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(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...


Raymond Vézina

(b Acadie, Qué., Oct 21, 1827; d Lachenaie, Qué., Aug 27, 1916).

Canadian architect, painter, sculptor, writer and teacher. He studied law in Montreal (1848–50), also attending classes under the Quebec painter Théophile Hamel until 1851. In 1852 Bourassa went to Italy, staying there for three years. Inspired by Victor Cousin’s treatise Du vrai, du beau, du bien (Paris, 1826, rev. 2/1853), which popularized a philosophy of eclecticism, he sought to influence artistic trends in Canada not only through promoting art as a means of developing moral and intellectual values but through encouraging state patronage of the arts.

Among Bourassa’s early paintings are portraits of his parents (1851; Quebec, Mus. Qué.) and of such leading churchmen as J.O. Archambault (St-Hyacinthe, Semin.). His first architectural work was the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, Montreal (begun 1872), for which he and a group of pupils also produced paintings and sculptures (in situ). Like several of Bourassa’s projects, this was influenced by the work of Hippolyte Flandrin. In ...


Werner Szambien

(b Lyon, March 19, 1758; d Dec 31, 1831).

French architect, engineer, writer and painter. He worked from an early age in the office of an architect called Maigre, who was a relative of Antoine-Michel Perrache (1726–79), the leading architect and engineer in Lyon of his day. In 1783 Bruyère entered the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, and in 1784 worked on the foundations of the bridge across the Moselle at Frouart. In 1785 he was involved in the design of several bridges in Lyon under the direction of Jean-François Lallié, and the following year became Sous-Ingénieur in Le Mans, where he laid out the Promenade du Greffier and the Promenade des Jacobins (after 1789) and built the grain market.

Bruyère left the Service des Ponts et Chaussées in 1793 to dedicate himself to painting and building. Nothing is known of his painted work, but his buildings include the Maison Boissy on the edge of the Forêt de Montmorency, and in Paris his own house on Rue Chauchat (...


(b Valognes, Normandy, July 9, 1847; d Paris, April 26, 1898).

French printmaker, painter, draughtsman and writer. He moved to Paris in 1866 and enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he studied under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils. In 1867 he enrolled in a drawing course run by Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and the following year he studied with the marine painter Jules Noël (1815–81). He learnt the techniques of etching from Louis Monziès (b 1849) and Adolphe Lalauze (1838–1905) around 1873, producing his first etching later that year. He concentrated on landscapes and urban scenes such as Cabs, a Winter Morning at the Quai de l’Hôtel-Dieu (1876; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Many of these etchings combine a central image with a margin of supplementary illustrations, which the artist described as either anecdotal or ‘symphonic’, the latter being evocative additions rather than narrative extensions to the main image. They were published in L’Art, then directed by Léon Gaucherel, and also in Roger Lesclide’s ...


[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...


Paul Gerbod

(b Paris, Feb 26, 1781; d Versailles, July 12, 1863).

French writer and painter. The son of the architect Jean-Baptiste Delécluze, in 1796 he entered the studio of Charles Moreau (1762–1810), who introduced him to Jacques-Louis David. He tried to make a career as a painter between 1808 and 1814, exhibiting pictures, such as The Rape of Europa (exh. Salon 1808) and Augustus and Cinna (exh. Salon 1814; Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), that show his loyalty to the Neo-classical school. He also produced three watercolours depicting the events of 1814 (Versailles, Château).

In 1815 Delécluze abandoned painting in favour of writing art criticism. After travelling in Italy and England, he wrote his first article, published in the Lycée français, and he subsequently wrote an account of the Salon of 1822 in the Moniteur universel. In November 1822 he wrote an obituary of Antonio Canova for the Journal des débats and continued to contribute to that newspaper until his death. He wrote for several other journals, including ...


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Paris, March 20, 1808; d Chaville, Seine-et-Oise, July 14, 1888).

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, 1868–71).

Etex failed three times to win the Prix de Rome, but in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1830 his Republican sympathies gained him a government scholarship that enabled him to spend two years in Rome. There he sculpted the intensely tragic group Cain and his Children Cursed by God, the plaster version of which (Paris, Hôp. Salpêtrière) was one of the great successes of the 1833 Paris Salon. During this period Etex asserted the Republican views that were to earn him the distrust of many of his fellow artists and of the establishment but also gain him the support of the influential critic and politician Adolphe Thiers. He behaved in Romantic fashion as a misunderstood artist, but nevertheless displayed a remarkable tenacity in forwarding his pet projects, including, for instance, schemes for sculptures representing ...


(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...


Joshua Drapkin

(b Dijon, June 25, 1750; d Dijon, July 16, 1817).

French painter, teacher and museum administrator. The son of a prominent doctor in Dijon, he began his career there under the architect Claude-François Devosge II (1697–1777). He received a sound training in the principles of allegory and composition, which he put to good use in his earliest known work, the wash drawing of a filial Allegory in Honour of Jean-Jacques-Louis Hoin (1769; Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). Although he remained in lifelong contact with his first teacher and with the provincial bourgeois milieu of his youth, Hoin went to Paris in 1772 or 1773. There, under Jean-Baptiste Greuze, he immediately began copying portraits of young girls ‘to improve the delicacy of his touch’ (Portalis). In 1776 he was made a corresponding member of the Dijon Académie, and, although he was not a member of the Académie Royale in Paris, two years later he joined the académies of Lyon, Rouen and Toulouse. The fine pastel ...


Helmut Börsch-Supan

(b Kassel, Sept 11, 1769; d Berlin, Aug 26, 1852).

German painter and writer. He studied from 1782 in the architecture class at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste at Kassel and subsequently under the Kassel court painter, Wilhelm Böttner. Hummel retained his connection with architecture, however, and this is manifested in his overpowering concern with structure and perspective. The Kassel court granted Hummel funds for travel and study in Italy and, in 1792, he went to Rome, where he joined a group of fellow Germans, including the painters Johann Christian Reinhart, Johann Martin von Rohden, Friedrich Bury and the architect Friedrich Weinbrenner. In 1796 Joseph Anton Koch joined the group. Hummel also attended the philosophical lectures given by Carl Ludwig Fernow (1763–1808) and became a friend of the archaeologist Aloys Hirt. In Rome, Hummel sketched landscapes, studied from the model and made copies of the works of Antiquity and the Renaissance, in particular of Raphael. His first, rather clumsy figure compositions reveal the influence of Asmus Carstens; and Hummel retained to the last a tendency to understand the human figure in terms of geometrical forms....


Linda Whiteley

(b 1810; d 1894).

French painter, administrator and dealer. He was the son of a Corsican architect called Martinetti and became a pupil of Antoine-Jean Gros. He painted chiefly on commission, mainly copies of religious subjects destined for provincial churches. An eye infection caused him to give up painting, and he moved to the Direction des Beaux-Arts, in charge of exhibitions and public fêtes. He is best remembered, however, for his role as organizer of independent exhibitions held in his Paris gallery at 26 Boulevard des Italiens, premises adjoining Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford’s house and owned by him. The first of these, held in 1859, was a posthumous showing of the work of Ary Scheffer. The following year, when there was no Salon, he held a small exhibition at which some pictures refused by the jury in 1859 were shown, as well as several paintings by Ingres, who no longer sent his work to the official Salon. Also in ...


G. Jansen

(dorus Henricus Antonius Adolf)

(b Leeuwarden, Feb 23, 1871; d Lugano, Dec 1, 1920).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, designer and writer. He received his first artistic training at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Tekenonderwijs in Amsterdam (1889–91) and in the studio of the architect P. J. H. Cuypers in 1891. Under the influence of the work of his uncle Antoon Derkinderen he decided to exchange his architectural training for painting at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1891–2). During this time he became friendly with Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof and C. A. Lion Cachet, with whom he shared a great interest in Symbolism.

In 1895 Molkenboer exhibited his first portraits, which form the most important body of his work and which assured him of a steady stream of commissions. Their realism is strongly inspired by that of Jan van Scorel and the Flemish Old Masters; the portrait of W. B. G. Molkenboer (1896; Netherlands, priv. col., see Viola) is one of the many examples of this. His portraits of the ...


Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...


Evita Arapoglou

(b Kephallinia [Cephalonia], March 6, 1787; d Corfu, Dec 5, 1825).

Greek painter, architect, and writer. Having first been an apprentice to his father, Vikentios, an icon painter, he left for Rome in 1809, where he studied painting and architecture at the Accademia di S Luca. In 1814 he continued his studies in Paris and moved in 1817 to Corfu, where he was appointed professor of architecture a year later. He travelled around Greece and to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and made drawings of architectural monuments as well as watercolours of the various people he encountered: priests, noblemen, and soldiers (album; Athens, N. Hist. Mus.). In 1820 he published a treatise on architecture and fine arts, and after 1821 he worked as an architect to the Russian court. His portraits show a clear Venetian influence (e.g. portrait of Panagiotis Benakis, c. 1820; Athens, N.G.), and those of figures from the Ionian Islands are of significant historical interest.

Saggio d’architettura civile con alcune cognizioni communi a tutte le belle arti...


Marian Burleigh-Motley


(b Nakhchyvan’-on-Don [now Rostov-on-Don], Feb 28, 1880; d Yerevan, May 5, 1972).

Armenian painter and museum director. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1897 to 1903 and then worked in the studios of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin. He was a member of the Moscow Symbolist group around Pavel Kuznetsov who participated in the Crimson Rose (Alaya Roza) exhibition in Saratov, 1904, and the Blue Rose group’s exhibition in Moscow in 1907. Like the other members of the group, Saryan painted fantastic themes, sometimes based on folk tales, although in brighter colours and with stronger rhythmic patterns than were typical of the other Symbolists. Man with Gazelles (1906–7; untraced, see Gray, rev. 2/1986, pl. 45), exhibited at the Blue Rose exhibition and Panthers, also known as Deserted Village (1907; Yerevan, Pict. Gal. Armenia), with its bright blue sky, yellow tree and dark blue panthers, indicate a growing interest in exotic places and an increasingly stylized treatment of figures and animals....


Rand Carter

(b Neuruppin, Mark Brandenburg, March 13, 1781; d Berlin, Oct 9, 1841).

German architect, painter and stage designer. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin (see Berlin, §I, 3) and Potsdam (see Potsdam, §1) show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.

Schinkel’s father, a Lutheran pastor, died after attempting to save victims of a fire in 1787 that destroyed most of Neuruppin, a town 27 km north-west of Berlin. Much of Schinkel’s boyhood was spent in a town under reconstruction, a model of royal benevolence and rational planning. In 1794 his mother and her six children moved to Berlin to a home for the widows of Lutheran pastors. At the 1797 Akademie der Künste exhibition in Berlin the 16-year-old Schinkel was so fascinated by a project for a monument to Frederick II of Prussia...


(b Pateley Bridge, Yorks, Sept 9, 1821; d London, Feb 5, 1889).

English painter, printmaker and writer. After being educated at a school for the sons of Methodist ministers, he was articled to the Gothic Revival architect Edward James Willson (1787–1854) in Lincoln. Willson allowed him to spend much of his time drawing the paintings and sculptures in Lincoln Cathedral and after three years let him leave to become a painter. Smetham then worked as a portrait painter in Shropshire before moving to London (1843), where he studied as a probationer at the Royal Academy Schools and met Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who became a close friend. In 1851 he made his début at the Royal Academy and was appointed drawing-master at Normal College in Westminster, London, a post he retained for the next 26 years. He met John Ruskin in 1854, who was greatly impressed by his work. The first of his many breakdowns occurred in 1857. His early work remains largely unknown, but such paintings as ...


Sixten Ringbom

(b Kraljevec, Croatia, Austria–Hungary [now Croatia], Feb 27, 1861; d Dornach, March 30, 1925).

Austrian mystic and philosopher, active also as architect, designer and painter. He studied science and philosophy at Vienna University. From 1883 to 1897 he prepared an edition of the scientific writings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose colour theory, aesthetics, morphological speculation and generally idealistic Weltanschauung had a profound and lasting influence on Steiner. In 1902 he became the Secretary-General of the German branch of the Theosophical Society (see Theosophy). He was a prolific writer and lecturer, and during his theosophical period (1902–12) he worked towards a synthesis of German Romanticism and Anglo-Indian theosophy, drawing on the writings of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Edouard Schuré, Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater, as well as Goethe. Through theosophical meditation Steiner claimed to have gained access to the inner worlds and hidden forces postulated by some Romantics. He published manuals for ‘inner knowledge’ such as Theosophie (1904) and ...


Jane Block and Paul Kruty

(b Antwerp, April 3, 1863; d Zurich, Oct 25, 1957).

Belgian designer, architect, painter, and writer. He was one of the leading figures in the creation of Art Nouveau in the 1890s.

From 1880 to 1883 Van de Velde studied at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp, exhibiting for the first time in 1882. In 1883 he was a founder-member of the art group Als Ik Kan, which fostered the position of the artist outside of the Salon. His earliest paintings, such as the Guitar-player (1883; Brussels, priv. col., see Canning, p. 100), are in a Realist vein with sombre tones. In October 1884 Van de Velde travelled to Paris. Although he entered the studio of the academic painter Carolus-Duran, where he remained until the spring of 1885, he was strongly attracted to the works of Jean-François Millet (ii). His works after his stay in Paris, such as Still-life with Fruit Dish (1886; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller), display the characteristic broken brushstroke of the Impressionists, although this style is often combined with subjects drawn from Millet, seen in the ...


Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....