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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Munich, fl 1535; d Munich, 1567).

German sculptor, mason and medallist. In 1536 he became a master sculptor in Munich and shortly afterwards entered the service of Ludwig X, Duke of Bavaria. He moved to Landshut in 1537 to work on the construction of the Italian wing of the ducal Stadtresidenz. In 1555 he travelled to Neuburg an der Donau to oversee the shipment of stone for the palace’s chimneys. He was influenced by and may have assisted Thomas Hering, the sculptor of these chimneys (See under Hering, Loy). Also in 1555 he reverted to Munich citizenship.

The few surviving examples of his sculpture show him to have been an accomplished if somewhat derivative artist. Many seem to have been commissioned by Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, who paid him an annual salary from 1558 (and perhaps as early as 1551) to 1567. Aesslinger’s limestone reliefs (both 1550) of the Massacre of the Innocents...

Article

Emma Packer

(b ?London, c. 1470; d ?London, 1532).

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir Hugh Bryce (d 1496), Court Goldsmith to Henry VIII. In 1524 Amadas became the first working goldsmith to become Master of the Jewel House to Henry VIII, an office he retained until 1532, supplying spangles, wire and ribbons to the court. In the 1520s his orders included a large amount of plate for gifts to foreign ambassadors; he also supplied a number of New Year’s gifts for the court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was one of Amadas’ most important clients, and Amadas supplied him with a number of lavish objects. Other clients included ...

Article

Antico  

Charles Avery

[Alari-Bonacolsi, Pier Jacopo di Antonio]

(b Mantua, c. 1460; d Gazzuolo, 1528).

Italian sculptor. An expert in goldsmith work, bronze sculpture and medals, he earned his nickname ‘Antico’ because of his ‘astonishing penetration of antiquity’ (Nesselrath). He achieved lasting fame through his small-scale re-creations (often also reinterpretations) of famous, but often fragmentary, statues of antiquity (e.g. the Apollo Belvedere, Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino, and the Spinario, Rome, Mus. Conserv.). Most of these bronze statuettes were made for the Gonzaga family, notably for Ludovico, Bishop of Mantua, and for Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua. Antico also restored ancient marble statues and acted as an adviser to collectors.

A birth date of 1460 has been calculated on the basis of Antico’s earliest recorded commission (1479), and he is presumed to have been born in Mantua because his father, a butcher, owned a house there and he himself was granted the privilege of owning a stall in the meat market by Federico I Gonzaga, 3rd Marchese of Mantua. A training as a goldsmith is inferred from the fact that he began as a medallist in relief and in intaglio. In addition, he is documented (see below) as the maker of a pair of silver gilt vases and later demonstrated great skill at casting and chasing bronze statuettes, and at gilding and inlaying them with silver. His restoration of antique marble statues also implies an expertise in working that material, but nothing is known of how he acquired this skill....

Article

José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Toledo, c. 1525; d Madrid, 1594).

Spanish silversmith . He worked for the cathedral and various churches in Toledo until his departure for Alcalá de Henares in 1557. While in Toledo he made an altarpiece (1554) for Segovia Cathedral. In Alcalá he made the crosses of Daganzo de Arriba, of which only the cuadrón (Madrid, priv. col.) and the cross of Algete (Toledo, Mus. Santa Cruz) remain. Both are Mannerist in structure and ornamentation. By 1563 Babia had established himself in Madrid, where the court had already settled, and shortly afterwards was appointed silversmith to Philip II. In this capacity he executed over a period of years several chalices for alms donated by the king during the feast of Epiphany (examples at Juan de la Penitencia de Alcalá, 1571; Elvas, Portugal, 1581; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant., 1582; Augustinian convent, Segovia, 1589). The chalices made by him for Carranque, Madrid, and the Escorial were not made for alms, despite their similarity to the royal chalices. Babia also executed a reliquary for the Escorial. In ...

Article

(b Bolsward, Friesland, 1628; d Bolsward, 1691).

Dutch silversmith . He was the son of the silversmith Frans Rienckes, and he started his apprenticeship at the age of 11 or 12, becoming a master of the Bolsward guild in 1654. His use of embossed botanical decoration on silverware was part of the Dutch late 17th-century expression of floral naturalism in the decorative arts. He appears to have remained in Bolsward throughout his life, producing domestic and church silver. The small number of objects attributed to him includes presentation and alms dishes, salts and such smaller objects as hinges, plaquettes and brush backs. Three objects dating from 1680–81 (Leeuwarden, Fries Mus., 8023, 1949-260, 1955-521) demonstrate his different approaches to the floral theme: the rim of one large dish is divided into sections, each containing an individual embossed flower, whereas another has a swirling pattern of flowers tumbling out of cornucopias and fruits, vegetables and insects; a pair of hinges is decorated with a tight symmetrical design of flower heads and leaves. In other examples fish and crustacea are included in the decorative scheme, and putti playing musical instruments appear on dish rims and centres....

Article

Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b c. 1495; d Nuremberg, Aug 3, 1577).

German gold- and silversmith. He may have been descended from a family of artists who settled in Nuremberg, where on February 6, 1525 he was recorded as a citizen and master goldsmith . From 1534 to 1537 he was a master of the guild. Despite the lack of biographical details, his importance among the German goldsmiths of his day is uncontested; as early as 1546 Johann Neudörfer in his Nachrichten gave him special emphasis. Additional material in archives (Bösch; Hampe) provides further information about Baier’s life and work. It is clear that Baier collaborated closely with Peter Flötner, who produced the models for almost all Baier’s gold figures (Kohlhausen), and he also worked with Dürer family, §2, Labenwolf family, §1 and . Baier probably had a large workshop, as evinced by the number of documented works dating from 1530 to 1547. Since few of the extant pieces are marked, Baier’s direct contribution to the works attributed to him must be questionable....

Article

Lucy Whitaker

(b ?1436; ? bur Florence, Dec 12, 1487).

Italian goldsmith and engraver . According to Vasari, he was a follower of Maso Finiguerra and engraved a series of 19 prints after designs by Botticelli. These illustrate an edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy published in 1481. A group of prints in the same Fine Manner style is attributed to Baldini. His designs incorporate figures and motifs derived from Botticelli, Piero Pollaiuolo and also German printmakers, such as the Master E.S. and Martin Schongauer, but particularly from Finiguerra. Baldini’s Fine Manner style developed from Finiguerra’s niello print technique; the rendering of spatial recession in the large Judgement Hall of Pilate (435×598 mm) suggests it was designed by Finiguerra. With the other prints, however, it shares the decorative quality and emphasis on pattern characteristic of Baldini.

Prints attributed to Baldini include the series of Planets (c. 1465), based on northern woodcuts, and a series of Prophets and Sibyls (early 1470s), as adapted from the characters in a mystery play; the exotic costumes reflect those worn in festival processions. Antonio Bettini’s ...

Article

French family of goldsmiths and bronze-founders. Members of the Ballin family were active in Paris from the 16th century to the 18th. Claude Ballin (i) (b Paris, 3 May 1615; d Paris, 22 May 1678) became a master goldsmith in 1637. He was granted lodgings in the Louvre, Paris, before 1671 and became Orfèvre Ordinaire du Roi. Nicknamed ‘the Great Ballin’, he was one of the most prominent French goldsmiths of the 17th century. He worked extensively for Louis XIV, providing an enormous quantity of silver and silver-gilt objects, including vases, bowls, display stands and incense-burners that formed part of the silver furnishings (destr. 1690) of the château of Versailles. Ballin’s work in the classical style also included ecclesiastical pieces (untraced) for the cathedrals of Paris and Reims that are known from numerous drawings (Berlin, Kstbib. & Mus.; Stockholm, N. Mus.; Beauvais, Archvs Dépt.), and which also feature in some wall-hangings, for example the ...

Article

Charles Avery

[Brandini, Bartolomeo]

(b Gaiole in Chianti, Oct 17, 1493; d Florence, Feb 7, 1560).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman . He was the son of Michelagnolo di Viviano (1459–1528), a prominent Florentine goldsmith who was in the good graces of the Medici and who taught Cellini and Raffaello da Montelupo. Baccio remained loyal to the Medici, despite their being in exile from 1494 to 1513, and this led to a flow of commissions after the elections to the papacy of Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici) in 1513 and of Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) a decade later; after Cosimo de’ Medici became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1537, these increased still further. This political stance made him unpopular with most Florentines, including Michelangelo, who were Republican at heart, and this lay at the root of much of the adverse criticism—not always justified—that greeted Bandinelli’s statues.

Baccio seems to have had an ambitious and impatient temperament, which led to frequent changes of master and of direction when he was learning his art. Until ...

Article

Jill E. Carrington

[Nicolò]

(b Florence; fl 1434; d between 24 and Oct 29, 1453).

Italian sculptor and bronze-caster. According to Vasari, he was a disciple of Filippo Brunelleschi. He is first mentioned on 27 April 1434 as having completed a large wooden Crucifix (destr.) for S Margarita, Vigonza (Padua). Baroncelli is identified with the ‘Nicholo da Fiorenza’, who was paid from 15 December 1436 to 16 March 1437 for two tondi in the Santo, Padua; they are identified with two marble tondi with half-figures of saints, which flank the rear entry to the choir. In 1436 he was commissioned to make the monument to the Santasofia Family (destr.) in the Eremitani, Padua. This comprised statues of 10 professors, the recumbent effigy of Galeazzo Santasofia, 12 statues of pupils and four unspecified statues. It was still unfinished in 1446. On 27 January 1440 Baroncelli was commissioned to execute 25 figures in relief for the monument to Battista Sanguinacci in the Eremitani, but Sanguinacci was instead buried in the tomb of his grandfather Ilario, which was decorated with an equestrian statue and a God the Father (both destr.). On ...

Article

Matilde Amaturo

(b Mantua, Sept 23, 1690; d Mantua, Aug 18, 1769).

Italian painter. He was the son of the goldsmith Giovanni Bazzani and trained in the studio of Giovanni Canti (1653–1715). Giuseppe was a refined and cultivated artist (Tellini Perina, 1988) and as a young man profited from the rich collections of art in Mantua, studying the works of Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, 16th-century Venetian painters, especially Paolo Veronese, and Flemish artists, above all Rubens. His earliest works, for example the Assumption (Milan, priv. col., see Caroli, pl. 20), reveal an affinity with contemporary Venetian painters such as Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Federico Bencovich and Andrea Celesti, but Bazzani rapidly absorbed the influence of Antonio Balestra, Domenico Fetti and most of all Rubens and Veronese. The inspiration of the last two artists is apparent in a number of works that may be dated in the 1720s and early 1730s. These include the Miracles of Pius V, the Conversion of a Heretic...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Thionville, 1507, or Lunéville, 1515; d Rome, c. 1565).

French engraver. He was probably related to a family of goldsmiths from Nancy, but his working life was spent in Italy. He produced many engravings for publishers in Rome and specialized mostly in reproducing Italian paintings, views of ancient Rome and to a lesser extent portraits. He worked for the engraver and publisher Tommaso Barlacchi in 1541 and 1550, producing Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dreams (Robert-Dumesnil, no. 2), the Ascension (rd 14) and Christ Delivering Souls from Limbo (rd 15) after Raphael. He also worked for Antonio Salamanca, for whom he made versions of paintings by Raphael, Michelangelo (e.g. Virgin of Sorrows, 1547; rd 18) and Baccio Bandinelli (e.g. Struggle between Reason and the Passions, 1545; rd 36).

After 1547 Beatrizet seems to have worked for Antoine Lafréry, for whom he made engravings of views of Roman monuments and antique sculptures—for example The Pantheon (rd 103) and the ...

Article

José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Cuenca, 1506–7; d Cuenca, 1573).

Spanish silversmith. His principal work, which made him famous in Castile during his lifetime, was the monumental standing monstrance (destr. 1808) for Cuenca Cathedral, begun in 1528 and unveiled in 1546, although unfinished until 1573; only five statuettes (c. 1550; London, V&A) are preserved out of the hundreds that adorned it. Between 1527–8 and 1537 Becerril made the standing monstrance of Villaescusa de Haro (Cuenca, Mus. Dioc.-Catedralicio), with the collaboration of Juan Ruiz and Luis del Castillo. He later created three other tower-shaped monstrances: those in Iniesta (1556) and Buendía—both with three layers: the lower two square, the upper one circular—and the monstrance of S Pedro de Huete (untraced). Becerril was silversmith for Cuenca Cathedral and made a set of coronas (1543) and a set of paxes (1550–51) for use there. He executed several crosses: those made in the mid-16th century (e.g. the cross of La Puerta; 1000 ×550 mm, ...

Article

John R. Melville-Jones

(b Vicenza, c. 1468; d Vicenza, 1546).

Italian gem-engraver, goldsmith and medallist. The most important part of his career was spent in Rome, where he worked for Clement VII and his successor Paul III. He also spent a short period in Venice, returning from there to Vicenza in 1530 and remaining in the latter city for most of the time until his death. In Rome he was a well-established member of artistic and literary circles, associating, for example, with Michelangelo and the humanist scholar Pietro Bembo. No specimens of his work as a goldsmith survive, but he is called ‘aurifex’ in contemporary documents and may have made the settings for his carved gems.

Belli specialized in cutting gems and crystal and in carving dies for coins and medals. Although his work demonstrates technical ability of the highest order, his talent was not an original one. His style followed that of his contemporaries working in the major arts or was governed by his study of ancient coins and gems. His best-known works are those made for his papal patrons, many consisting of or incorporating carvings in rock crystal or semiprecious stones. The most splendid of these is a silver-gilt casket adorned with 24 carvings in crystal showing scenes from the ...

Article

Donna Corbin

(b Milan, 1847; d Magreglio, 1927).

Italian silversmith. He was known for his complex designs of flatware, chalices and inkwells. His flatware designed c. 1885 was Renaissance Revival in style, while that designed c. 1887 (Milan, Castello Sforzesco) is more reminiscent of the Mannerist style of Benvenuto Cellini and Antonio Gentile, the handles being adorned with the forms of nymphs and satyrs. Bellosio is also well known for his work exhibited at the Turin Exhibition of ...

Article

Jérôme de la Gorce

(b Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, bapt June 4, 1640; d Paris, Jan 24, 1711).

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières, reissued in 1667. In 1662 he engraved for the guild of locksmiths a series of designs by Hugues Brisville (b 1633), Diverses inventions nouvelles pour des armoiries avec leurs ornements. It would seem that by this date Berain’s skill as an engraver was well known. Around 1667 he decorated and signed a hunting gun (Stockholm, Livrustkam.; see Arms and armour §II 2., (iii)) for Louis XIV, which probably served as his introduction to the court. Through the influence and support of Charles Le Brun, in 1670 Berain was employed by the crown as an engraver. In January 1671 he received 400 livres in payment for two engravings (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.) recording the ceiling decoration by Le Brun of the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre, Paris, for which he also designed the painted stucco grotesques. In ...

Article

Valentino Donati

(Desiderio) [Giovanni da Castel Bolognese]

(b Castel Bolognese, 1494; d Faenza, May 22, 1553).

Italian gem-engraver and medallist. He was first instructed as a gem-engraver by his father, the goldsmith Bernardo Bernardi (1463–1553). His earliest works, which dated from the three years he spent in Ferrara at the court of Alfonso I d’Este, were an engraving on crystal of the Battle of La Bastia and steel dies for struck medals representing Alfonso d’Este and Christ Taken by the Multitude (untraced; see Vasari). By 1530 Giovanni Bernardi was in Rome, where he worked for the cardinals Giovanni Salviati and Ippolito de’ Medici. He was commissioned to produce a portrait of Pope Clement VII for the obverse of a medal struck with two different reverses: Joseph Appearing to his Brothers (e.g. Modena, Gal. & Mus. Estense; London, V&A) and the Apostles Peter and Paul (e.g. Milan, Castello Sforzesco; Paris, Bib. N.). For Clement VII he engraved on rock crystal the Four Evangelists (Naples, Capodimonte), a work that was much praised and admired; even Benvenuto Cellini, in his ...

Article

Philip Attwood

[Bertinet, François]

(b Ostia, nr Rome; d Rome, 1706).

Italian medallist, active in France. At the age of 22 he travelled from Ostia to Venice and from there, at the summons of the Finance Minister Nicolas Fouquet, to Paris, where he spent many years. In 1665 he executed a bronze medal of Fouquet. He spent eight years in prison as a result of his association with Fouquet, who had been arrested in 1661 after being denounced by Jean-Baptiste Colbert; between 1671 and 1687 Bertinetti made several bronze portrait medals of Louis XIV, one of them during his time in prison. He also made bronze medals of Maria-Theresa, Dr Jacques de Sainte-Beuve and one depicting an unknown priest. Most of his works are signed Bertinet, but one of his medals of Louis XIV is signed Bertinet et Auvy. His best medals are in a Baroque style reminiscent of Gianlorenzo Bernini.

DBI; Thieme–Becker L. Forrer: Biographical Dictionary of Medallists (London, 1902–30), vii, pp. 76–7...

Article

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b ?Reims, 1622; d Lyon, Nov 17, 1692).

French medallist and sculptor. He was working in Lyon by 1657, when he produced a medallion of Archbishop Camille de Neuville de Villeroi. Further medallions worked in wax and cast in wax or lead, in the manner of Jean Warin, show members of the Consulat of Lyon and some members of their families and date from 1658–65 (e.g. Paris, Bib. N.; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). Bidau also carved stone sculptures for buildings in Lyon, including a Virgin (before 1658), David and Goliath (1660), an Annunciation (1665) and St Catherine (1678). His relief for the Hôtel de Ville celebrating the Peace of the Pyrenees (1660–61; in situ) was made in collaboration with the local sculptor Jacques Mîmerel (fl 1649–70); in addition Bidau provided the model for a fountain (1661) in the Place des Terreaux.

In 1671 Bidau joined the team of sculptors working for ...

Article

Stephen K. Scher

(fl 1574–92).

Italian medallist. Although he worked in the papal mint from 1580 to 1592, virtually nothing is known about his life and career, which may say something about the relative unimportance of a die-engraver, a job that he is documented as having in 1591 (‘incisore della Zecca Romana’). He seems to have moved with his brother, Emilio de’ Bonis, from Venice to Rome and signed a medal in 1574 for the inauguration of the Collegio Germanico in Rome. Thereafter, virtually all of his medals were produced for his papal employers. According to Forrer, he struck medals for Gregory XIII (1572–85), Sixtus V (1585–90; five variants), Gregory XIV (1590–91; eight variants), Innocent IX (1591; seven variants) and Clement VIII (1592–1605; four variants). As was usually the case with papal commemorative medals, an official portrait of the pontiff was established, coupled with a series of reverses devoted to significant acts or events that occurred during that particular papacy. Such medals were invariably struck and were relatively monotonous and dry in technique and style. Nonetheless, the medals of de’ Bonis do possess certain distinctive qualities. The portraits of Sixtus V, for example, are quite vigorous and capture the gruff features of this former peasant. The medal struck to commemorate the building of the Ponte Felice over the Tiber in the Borghetto section of Rome (...