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Article

(b Holywood, County Down, Ireland, Jan 26, 1922).

Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between 1949 and 1951 Adams worked as an exhibition designer in London and studied wood-engraving with Gertrude Hermes in her evening class at the Central School of Arts and Crafts (now Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1951, after moving to Melbourne, Adams began a 30-year teaching commitment at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), where he instructed many of the younger generation of Australian printmakers, including George Baldessin and Jan Senbergs. A brief return to Britain and Ireland in 1957–8 provided experience with Dolmen Press, Dublin, which published his first book of engravings, ...

Article

Margaret Medley

(b London, June 11, 1914; d Pembury, Kent, July 31, 1983).

English diplomat, collector and art historian. In 1947, as a member of the British Diplomatic Service, he was posted to Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, then the capital of the Nationalist Chinese government. He became interested in Chinese art and history and began a collection of porcelain, furniture and textiles at a time of political and economic uncertainty, when Chinese collectors were forced to sell. When he moved to the British embassy in Beijing in 1954 he continued his research into Chinese ceramic history with the help of specialists from the Palace Museum. In 1963 he became British ambassador to the Philippines and was largely responsible for organizing the Manila Trade Pottery Seminar (1968), to which he also contributed five of the nine discussion monographs. From 1972 to 1974, as British ambassador to China, he played an important part in promoting the Chinese archaeological exhibition The Genius of China, held in London at the Royal Academy in ...

Article

Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...

Article

José Luis Morales y Marín

(de)

(b Madrid, Sept 27, 1845; d Madrid, Jan 5, 1912).

Spanish writer, painter and collector. After pursuing a political career and taking a doctorate in civil and canon law, he dedicated himself to writing on art and produced important studies on Diego Velázquez (1898), Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1901) and other artists. He travelled extensively and enthusiastically in Europe (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, England and elsewhere), studying especially the different national schools of painting. On his travels he also painted landscapes. After working for some time as a copyist in the Museo del Prado, Beruete decided in 1873 to concentrate his efforts on painting and on learning to perfect his craft. He enrolled at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and also studied at the studio of Carlos de Haes. Beruete was among the founders of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with its members, and with Carlos de Haes, he made several study trips abroad. In Paris he came to know the painting of the Barbizon school, and in Belgium he assimilated the teaching of the generation of landscape artists who had adopted a form of Realism. The fundamental constants of the Spanish pictorial tradition, however, especially the sketching style typical of Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, became the starting-point for Beruete’s own style, enabling him to record his response to landscape, impressions of light and rural settings. Beruete’s achievement was acknowledged by various national and international awards....

Article

Gretchen G. Fox

(b Frankfurt am Main, April 7, 1858; d New York, June 26, 1941).

American financier, collector, museum official and philanthropist of German birth. He entered banking in Germany and immigrated to New York as a young man, becoming a partner in 1893 in Lazard Frères. He retired in 1925 to devote his time to art collecting and philanthropy, favouring causes connected with the arts, medicine and Jewish social services. His wife Florence, née Meyer (1872–1930), whose family were noted philanthropists, was his partner in these activities. After World War I they formed a foundation for the support of French artists, a model for 20th-century arts funding. A longtime finance officer of the Metropolitan Museum in New York, Blumenthal became its seventh president in 1934, guiding it through the Depression. He and his wife maintained collections in their château near Grasse and in a sizeable home in Paris. Their showplace mansion at 50 E 70th Street (destr. 1943) housed their New York collections. Its central feature was a 16th-century Spanish castle courtyard (now New York, Met., ...

Article

Denys Sutton

(b Viipuri, Finland [now Vyborg, Russia], 1885; d Coombe Bissett, Wilts, Sept 2, 1948).

Finnish art historian, dealer and archaeologist, active in England. After studying at Helsinki University, then in Berlin and Rome, he settled in London in 1906 and published The Painters of Vicenza, 1480–1550 (1909), based on his doctoral thesis. Through his friendship with Roger Fry, he was introduced to the London art world. He revised (1912) A History of Painting in North Italy (1871) by J. A. Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle and the last two volumes (1914) of their A New History of Italian Painting (1864–6). Appointed lecturer in 1914 at the University of London, he served as Durning-Lawrence Professor of the History of Art (1922–47). He was a member of the Burlington Fine Arts Club and wrote on a wide range of subjects in the Burlington Magazine. A pioneer historian of early English art, he edited the University College, London, monographs on English medieval art and started excavations at Clarendon Palace near Salisbury in ...

Article

(b Leiden, May 17, 1871; d The Hague, Jan 16, 1956).

Dutch collector and critic. He began his career as an artist, painting pointillist works such as Landscape with a Windmill (1894; Leiden, Stedel. Mus. Lakenhal), but soon turned to theory rather than practice. From 1895 he was an ardent defender of the anti-naturalist view, considering the role of art to be the representation of the inner life of the artist rather than the imitation of the visible world. He wrote widely on this and related topics in the periodicals Modern Kunstwerke (1903–10) and Beeldende Kunst (1913–38), which he edited: he also lectured extensively, and encouraged and supported young artists. Bremmer was extremely influential in the collecting of art in the Netherlands in the first years of this century, most spectacularly in the building up of the Kröller-Muller museum at Otterlo. He met Helene Kröller-Muller in 1906 and inspired her to transfer her allegiance from Delft china to modern art: over the 30 years during which he guided her buying she acquired notable groups of works by ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Colin Anson

(Graham)

(b London, April 15, 1927; d London, Aug 3, 1982).

English connoisseur, dealer and critic. He was educated at Rugby School and won a scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford. Possessing what Bernard Berenson described as ‘the finest eye of his generation’ and a phenomenal visual memory, he repeatedly made the vital correlation that led to a previously unsolved attribution or brought to light an important picture. In 1956 Albrecht Dürer’s study of a lion in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg, provided the clue for Carritt’s fully accepted attribution to Dürer of St Jerome in the Wilderness (Norfolk, Bacon priv. col., see Carritt, 1957, p. 360), formerly considered to be Italian. He also found in private ownership Caravaggio’s untraced Concert of Youths (New York, Met.), five large mythological canvases by Giovanni Antonio Guardi (two in Washington, DC, N.G.A.) and Giambattista Tiepolo’s lost Venus Entrusting Eros to Chronos (London, N.G.).

In 1964 Carritt’s growing reputation led to his joining Christie’s, London, where his expertise and flair made a notable contribution to the revival of the firm’s fortunes. While there he discovered the portrait of ...

Article

Michelle P. Brown

(b Brighton, July 16, 1867; d Kew, May 1, 1962).

English museum curator and collector. He was the son of a coal merchant and in 1884 joined the family firm, where he remained until the end of 1891. He had early on been attracted by the aesthetics and politics of the Arts and Crafts Movement and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and had met and assisted such figures as John Ruskin, William Morris and Octavia Hill (1838–1912). His role as secretary to the Kelmscott Press (1892–8) fostered a particular love of books. From 1900 to 1904 he was in partnership with the process-engraver Sir Emery Walker (1851–1933). As a private collector of printed books and manuscripts and as director (1908–37) of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Cockerell was responsible for developing this area of study, as well as other aspects of medieval and Renaissance art. In 1908 he organized the first major exhibition of illuminated manuscripts at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, also editing the catalogue. He subsequently published a number of scholarly works. As both a curator and a collector of manuscripts he did much to influence British bibliophily, ranking alongside the bibliophiles Eric Millar and Henry Yates Thompson (...

Article

(b Puits, Côte d’Or, 1865; d Paris, June 6, 1926).

French critic and collector. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but soon devoted himself to literary and artistic criticism, producing a series of monographs on writers and artists. One of his more important books is Cubistes, Futuristes, Passéistes (1914), in which he briefly surveyed the work of a number of young artists. He praised Picasso’s virtuosity and adaptability and, whilst calling him the foremost Cubist, claimed Braque’s version of Cubism to be more accessible and decorative. The Futurists, with the exception of Umberto Boccioni’s sculpture, are all grouped together with a reprint of two of their artistic manifestos.

In 1924 Coquiot published two complementary books, Des Gloires déboulonnées and Des Peintres maudits. The first of these deals with ten artists, including Degas, Gustave Moreau and Félicien Rops, who he claimed had been falsely idolized by critics and dealers. These were contrasted with the ten artists of the second book, such as van Gogh, Cézanne and Gauguin, whom he regarded as largely ignored despite what he saw as their greater ability. In the latter book he included Rouault, whom he was one of the first to support as a critic and collector. He emphasized the ferocity of Rouault’s work, writing: ‘…he tracks the Woman, the Woman of all ages … As soon as Rouault seizes a woman, he pickles her in vinegar, in acids’ (p. 119). In addition to works by ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, May 7, 1869; d Paris, Nov 9, 1927).

French collector, writer and etcher. He began to collect prints at the age of 13 and rapidly established a reputation as a connoisseur and expert, particularly in the field of modern prints. His principal work is the 31-volume series Le Peintre-graveur illustré (Paris, 1906–30); his other publications include works on 19th- and 20th-century prints and c. 500 auction-room catalogues. His own etchings were exhibited at the Salons of 1888 and 1897, and he was an officer of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français and the Société pour l’Etude de la Gravure Française. His first print collection was sold at auction in 1890, the second in Paris, 13–15 June 1928, comprising 404 lots of modern prints.

with N. A. Hazard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre lithographié de H. Daumier (Paris, 1904) Le Peintre-graveur illustré, 31 vols (Paris, 1906–30) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes du XVIII siècle (Paris, 1910) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes des XIX et XX siècles...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Crayford, Kent, Aug 13, 1867; d London, July 11, 1948).

English museum official and collector. He read theology and classics at Oxford, then abandoned the idea of ordination and in 1893 was appointed to the Department of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum. In 1912 he succeeded Sir Sidney Colvin (1845–1927) as Keeper of the Department, a post he held until his retirement in 1932. Dodgson quickly established an international reputation as an authority on early German prints, his numerous contributions in this field including the Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the British Museum and a catalogue raisonné of Dürer’s intaglio prints. Among his publications on other prints are Old French Colour Prints, the Roxburghe Club catalogue of the proof states of Goya’s Desastres de la guerra and catalogues of the oeuvre of seven contemporary British etchers, including Muirhead Bone and Augustus John. Dodgson was co-editor of the Dürer Society publications (1898–1908), on the advisory council of the ...

Article

Denys Sutton

(b Lavenham, Suffolk, March 1, 1864; d Fiesole, Aug 14, 1951).

English art historian, dealer and museum director. His interest in art was encouraged by Walter Pater and Charles Fairfax Murray, and in 1900 he relinquished his appointment in the Church of England and became Professor of Modern History at the University of Adelaide, Victoria (1900–02). His monograph on Fra Angelico (1901) was followed by A History of Siena (1902). An article on Sassetta in the Burlington Magazine (i (1903), pp. 306–19) led to a breach with Bernard Berenson. He revised (1903–11) the first four volumes of A New History of Painting in Italy (1864–6) by J. A. Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle and was invited in 1904 by R. H. Benson to arrange an exhibition of Sienese art at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, London. He worked as an art dealer from that time, and his clients included ...

Article

(b Le Havre, July 31, 1901; d Paris, May 12, 1985).

French painter, sculptor, printmaker, collector and writer (see fig.). He was temperamentally opposed to authority and any suggestion of discipline and devised for himself a coherent, if rebellious, attitude towards the arts and culture. For all his maverick challenges to the values of the art world, Dubuffet’s career exemplified the way in which an avant-garde rebel could encounter notoriety, then fame and eventual reverence. His revolt against beauty and conformity has come to be seen as a symptomatic and appreciable influence in 20th-century culture.

The son of a prosperous and authoritarian wine-merchant in Le Havre, Dubuffet left home for Paris at 17 to pursue irregular studies in the arts. But, growing sceptical of the artist’s privileged status and savouring an affinity with ‘the common man’, he abandoned painting in ...

Article

(b Saintes, Jan 19, 1838; d Paris, Jan 16, 1927).

French writer and collector. He was an heir to the cognac house Duret et De Brie, which gave him the financial freedom to pursue his interest in art. Although he saw Pre-Raphaelite works while staying in London (1855–6), he did not become truly interested in art until 1862, when he saw paintings by Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot that his cousin Etienne Baudry had collected. He also visited the International Exhibition in London in 1862, which he reviewed in L’Indépendant de Saintes. In the elections in Saintes in 1863 he made the first of several unsuccessful forays into politics. After this he travelled abroad on behalf of the cognac house, visiting the USA, Egypt, India, China and Japan and collecting various art works.

In 1865 Duret met Manet in Madrid and in his first book Les Peintres français en 1867 (1867) wrote rather critically of his style, calling it ‘too rapid and too hasty’. Nonetheless they became friends, and he soon came to admire Manet’s work. Duret founded the Republican newspaper ...

Article

David Cohen

[James] (Howard Stanley)

(b Cardiff, April 7, 1895; d Edinburgh, March 15, 1990).

British collector and critic. He studied at Newlyn Art School, Cornwall, shortly before World War I. He then held relatively modest positions, including Assistant to the Director at the Tate Gallery in London from 1920 to 1935, and during this time was able to purchase for his own collection works turned down by his superiors: in 1926 he bought for £100 a large consignment of drawings and sculptures by Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, whose biography he published in 1930 (made into a film by Ken Russell in 1972). In the 1930s Ede lived in Hampstead, north London, close to Henry Moore, Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth (three artists whose work he collected), and also Herbert Read, Paul Nash and Adrian Stokes, all of whom he came to know. From 1936 he lived in north Africa and southern France, moving in 1957 to Cambridge, where he had grown up. He acquired a row of derelict cottages that he converted into his home and an informal museum, ...

Article

Valerie Holman

[Grindel, Eugène(-Emile-Paul)]

(b Saint-Denis, Dec 14, 1895; d Charenton-le-Pont, Seine, Nov 18, 1952).

French writer and collector. He was an innovative poet and was intimately involved with the Surrealist movement from its inception. He maintained a lasting friendship with Max Ernst, and his first wife Gala later married Salvador Dalí. He counted Pablo Picasso as one of his closest friends and dedicated more poems to him than to any other artist. Surrealist painters constantly stressed the importance of the inspiration they derived from the poets in their circle, in which Eluard was a central figure, largely because of his great sensitivity to the ways in which art and language could enhance each other. Not only did he publish numerous works dedicated to contemporary artists—notably Capitale de la douleur (Paris, 1926), La Vie immédiate (Paris, 1932) and Donner à voir (Paris, 1939)—but on many occasions he commissioned them to illustrate his poems: his collaborations with Max Ernst (Les Malheurs des immortels...

Article

Jeremy Howard and Sergey Kuznetsov

(Davydovich) [Pinkwas Beniamin; Lyubitel’]

(b Lublin [now Poland], Oct 10, 1866; d Moscow, Sept 15, 1948).

Russian critic and collector. Having completed his studies at the Commercial Faculty of Riga Polytechnic (1887) he began a career as a banker in Moscow. Simultaneously he took up writing on art and in 1903 became art critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. He subsequently wrote for several of the leading European art journals of the early 20th century, such as The Studio (1904–29), for which he was Moscow correspondent, Mir iskusstva (‘World of art’; 1904), Vesy (1905–8), Die Kunst (1907–14), Der Cicerone (1909–30), Russkiy bibliofil (1912–16), Sredi kollektsionerov (1921–4) and Apollon (1910–17), for which he was in charge of the ‘Rossica’ and ‘Artistic news from the West’ sections. This work, together with his copious correspondence with many leading artists and other cultural figures from all over Europe, made him one of the foremost informants, for both Eastern and Western Europe, on artistic developments across the continent. In ...