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Article

Jorge F. Rivas Pérez

(Gerónimo)

(b Caracas, Aug 29, 1920; d Caracas, Nov 3, 2004).

Venezuelan designer, potter, educator, curator, and museum administrator. Arroyo was one of the first professional designers in Venezuela. He graduated in drawing and painting from the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Artes Aplicadas de Caracas in 1938. From 1938 to 1940 Arroyo lived in New York City, where he worked at the Venezuelan pavilion at the New York World’s Fair (1939–1940) and assisted Luis Alfredo López Méndez with painting La Vida Venezolana on the ceiling of the canopy of the pavilion. Back in Venezuela, from 1940 to 1946, Arroyo taught art at the Liceo de Aplicación in Caracas. During this period, he taught and also worked as an interior designer (Librería Magisterio (1944) and Gran Exposición Nacional de Industria y Comercio de Maracaibo (1945)). From 1946 to 1948 he studied design and pottery at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, PA.

In 1949...

Article

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr Arezzo, May 13, 1836; d Florence, Sept 12, 1922).

Italian dealer, restorer, collector and painter . From 1854 he trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, executing such works as France Succouring Italy during the War of 1859 (1859–60; Impruneta, Villa Triboli). During the 1870s he began acquiring important works of art and became known as a notable dealer in Italian Old Master paintings, sculpture and objets d’art. He often obtained works of impeccable provenance, such as Arnolfo di Cambio’s marble figures for the ancient façade of Florence Cathedral, which included the Nativity, Pope Boniface VIII (both c. 1296–1300; Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) and Death of the Virgin (c. 1296–1300; destr., fragments in Berlin, Bodemus.; plaster copy, executed by Bardini before the sale to Berlin, in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). An extensive range of significant works dating from approximately the 12th century to the 16th passed through his possession, entering major museums and private collections, including numerous Italian bronze statuettes, many of which were acquired by ...

Article

Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Tracy Fitzpatrick

( New York )

The Whitney Museum of American Art, located in New York City, is “dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting, and exhibiting American art.” It was founded by Whitney family §(1) in 1930 and opened to the public in the fall of the following year. Whitney, a sculptor and collector, began exhibiting contemporary, avant-garde art in her art studio in Greenwich Village on West 4th Street in 1912. Six years later, she moved her studio to new quarters on West 8th Street and formally established the Whitney Studio Club. The Club served not only as an exhibition space, but also as a salon for its members. In 1929, Whitney revamped the Club, calling it the Whitney Studio Galleries and continuing to exhibit avant-garde art.

While running these spaces and with help from Juliana Force, who directed the Whitney Studio Galleries and became the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney began collecting avant-garde art by American modernists. In particular, she amassed a large body of work by artists of “the Eight,” also known as the ...