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Article

Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....

Article

Purkhu  

B. N. Goswamy

(fl c. 1790–1820).

Indian painter. Often associated with the court of Kangra and its most famous ruler, Maharaja Sansar Chand (reg 1775–1823), he seems to have shifted his family’s residence from Kangra to the tiny village of Samloti when the Maharaja was forced to surrender the town and fort of Kangra to the Sikhs in 1809. Purkhu’s father, Dhummun, also a professional painter, had worked for Sansar Chand’s father and grandfather. Records of the period describe the family as belonging to the professional painter caste (chitrera) of Guleria, suggesting that at some earlier time they had come from Guler. Purkhu’s work includes portraits, court scenes and processionals, all connected with Sansar Chand and his son Aniruddha Chand. Purkhu’s output seems to have been prodigious: extensive series of paintings, including a Śiva purāṇa series (Chandigarh, Govt Mus. & A.G.), a Harivamsa series (dispersed), a Parijat-Harana series (New Delhi, N. Mus.) and a ...

Article

Fransje Kuyvenhoven and Geert-Jan Koot

(Sarief Bustaman) [Radèn Salèh; Bastaman; Bustam]

(b Terboyo, c. 1814; d Bogor, Java, April 23, 1880).

Javanese painter. He belonged to a prominent Javanese family. As a boy he was instructed in Semarang, Java, by the Belgian painter Antoine Payen (1785–1853) in the making of maps and perspective drawings, as well as in rendering subjects from nature. In 1829 he accompanied Payen to the Netherlands, where he took lessons with the history painter Cornelis Kruseman and later with the landscape painter Andreas Schelfhout. Despite attempts to make him earn his own living, Saleh was entirely dependent on the Dutch State from the moment he arrived in the Netherlands until his departure to Dresden in 1839. There he was again granted royal protection. From Dresden he went to Austria, Italy and France. In 1844 he returned to The Hague, where Willem II made him a Companion of the Order of the Oak Crown in recognition of his artistic achievements; from then on Saleh referred to himself as ‘Royal Painter’. In ...

Article

Robert L. Hardgrave jr

(b Antwerp, July 6, 1760; d Antwerp, Oct 10, 1824).

Flemish printmaker and painter. He pursued his early career in Europe as a marine painter, but political unrest and his own insecure position led him to seek his fortune in India. Residing in Calcutta from 1791 to 1804, Solvyns undertook the work for which he is best known, A Collection of Two Hundred and Fifty Coloured Etchings Descriptive of the Manners, Customs and Dresses of the Hindoos. After a limited printing in 1796, the collection was published by Solvyns in Calcutta in 1799 in 12 parts. The first of these, comprising 66 prints, depicts ‘the Hindoo Castes with their respective professions’, while the following sections portray servants, religious mendicants, forms of transportation, modes of smoking, musical instruments, and festivals. Solvyns approached his task as an ethnographer but, lacking the appeal of the picturesque which was then in vogue, the project proved a financial failure. On his return to Europe, Solvyns prepared new etchings from his drawings and produced a folio edition of 288 plates, ...

Article

R. Siva Kumar

(b Kilimanoor, April 29, 1848; d Kilimanoor, Oct 2, 1906).

Indian painter. He was the most important and one of the earliest Indian artists of the 19th century to work in oil paints. The subjects of his paintings were often mythological, but they were produced in a European historicist style. He absorbed the influence of such French 19th-century academic painters as William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Boulanger and of Indian contemporary popular theatre, specializing in the type of mythological paintings that found favour with Indian rajas and British administrators. His successful exploitation (from 1894) of the lithographic reproduction of his paintings ensured, for the first time in India, that the work of an individual artist could reach a mass market. He was also a proficient portrait painter, adjusting his style to suit the taste of his patrons. He was assisted by his brother C. Raja Raji Varma, a talented plein-air painter.

K. P. P. Tampy: Ravi Varma: A Monograph (Trivandrum, 1934)...

Article

Atteqa Ali

(b Lahore).

Pakistani painter, active also in America. Wasim’s images critique authority by using a painting technique that produces works described as “epic miniatures.” Prior to the 19th century, miniature painting was associated with royal courts in South Asia, but by the late 20th century it was being taught at the National College of Arts (NCA) in Pakistan. Wasim majored in miniature painting at NCA, graduating with a BFA in 1999. Her approach mirrors the philosophical and formal methods utilized by 16th-century Mughal family Empire court painters in that she addresses contemporary issues and incorporates new materials and styles, as did the Mughal artists (see also Indian subcontinent §VI 4., (i)).

Wasim is part of a group of NCA graduates that does not set limits on miniature painting’s purpose and form unlike many contemporary practitioners and viewers in Pakistan. Like Shahzia Sikander before her, Wasim has introduced a dynamic technique to audiences in the USA, where she moved in ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...