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Article

Nigel Vaux Halliday

[ Antonie ]

(b Haarlem, Feb 18, 1892; d Crowborough, E. Sussex, Jan 23, 1979).

Dutch bookseller, dealer and publisher, active in England . He worked in the book trade in Holland and then in London, where in 1916 he became manager of a foreign-language bookshop at 78 Charing Cross Road. After buying the business in 1923 he developed it into a specialist art bookshop, unique in London until the late 1930s. Zwemmer concentrated on European publications and was the sole British distributor of such magazines as Cahiers d’art, XXe siècle, Minotaure, Labyrinthe, Verve and, later, L’Oeil. He also stocked modern English literature. The bookshop, which was soon financially successful, was a focus for the London art world in the 1920s and 1930s, and Zwemmer became a friend and patron of such artists as Henry Moore, Wyndham Lewis, Jacob Epstein and Graham Sutherland. Through his regular visits to Paris he also came into contact with Picasso, Miró, Dalí and Paul Eluard. In 1929 Zwemmer opened the Zwemmer Gallery at 26 Litchfield Street, round the corner from his bookshop; it operated until ...

Article

Susanne Kiefhaber

(b c. 1748; d Oberammergau, 1792).

German painter . His father, Johann Joseph Zwinck ( fl 1735–53), painted frescoes and executed decorations for the Oberammergau Passion plays, roles that Franz Seraph also undertook. An apprenticeship with Johann Jakob Zeiller and Martin Knoller has often been assumed: the influence of engravings of the Augsburg Akademie is evident in his earliest known fresco (1768), for the Echtler Haus, Oberammergau, depicting a Temptation of Christ adapted from Rubens.

Zwinck became well known as the ‘Lüftl’ or open-air painter of Oberammergau, frescoing the farmhouses of his homeland. His paintings (1780) on the Gasthaus zur Alpenrose in Mittenwald emphasize the vertical structure of the window axes by combining them with painted cartouches and figures. Beneath the gable, the sky opens and gives a clear view of the Coronation of the Virgin. This imaginary opening of the gable can already be observed in the Hornsteinhaus at Mittenwald, painted in ...

Article

Larry Warkentin

Swiss religious movement of the 16th century. Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1484–1531) was trained as a humanist scholar and was strongly influenced by Erasmus. In 1518 he became the people’s priest in the Grossmünster, Zurich, from which position he was able to shape that city’s Reformation. He taught that the Bible, particularly the teachings of Jesus, should be the ultimate authority in matters of faith and practice. His reading of scripture led him to believe that the Church’s doctrine of the saints, fostered by images, was wrong. An official disputation between Zwingli and the vicar-general of Constance on this issue was convened in January 1523. In the eyes of the city council Zwingli prevailed, and in June 1524 a decree was published defining an orderly pattern for the removal from the churches of all ‘images and idols’. Zwingli, two other priests, representatives of twelve guilds and the city constable entered every church in Zurich, removing and ceremonially destroying all works of art; the walls were whitewashed. Although Zwingli taught that music and the visual arts should be removed from churches, so that Christians could concentrate on the worship of God without the distraction of intermediate art forms, he continued to respect the creation of non-religious art and accepted religious representations outside the church building as long as they did not invite veneration. As a movement Zwinglianism was short-lived. Its leader was killed while serving as chaplain during a battle between Catholic and Reformed cantons. His ideas were carried forward by his successor, ...

Article

Izabel Freifrau von Weitershausen

(b Jakobswalde, Upper Silesia, Feb 28, 1802; d Cologne, Sept 22, 1861).

German architect . He trained at the Kunst- und Bauschule in Breslau (1819–21) and at the Bauakademie in Berlin (1824–8), becoming an official in the Prussian building administration in 1828 under Schinkel. From the start of his career he was an eclectic, one of his first buildings (completed 1834) being for the university in Halle, built in a Neo-classical style. In 1829 he directed the rebuilding in the Gothic Revival style of the Rathaus in Kolberg according to plans by Schinkel.

Zwirner was sent to Cologne by Schinkel in 1833 to consolidate the fabric of the unfinished Gothic cathedral. With the help of Sulpiz Boisserée , he was able to enlist the enthusiastic support of the Crown Prince of Prussia (later King Frederick William IV) for a proposal to complete the building. The decision to do so was taken in 1842 and the foundation-stone was laid that September. However, as the medieval plans did not exactly match the existing structure, Zwirner took the opportunity to prove his abilities and the general impression of the cathedral as it stands today is largely his work, particularly the transepts, the iron roof framework, the former ridge turret (destr. ...

Article

Franz Bischoff and Carola Wenzel

[Zwietzel ; Zwitzl ; Zwizel]

German family of architects and masons . (1) Jakob Zwitzel may have been related to Hans von Elchingen, who worked as a mason at Ulm Minster in 1471–2 and in 1479. Jakob was mainly active in Augsburg, where he was much influenced by the Late Gothic style of Burkhard Engelberg. Both his son (2) Bernhard Zwitzel and his grandson (3) Simon Zwitzel were also active in the Augsburg area.

N. Lieb: ‘Die Augsburger Familie Zwitzel’, Lebensbilder aus dem bayerischen Schwaben, 8 (1961), pp. 84–107

Franz Bischoff

(b ?Elchingen, nr Ulm, c. 1470; d Augsburg, 1540).

He settled at quite an early age in Augsburg, paying taxes there in 1497 and becoming a citizen in 1505. From 1502 to 1507 he lived in the same house as the sculptor Gregor Erhart, and in 1512 he moved into the house of the painter Hans Holbein the elder, before acquiring his own house in ...

Article

Susan Langdon

[now Ayios Vasilios]

Site of an Early and Late Bronze Age town in the Corinthia of southern Greece, midway between Argos and Corinth. Excavations at the Zygouries Hill in the Kleonai Valley were conducted by Carl Blegen in 1921–2 for the American School of Classical Studies, revealing an important sequence of Bronze Age settlements. The Early Helladic (eh) phase (c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) was the most abundantly represented, with at least ten houses of mud-brick on stone socle construction arranged close together on narrow streets. The rectangular, flat-roofed, two- and three-roomed structures with fixed central hearths provided one of the first definitive examples of Early Bronze Age domestic architecture. Contemporary graves yielded a broad variety of eh pottery, small gold, silver and bronze ornaments, numerous figurines and stone tools. Like its neighbours Tiryns, Asine, Lerna and Ayios Kosmas, Zygouries suffered a severe destruction at the end of ...