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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

Armorial porcelain  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Banko  

Andrew Maske and Gordon Campbell

Japanese centre of pottery and porcelain production. Kilns were established in the mid-18th century in Ise Province (Mie Prefecture); production eventually spread as far as Edo (now Tokyo); ‘banko’, which was imprinted on the seals, means ‘eternal’. In the 18th century the area produced raku ware and Satsuma types and decorative patterns taken from Ming Dynasty red and green porcelain. The rise in the use of steeped tea (...

Article

Batavian ware  

Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels, and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....

Article

Battam, Thomas  

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1810; d 1864).

English painter of pottery and porcelain and the proprietor of a China decorating firm. In 1834 he began to work for Copeland, and during this period he may have developed the formula for Parian ware. He is given credit for its invention in the catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ...

Article

Bigot, Alexandre  

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Bottle vase  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Bow Porcelain Factory  

Elizabeth Adams

English ceramic manufactory. The first Bow patent for ‘a certain material whereby a ware might be made … equal to … China or Porcelain ware imported from abroad’ was taken out in east London in December 1744 by the Irish artist Thomas Frye (c. 1710–62) and by Edward Heylyn (1695–1765). The early undertaking, significantly named ‘New Canton’, was founded to undercut Chinese imports and was probably financed by Alderman George Arnold (1691–1751). John Weatherby (d 1762) and John Crowther (d 1790), who had been partners in pottery and glassmaking ventures since 1725, completed the board of proprietors. An important ingredient in the original paste and mentioned in the 1744 patent was ‘Unaker’, possibly a china clay imported from Carolina. The soft paste used at Bow was unique in being the first to incorporate calcined bone-ash (mentioned as ‘Virgin earth’ in the second Bow patent of ...

Article

Cadogan teapot  

Gordon Campbell

One-piece teapot with no lid, filled through a hole in the bottom; the tea runs through a tube from the bottom to the top, and when the teapot is turned to an upright position the tea can be poured through the spout. The design was based on a Chinese wine-pot, of which an example must have been brought to England in the late 18th century, possibly by a member of the family of the Earl of Cadogan. Cadogan teapots were first manufactured in the early 19th century at the Rockingham Porcelain Factory and thereafter by other English manufacturers....

Article

Caughley Porcelain Factory  

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. Production at the Salopian China Manufactory on the Caughley estate, near Ironbridge, Salop, was started in 1775 by Thomas Turner (1749–1809), a Freeman of Worcester, and Ambrose Gallimore (fl c. 1749–c. 1787), who was active at the estate and may already have been directing potting there. They were encouraged by the availability of coal on site and the proximity of the Severn waterway to Worcester and Bristol as potential markets. Robert Hancock, the former Worcester engraver, was briefly associated with the venture. Until c. 1794 a wide range of useful wares was produced in a soapstone soft-paste porcelain similar to that used at the Worcester factory. Simple shapes and underglaze blue, transfer-printed or painted decoration emulated the style of the wares produced at the Worcester, Chantilly and Tournai factories. A variety of engraved designs was based on Chinese handpainted patterns. Between 1789...

Article

China stone  

Gordon Campbell

Article

China: Ceramics  

Rose Kerr, Regina Krahl, Margaret Medley, Yutaka Mino, Bent L. Pedersen, Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Mary Tregear, S. J. Vainker, and Nigel Wood

Chinese potters developed the world’s first porcelain in the 6th century ce and began exporting porcelain to West Asia and Japan as early as the 9th century ce. To meet domestic and foreign demand, production of porcelain in China expanded enormously between the 16th and 19th centuries, and a large part of the history of European ceramics represents various local responses to imported Chinese wares. This close identification of China with ceramics still survives in the English use of the word “china” as a generic term for crockery.

Besides these influential export wares (mostly gray–green celadons, porcelains, and unglazed red stonewares), Chinese ceramics include finely painted earthenwares from as early as the Neolithic period (c. 6500–c. 1600 bce), everyday stonewares, palace wares, burial wares and figures, large temple vases, portrait sculptures, tomb guardians, elaborate architectural ceramics, and even military ceramics in the form of bombs and grenades. In the aesthetic realm the court and country stonewares of the Song period (...

Article

China: Ceramics collections  

Nicholas Pearce

See also China; China: Ceramics.

In the People’s Republic of China, ceramics are best represented in the Shanghai Museum, which has examples from all periods; the Shaanxi Provincial Museum, Xi’an, which has strong collections from the Neolithic (c. 6500–c. 1600 bce) and Tang (618–907 ce) periods; and the Palace Museum, Beijing, where there is a collection of more than 100,000 pieces of porcelain, predominantly from the Qing period (1644–1911). In Taiwan, the National Palace Museum in Taipei contains ceramics that, until 1949, formed part of the imperial collection in Beijing.

Chinese ceramic collections in Europe are dominated by those of the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum, London. Both these institutions have benefited from the munificence of late 19th-century and 20th-century collectors such as George Salting and George Eumorfopoulos and between them now house what is probably the most comprehensive collection of Chinese ceramics in the world. Also in London is the ...

Article

China: Export ceramics  

John Guy, C. J. A. Jörg, Nicholas Pearce, Guy Raindre, and Lijun Zhou

Substantial trade in Chinese ceramics began in the Tang period (618–907 ce) and grew more extensive in the 12th century, especially to the areas of modern Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, and Japan. Trade goods consisted of glazed stoneware items for domestic use, ewers, dishes, bowls, and vases; in some cases these prompted local production, such as the Sawankhalok stoneware of Thailand or the celadon wares of Korea. Chinese ceramics began to exert a more international influence during the Yuan period (1279–1368), and between the 14th and 16th centuries, following extensive trade that included the importation of cobalt from Iran, China exported large quantities of blue-and-white porcelain and celadon to West Asia. Vessels were transported either across the deserts of Central Asia via the Silk Route or by ship, and the decoration and shapes of these pieces were often influenced by Persian and Ottoman art.

It was not until the 16th century that Chinese ceramics were imported to Europe on a large scale, a trend that increased in the succeeding two centuries. Portugal, followed by the Netherlands, Britain, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, and Russia, then Brazil and the USA, began to bring back ceramics, initially as ballast in their ships. Though the ships were at first laden with blue-and-white and polychrome porcelain of purely Chinese taste, from the late 17th century they transported entire sets ordered specially by Europeans, with shapes and decorations totally different from the usual Chinese repertory....

Article

China: Foreign research and replication of Chinese ceramics  

Nigel Wood

See also China; China: Ceramics.

For more than eleven centuries after its invention in the Sui period (581–618 ce), Chinese porcelain was the most technically advanced ceramic material in the world, and much of the history of ceramics outside China has been concerned with its imitation.

Some of the earliest of these attempts to reproduce Chinese porcelain took place in West Asia, which was a major export market for Chinese ceramics from the mid-9th century ce (see China: Export ceramics, §3). Imitations bearing a superficial resemblance to Xing wares (see China: Ceramics, §2(iii)(a)) were made in Mesopotamia from buff-colored dolomitic earthenwares in the 9th century, and by the mid-12th century imitation porcelains made from crushed quartz with additions of soda-glass frit and clay were produced in Persia. The firing temperatures for West Asian fritware ceramics seem to have been below 1100° C, and their technical qualities were greatly inferior to the original Chinese wares, which were fired at ...

Article

China: Materials, techniques, and characteristics in ceramics  

Regina Krahl, Margaret Medley, and Nigel Wood

See also China; China: Ceramics.

Apart from the size of the Chinese market and the continuity and sophistication of Chinese culture, the most important practical element in the success of Chinese ceramics was the wealth of available high-quality raw materials.

Clay is so abundant in China that only the most important areas are discussed here. In northern China, an important source in the Neolithic period was the band of sticky clay that lay between the base of the loess deposit and the natural rock below. It was necessary to add temper to this in the form of vegetable matter, coarse sand, or even broken and crushed pots in order to make it manageable. Usually earthenware and stoneware clays were extracted from the sedimentary deposits that are distributed throughout China and are closely associated with the coal measures. The more refractory clays, lying very close to the coal measures, are especially common and have been widely used for ...

Article

Clair de lune  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Clarke, Thomas B(enedict)  

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...