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Donald F. Easton

(William)

(b Minneapolis, Jan 27, 1887; d Athens, Aug 24, 1971).

American archaeologist. From 1911 to 1927 he held posts at the American School of Classical Studies, Athens; from 1927 onwards he was Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Cincinnati. Early surveys and soundings around Corinth led to excavations at Korakou (1915–6), which established a full Bronze Age sequence for the Greek mainland, a sequence then confirmed at Zygouries (1921–2). Excavations at Nemea (1924–6) and Acrocorinth (1926) dealt mainly with Classical periods. But at Prosymna in the Argolid (1925–8) Blegen exposed a large Middle and Late Helladic cemetery. Further study of burial customs and of the distribution of prehistoric sites convinced him that Greek-speakers entered Greece c. 1900 bc, a view long influential but now doubted. His excavations at Troy (1932–8) greatly refined previous findings by Heinrich Schliemann and Wilhelm Dörpfeld and suggested that Troy VIIa, not VI, was destroyed in the Trojan War (...

Article

W. Eugene Kleinbauer

(b Munich, Dec 12, 1912; d Poughkeepsie, NY, Jan 22, 2003).

German art historian of late antiquity, Byzantium and Norman Sicily, active also in the USA. Kitzinger was a prominent medievalist who went to Rome in 1931 to begin doctoral work in medieval art history under the supervision of Wilhelm Pinder. Within three years he earned his PhD at the University of Munich. His dissertation, Roman Painting from the Beginning of the Seventh to the Middle of the Eighth Century, analysed the style of mosaics and frescoes in church buildings and catacombs, and convincingly demonstrated that no linear development can be traced in this period in part because different ‘styles’ can sometimes be shown to have coexisted. He effectively refuted the thesis advanced by Charles Rufus Morey of Princeton University that the Greek Hellenistic style had been transplanted by Alexandrian refugees to Rome in the earliest Middle Ages. Kitzinger pursued this research in major papers—his exacting analysis of texts related to the cult of images before Iconoclasm (...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...