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Article

Gordon Campbell

Pittsburgh glasshouse founded in 1851 and active throughout the second half of the 19th century. The factory produced tableware and lamps; its glass included flint glass, lime glass and cut glass and, in the 1870s and 1880s, opal ware.

J. Shadel Spillman: ‘Adams & Company’, Glass Club Bull., 163 (1990–91)...

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Gordon Campbell

Type of American glass patented in 1883 by Joseph Locke (1846–1936; head designer of the New England Glass Co.) and Edward Libby (1827–83; owner of the glassworks; see also United States of America §VIII 3.). Amberina glass is usually amber at the bottom, shading to red at the top, but there is also glass in which the colours are reversed (known as ‘reverse amberina’). The effect is created by reheating the top (or, in ‘reverse amberina’, the bottom) of the glass before it has fully cooled.

Amberina glass was soon made at other factories, with or without a licence from the New England Glass Co. Amberina produced by Hobbs, Brockunier & Co. in Wheeling, WV, was made under licence, but the amberina made without a licence by Mt Washington Glass Works of New Bedford, MA, was the subject of litigation that first caused the company to change the name of its glass (to ‘Rose Amber’) and then, in ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glass manufactory. In 1860 James and Thomas Atterbury (the grandsons of Sarah Bakewell, whose brother founded the glass company Bakewell & Co.) joined their brother-in-law James Hale to form the Pittsburgh glass company of Hale, Atterbury and Company. In 1862 Hale was replaced by James Reddick as the company’s glassblower, and the firm became known as Atterbury, Reddick and Company. On Reddick’s departure in ...

Article

Liana Paredes-Arend

[Cristallerie de Baccart]

French glassworks. In 1764 Monseigneur de Montmorency-Laval, Bishop of Metz, petitioned Louis XV to have a glassworks built at Baccarat, near Lunéville, in order to make use of his vast forests. The factory was initially directed by Antoine Renault and was called the Verreries de Sainte-Anne because Renault requested permission to build a chapel so that the workers could attend their religious obligations. At first the factory produced soda glass for household and industrial purposes. In 1816 it was purchased by the Belgian manufacturer Aimé-Gabriel D’Artigues (1778–1848), who transferred his Vôneche glassworks near Namur to Baccarat, built a new factory and began the production of lead glass. In 1823 the factory changed its name to the Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat and made plain crystal, opaline, and some alabaster and agate glass. In 1846 Baccarat began producing millefiori glassware and paperweights, followed by paperweights with flowers, fruits or reptiles. From ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...

Article

Laura Mattioli Rossi

Italian family of artists, architects and collectors . Pietro Bagatti Valsecchi (b Milan, 15 April 1802; d Milan, 27 Nov 1864) was adopted by Baron Lattanzio Valsecchi and assumed the latter’s surname and inherited his estate. He gained a degree in mathematics and physics but later devoted himself to painting miniatures on ivory, enamel, glass, metal and porcelain, specializing in these techniques in Paris and Geneva. Returning to Milan, he soon gained considerable recognition for such work and took part in major exhibitions. In 1837 he presented a group of works at the Salon in Paris, including a miniature copy on ivory of Francesco Hayez’s Mary Queen of Scots Mounting the Scaffold (1827; Milan, Bagatti Valsecchi Col.) and a copy on porcelain of Francesco Podesti’s Raphael’s Studio (Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana). In 1842 he was made a noble of the Austrian Empire for his artistic achievements, and the Emperor Ferdinand acquired one of his paintings on porcelain, ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded in Pittsburgh, PA, by Edward Ensell and purchased by Benjamin Bakewell (1767–1844) and Benjamin Page in 1808. Its prominent role in the development of the American tableware industry in the 19th century made it the most famous glasshouse in Pittsburgh. Bakewell’s glasshouse produced the first successful lead crystal in America; it made the first American table glass ordered for the White House, Washington, DC, by James Monroe (1758–1831) in 1817 (untraced) and Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) in 1829 (Washington, DC, White House Col.); and it held the first recorded American patent for pressing glass (1825). The firm established Pittsburgh’s reputation for high-quality engraved glass; for example, in 1825, of the 61 workers in Bakewell’s factory, 12 were engravers and decorators. In addition to fancy table glass, the factory produced tubes for table lamps, globes, lanterns and apothecary’s equipment. Its glassware was free-blown, mould-blown, pressed lacy, pattern-moulded or cut and engraved (...

Article

Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glass factory founded in Steubenville, OH, c. 1850 by Alexander J. Beatty and relocated in Tiffin, OH, in 1888. Its blown and pressed tableware included goblets, of which it was able to make 500,000 per week. The company merged with the United States Glass Company in 1892, and became one of its 19 factories....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Fernando Mazzocca

(b Milan, Dec 11, 1825; d Milan, Nov 24, 1898).

Italian painter, decorative artist and museum director. After studying under Luigi Sabatelli, Giuseppe Bisi (1787–1869) and Francesco Hayez at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan, Bertini worked in his father’s firm, which manufactured stained-glass windows. He then won a prize for a work of art connected with industry in the Accademia competition of 1844, for which he had submitted a Rest on the Flight into Egypt, painted on glass. The following year his Dante and Brother Ilario (Milan, Brera) took first prize and in 1846 the large-scale Tasso Dying in the Monastery of S Onofrio (ex-priv. col., Milan) was acclaimed. In the same year Bertini began his work as a fresco painter by decorating a room in the Palazzo Busca in Milan, where he depicted Dante and other famous Italians. After inspiring visits to Rome and Venice (1847 and 1848), where the work of Giambattista Tiepolo impressed him enormously, Bertini returned to Milan and devoted himself to great historical subjects. He was especially drawn to Lombard themes, but the painting that made his name was ...

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(b Courtrai [Flem. Kortrijk], April 25, 1821; d Marke, June 18, 1894).

Belgian architect, designer, mural and glass painter. Born into a prominent family, he was originally destined for a career in politics or administration but became known, in the words of W(illiam) H(enry) J(ames) Weale, as the ‘ Pugin of Belgium’ (Building News, xxxvi, 1879, p. 350). From 1837 to 1842 he read law at Leuven University and followed a basic training as an artist at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Courtrai and as a pupil of L. Verhaegen and Jules Victor Génisson (1805–60). Under the guidance of Paulus Lauters he became a skilful draughtsman of landscapes; he also took lessons with the sculptor C. H. Geerts (1807–55), who was an important pioneer of the Gothic Revival style. Through personal contacts with Charles Forbes René, Comte de Montalembert, and A. W. N. Pugin (see Pugin family, §2) and through his tours of England in ...

Article

Freya Probst

(b Harrachsdorf, April 1, 1800; d Eger, Sept 29, 1857).

Bohemian glass-engraver. He was the son of a carpenter and patternmaker at the Harrachsdorf glassworks and received his training as a glass-engraver at the Nový Svět glassworks on the estate of the counts of Harrach, which was then one of the largest in Bohemia. His teacher was Franz Pohl (1764–1834), the glass-engraver and stone-carver, and Biemann’s skill was such that he was nominated First Glass-engraver. Despite his success, in 1825 he went to Prague where he studied painting and anatomy at the academy from 1826. From 1827 he earned his living as an independent stone-carver both in Prague and in the popular spa town of Franzenzbad (now Františkovy Lázně) in western Bohemia in the summer months, where he soon took up permanent residence. At first he primarily depicted landscapes, hunting scenes and mythological and religious scenes on glasses and cups for affluent guests. He also worked for the wholesale glass dealers Muttoni and Steigerwald. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1801; d 1882).

French glassmaker. He was a director of the glassworks of Choisy-le-Roi from 1823 to 1848, when he went into political exile in England, where he joined Robert Lucas Chance’s glassworks in Smethwick (near Birmingham). In Choisy-le-Roi he initiated the production of opaline (1827) and of filigree glass in the Venetian style (...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory formed by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who left the New England Glass Co. in 1825. He acquired a site and built a glasshouse in Sandwich, MA. In 1826 the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. was incorporated, with Jarves gaining financial aid from several partners. In Sandwich, Jarves was agent and general manager and during the following 22 years greatly increased the size and output of the company from 70 to over 500 employees and from $75,000 to $600,000 in value.

Table glass, lighting devices and ornamental wares were produced by using the fashionable techniques of each era. The firm’s repertory included free-blown, mould-blown, cut, engraved, colourless and cased products, and various art wares, especially opaline, ‘Peachblow’ and satin glass. The company is best known for its lacy pressed glass (see fig.), giving rise to the generic term ‘Sandwich Glass’ for any American examples of this type. The firm’s products were of very good quality but, as with many other New England glasshouses, its fortunes declined after the Civil War (...