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Article

Sheila S. Blair

[Muẓaffar ‛Alī ibn Haydar ‛Alī al-Tabrīzī]

(fl late 1520s–70s; d Qazvin, c. 1576).

Persian calligrapher, illustrator, painter and poet. He was a versatile artist who belonged to the second generation working for Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76) at the Safavid court in north-west Iran (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). His career has been reconstructed by Dickson and Welch on the basis of brief notices by Safavid artists and historians, signed calligraphies and ascribed paintings. He studied calligraphy with the master Rustam ‛Ali, and several folios in the album compiled for Bahram Mirza in 1544–5 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154) are signed jointly by Rustam ‛Ali for the writing and Muzaffar ‛Ali for the découpage (Arab. qat‛). He was a master of nasta‛lıq script, and two examples in the album prepared for Amir Ghayb Beg in 1564–5 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2161) are signed by him. In the introduction to this album, Malik Daylami wrote of his skill in calligraphic decoration and gold illumination, and the chronicler Qazi Ahmad reported that he also excelled in gold-flecking, gilding and varnished painting. Muzaffar ‛Ali reportedly studied painting with the renowned master ...

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François Quiviger

(b Faenza, c. 1525; d Faenza, April 1609).

Italian painter and writer. He probably began his apprenticeship at Faenza and at the beginning of the 1550s settled in Rome, where he worked as a copyist of ancient and modern works. Around 1556 he made a series of journeys across Italy before settling in Faenza in 1564, where he took orders. Of his artistic works, which he himself held in low esteem, we know only an Ascension of the Virgin (Faenza, Pin. Com.) and a few leaves from an album of drawings, dating from the 1550s, which show Raphael’s Logge. His most important contribution to the history of art is his treatise entitled De’ veri precetti della pittura (1587).

With this book Armenini wished to revive painting, which he felt had declined. He attributed its downfall to three main causes: the indifference of the great masters of the early 16th century to teaching, the lack of artists of sufficient stature to succeed them and a general depreciation of the art of painting. The ...

Article

Isabel Mateo Gómez

(b ?Toledo; d 1595).

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (d 1565). He worked as painter to Toledo Cathedral from 1565 to 1581 and was painter (Pintor del Rey) to Philip II from 1583. He acted frequently as a valuer for the work of other artists.

Between 1563 and 1564, in collaboration with Luis de Velasco, Hernando de Ávila painted the retable of the church of Miraflores (Madrid Province) with the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin (untraced); these are probably among his earliest works. He was commissioned to paint the retables of St John the Baptist and the ...

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Maryvelma O’Neil

(b Rome, c. 1566; d Dec 30, 1643).

Italian painter, draughtsman and writer . He executed canvases and frescoes of religious and mythological subjects, and portraits. He was given important commissions by popes and aristocrats and sold his works to patrons in Italy and abroad. Baglione’s arguably greater fame as a writer derives from Le nove chiese di Roma (1639) and especially from his Vite de’ pittori, scultori, architetti (1642), containing biographies of more than 200 artists who worked in Rome between 1572 and 1642.

Although born in Rome, where he spent most of his life, Baglione claimed descent from a noble Perugian family. His only acknowledged training (in the autobiography appended to Le vite, 1642) was an apprenticeship with Francesco Morelli, a little-known Florentine painter in Rome. However, drawings for works from the late 1580s and 1590s (such as the Finding of Moses, the Denial of St Peter and the Arrest of Christ...

Article

Janet Cox-Rearick

[Agniolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori]

(b Monticelli, nr Florence, Nov 17, 1503; d Florence, Nov 23, 1572).

Italian painter and poet. He dominated Florentine painting from the 1530s to the 1560s. He was court artist to Cosimo I de’ Medici, and his sophisticated style and extraordinary technical ability were ideally suited to the needs and ideals of his ducal patron. He was a leading decorator, and his religious subjects and mythological scenes epitomize the grace of the high maniera style; his cool and highly disciplined portraits perfectly convey the atmosphere of the Medici court and of an intellectual élite.

Bronzino was the pupil first of the conservative Raffaellino del Garbo and then of Jacopo Pontormo, who portrayed him c. 1518 in the foreground of Joseph in Egypt (London, N.G.). Pontormo’s Mannerist style was the major formative influence on Bronzino’s art. He worked with Pontormo in 1523–6 in the cloister at the Certosa di Galluzzo, near Florence, where he painted lunettes (damaged) of the Martyrdom of St Lawrence...

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Trinidad de Antonio Sáenz

(b ?Alcolea de Torote, Toledo, before1548; d Córdoba, July 26, 1608).

Spanish painter and writer. He is the most representative figure of the Córdoban school of the last third of the 16th century. Of Toledan origin, he studied arts and theology at the Universidad de Alcalá de Henares c. 1556, acquiring a broad humanistic education and a knowledge of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Three years later he was in Rome, where he completed his artistic training and came under the influence of Raphael and Michelangelo. He became friends with, and studied with, Federico Zuccaro. He returned to Córdoba in 1577 and the same year became a prebendary in the cathedral, whose authorities sent him again to Rome, where he lived from 1583 to 1585. On returning to Spain he stayed for more than a year in Seville, a city that he visited on several further occasions, doubtless attracted by its rich cultural and artistic environment. In style Céspedes’s painting clearly shows Italian influence, and he developed a concept of the religious image totally dependent on Italian Mannerism. He was influenced by the formal grandeur of Michelangelo, and he faithfully also perpetuated those features of the work of Michelangelo adopted by Daniele da Volterra, being particularly interested in anatomy and precise draughtsmanship. Few works survive that can be securely attributed to Céspedes. His earliest documented work is the fresco decoration of one of the nave chapels in ...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...

Article

[Wensel]

(b Antwerp,?1560; d Brussels, Nov 23, 1632).

Flemish painter, architect, antiquarian, numismatist, engineer and economist. In 1573 he became a pupil of the painter Marten de Vos in Antwerp; in 1579 he stayed briefly in Paris, returning to Antwerp and travelling thence to Italy. He settled in Naples, where he is mentioned in a document dated 5 October 1580. There he first worked under contract with the Flemish painter and art dealer Cornelis de Smet, then in 1591 for another compatriot, the painter Jacob Francart the elder (before 1551–1601). In 1597 he established himself in Rome. After the death of his first wife he married Susanna Francart, daughter of Jaques Francart and sister of the architect Jacob Francart the younger, who was also living in Rome.

During his stay in Italy Cobergher was mainly active as a painter. Altarpieces painted by him in a somewhat mixed style, incorporating both Mannerist and classical elements and characteristic of post-Tridentine art in Italy, are still extant in churches in Naples, for example a ...

Article

Michèle-Caroline Heck

[Grapp, Wendling]

(b Pfullendorf, nr Konstanz, 1550–51; d Strasbourg, 1599).

German painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of a Protestant pastor and spent his childhood in Lissenheim before moving to Strasbourg with his widowed mother. On 12 November 1570 he married Catherina Sprewer, and in 1571 he obtained Strasbourg citizenship. In 1575 he painted frescoes on the façade of the Brüderhof (destr. 1769). He was at Hagenau in 1583 and at Oberkirch in 1589. Also in 1589, he worked on the decoration of the Neu Bau (now Chambre de Commerce) in Strasbourg; the frescoes, known from engravings of the building (e.g. by Jean-Martin Weiss) and from descriptions, combined mythological and biblical scenes in an interesting iconographical relationship and emphasized the architectural structure of the façade. Dietterlin’s only authenticated easel painting is the signed and dated Raising of Lazarus (?1582 or ?1587; Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), which has the characteristics of northern Mannerism: the centre of the composition, towards which the figures look, is deliberately brought out of symmetry to the right; the scene is viewed from below, and the ample gestures of the figures cause them to mingle and intertwine, creating arbitrary rhythmic connections. The intensity of these deliberately complicated movements and tensions is not accentuated by contrasted effects of light. The painting as a whole shows the influence of the Netherlands, while the bright colours are typically German, although some of the figures reveal an Italian influence, probably mediated through German art; others are taken directly from earlier German paintings or inspired by Tobias Stimmer. The only figure looking at the viewer may be a self-portrait (see Martin)....

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(von)

(b Augsburg, May 7, 1563; d Prague, Oct 16, 1613).

German draughtsman, painter and antiquary. He was a significant figure in the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II. The son of an Augsburg advocate, by 1580 he is documented as a fully trained miniaturist. He may have worked for Ulisse Aldrovandi in Bologna before taking service (1597–1604) with the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1601 he was summoned to the court of Rudolf II in Prague on the recommendation of Hans von Aachen, and he was confirmed in the post of miniaturist there on 28 December 1601. After returning to Italy he continued to work for Rudolf II and was eventually appointed court miniaturist in 1603, though he does not seem to have settled in Prague until 1604. In 1607 Fröschl was appointed court antiquary: between then and 1611 he drew up the inventory (Vaduz, Samml. Liechtenstein) of Rudolf II’s Kunstkammer, listing works belonging to the categories of nature (...

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Anthony Hughes

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Olimpia Theodoli

(b Bologna, April 17, 1518; d May 8, 1578).

Italian painter and art historian. He described himself as a pupil of Innocenzo da Imola and is documented working in the church of S Francesco and in the cloister of the Santa Trinità, where he is buried. In 1571 he joined the painters’ guild in Bologna. He is known to posterity not as a painter, however, but as the author of the earliest guide to the city: Graticola di Bologna …, which was probably written in the 1560s but not published until 1844, although it was already circulating in manuscript copies.

The published version is probably based on a manuscript that was revised by A. M. Biancori (Bologna, Bib. U. MS. 74, busta II, n. 19); there is an unrevised MS in the library of the Archiginnasio, Bologna (MS.B. 3198). The title of the book derives from the author’s division of the city into sections, like those of a ‘graticola’ (grid), as a means of structuring his description. The work is dedicated to Messer Pastorino, to whom the author acts as guide, showing him buildings, monuments and paintings. His cautious attributions made Lamo’s guide a fairly reliable source of information, and it is especially interesting on contemporary events....

Article

Alison Stones

Legends and myths in medieval art are often symbolic rather than narrative, appearing as isolated representations on monuments and portable objects and following the tradition of Greek vase painting where individual subjects are depicted and rely on prior knowledge of the stories for recognition and understanding. World histories celebrated great heroes of the past, starting with Creation and biblical history, then the ancient and medieval world with the exploits of the Trojan heroes, Alexander the Great, King Arthur and the campaigns of Charlemagne and his nephew Roland. Northern gods such as Thor were depicted in cult statues (c. 1000; Reykjavík, N. Mus.) or through such ornamental hammers as those from north Jutland in the Copenhagen Nationalmuseum, and Freya, head of the Valkyries, was painted riding a cat on the walls of Schleswig Cathedral.

The Fall of Troy is most celebrated in the early 13th-century copy of Heinrich von Veldecke’s ...

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David R. Coffin

(b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, Oct 26, 1583).

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

He was presumably born into a noble family and probably moved to Rome in 1534. At first he was active producing decorative paintings for palaces: Giovanni Baglione recorded numerous houses in Rome with façades frescoed by Ligorio in a distinctive yellow monochrome in the manner of Polidoro da Caravaggio or Baldassare Peruzzi. The only extant example of his figurative painting is a fresco depicting the Dance of Salome (c. 1544; Rome, Oratory of S Giovanni Decollato). In ...

Article

Martin Kemp

[Gianpaolo]

(b Milan, April 26, 1538; d Milan, Jan 27, 1592).

Italian writer, painter and draughtsman. He is best known for his writings, which include metaphysical discussions of the philosophy of artistic creation at levels of complexity to rival those from any period. He was a conspicuous figure in artistic and intellectual circles in northern Italy and a painter of some reputation beyond Milan, but those of his works that survive do not suggest a talent of a higher order than that of a skilled late Mannerist working in an eclectic version of the Lombard style.

Born to a family of some social status, Lomazzo appears to have received a better education than most painters. Early indications of his artistic abilities led to his studying with the little-known Giovanni Battista della Cerva (fl ?1540–48), an assistant of Gaudenzio Ferrari (whom Lomazzo appears to have regarded as his real master). Lomazzo’s autobiography, published with his Rime in 1587, indicates that he received a steady stream of commissions for murals and altarpieces, once he became an independent master. His many connections, among whom was Giuliano Goselini (...

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Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

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Anthony Hughes and Caroline Elam

(Buonarroti ) [Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni ]

(b Caprese, ?March 6, 1475; d Rome, Feb 18, 1564).

Italian sculptor, painter, draughtsman and architect. The elaborate exequies held in Florence after Michelangelo’s death celebrated him as the greatest practitioner of the three visual arts of sculpture, painting and architecture and as a respected poet. He is a central figure in the history of art: one of the chief creators of the Roman High Renaissance, and the supreme representative of the Florentine valuation of disegno (see Disegno e colore). As a poet and a student of anatomy, he is often cited as an example of the ‘universal genius’ supposedly typical of the period. His professional career lasted over 70 years, during which he participated in, and often stimulated, great stylistic changes. The characteristic most closely associated with him is terribilità, a term indicative of heroic and awe-inspiring grandeur. Reproductions of the Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Rome, Vatican) or the Moses from the tomb of ...