1708 and 1712 Campbell abandoned his legal practice to begin a career as an architect in London. By December 1708 he was in London hoping to become Master of the [Royal] Works in Scotland. This post, then unpaid, was currently held by James Smith, an architect by whom Campbell was to be significantly influenced. It is known that Campbell had been abroad before ...


Gibbs, James  

Roger White

(b Aberdeen, Dec 23, 1682; d London, Aug 5, 1754).

Scottish architect.

Gibbs was the younger son of an Aberdeen merchant, Patrick Gibb(s), and was brought up a Roman Catholic. He was educated at the Grammar School and at Marischal College in Aberdeen. Shortly before 1700 he left Scotland for the Netherlands, where he stayed with relatives before making his way through France to Italy, visiting Milan, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Genoa and Naples. He arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1703 and registered at the Pontifical Scots College, apparently with the intention of training for the priesthood. Within a year, however, he left to become a pupil of Carlo Fontana, then the most influential architect in Rome. His father had suffered financial hardship as a result of the 1688 Revolution, so that Gibbs had to rely on the charity of friends for his income, probably supplementing it by guiding and drawing for British tourists.

These contacts with potential patrons proved useful when Gibbs arrived in London late in ...


Paine, James  

Peter Leach

(bapt Andover, Hants, Oct 9, 1717; d France, autumn 1789).

English architect. He was probably the son of John Pain, a carpenter at Andover. In the preface to the first volume (1767) of his Plans…of Noblemen and Gentlemen’s Houses he stated that he ‘began the study of architecture in the early part of his life, under the tuition of a man of genius…the late Mr. Thomas Jersey’, an obscure figure (d 1751) who later acted as Clerk of Works for the building of the Radcliffe Camera in Oxford. More significantly, Paine appears to have studied in London at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, founded by William Hogarth in 1735. There he would have come into contact with the architect Isaac Ware, and he appears to have begun his career through contact with the circle of Ware’s patron, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork. His first commission was to supervise the erection of Nostell Priory (...


Temanza, Tommaso  

(b Venice, March 3, 1705; d Venice, June 14, 1789).

Italian architect, civil engineer and art historian. As an architect he is best known for the small neo-Palladian church of S Maria Maddalena (La Maddalena; see below) in Venice; as an art historian he is acclaimed for his Vite dei più celebri architetti e scultori veneziani che fiorirono nel secolo decimosesto. He lived and worked almost entirely in Venice and was a member of the circle of artists and intellectuals who frequented the house of the British consul and connoisseur Joseph Smith.

Temanza’s father, Antonio Temanza, was an architect, as was his uncle, Giovanni Antonio Scalfarotto (1700–64), with whom he trained and who designed S Simeone Piccolo (1718–38), a building that has been described as a ‘blending of the Pantheon with Byzantium and Palladio’ (Wittkower, 1958). The construction of this church must have coincided with Temanza’s apprenticeship, and it provided him with an early introduction to a peculiarly Venetian strain of Neo-classicism. He also studied mathematics under Andrea Musale, professor at Venice University, and later with the renowned mathematician Giovanni Poleni at the University of Padua. He always felt indebted to Poleni, referring to him as ‘il mio dilettissimo precettore’ (...


Viola Zanini, Giuseppe  

Donata Battilotti

[ Gioseffe ]

(b Padua, ?1575–80; d Padua, 1631).

Italian theorist, architect, cartographer and painter. He was trained by his father Giulio, city architect of Padua, and at the school of Vincenzo Dotto (1572–1629), a Paduan cosmographer and architect in the Palladian tradition. Despite his vast and genuine erudition, Viola Zanini never held an important post and was beset with financial difficulties throughout his life. He worked as an architect and, by necessity, as a painter of architectural perspectives; none of his work has survived, however, apart from the Palazzo Cumano in Padua (1628–31; now Liceo Ippolito Nievo), which is generally attributed to him. His town plan of Padua, drawn in 1599, was widely imitated, and his treatise on architecture (1629) brought him fame. The organization of topics seems to have been influenced in particular by Leon Battista Alberti’s De re aedificatoria, while its architectural forms were inspired by Vitruvius and the writings and buildings of Andrea Palladio. Viola Zanini’s work differed from these sources, however, in omitting all considerations of urban planning, ethics and aesthetics. Dry, schematic in content and limited in its aspirations, his work reflects the transition from Renaissance expository writing to the purely technical works that began to appear in the 17th century....