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Donatella L. Sparti

(b Terni, after 1559; d Rome, ?Nov 29, 1652).

Italian writer, historian and collector. He produced about 38 novels and several comedies, although his literary works have been little studied. In Perugia he was a member of the Accademia degli Insensati, under the name Tenebroso. He is documented as having been in Rome in the late 16th century as secretary to Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (later Pope Clement VIII) and chief Apostolic Notary. At his home on the Pincio hill he accumulated a substantial collection, containing scientific instruments, examples of flora and fauna, a picture gallery, a large collection of Kleinkunst, medals, and a vast assortment of drawings by contemporary artists especially Annibale Carracci. The collection was accompanied by a rich library. The organization and contents of the collection are described by Angeloni himself in a manuscript in Venice (Fletcher, 1974). From 1634 his nephew Giovanni Pietro Bellori lived in the house; Angeloni educated him in art, literature and antiquities, and introduced him into the circle of classicist artists with whom he had formed a relationship, more in the role of erudite mentor than that of patron....


Norman E. Land

(b Arezzo, 19 or April 20, 1492; d Venice, 1556).

Italian art critic, writer, poet and collector. He was one of the most engaging literary figures of the Italian Renaissance, known not only for his famous Lettere but also for political lampoons, erotic books and religious writings. He was the son of a shoemaker, Luca del Tura. From before 1510 until 1517 he lived in Perugia. A book of poems that he published during these years, Opera nova (1512), suggests by its subtitle, in which the author is called ‘Pietro pictore Aretino’, and by a note to the first sonnet in which he claims to be ‘studioso … in pictura’, that he had some training as an artist. About 1517 he moved to Rome, after a short period in Siena, and joined the household of Agostino Chigi. He became friendly with Raphael, Michelangelo, Sebastiano del Piombo and Jacopo Sansovino. At this time too he became known for his political lampoons. For a period Aretino was a valet to Pope Leo X; on Leo’s death in ...


Natividad Sánchez Esteban

(b Seville, 1548; d Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 1596).

Spanish soldier, writer and collector. As a reward for his military achievements, Philip II appointed him Alférez Mayor of Andalusia, and he also received honours from the kings of France, Portugal and Poland. He became royal chronicler, which gave him access to numerous libraries throughout Spain, in which he discovered rare Spanish books dating from the Middle Ages. These were important for his La historia de la nobleza de Andaluzia, only the first part of which was published (1588). Among other things, this includes histories of Seville, Ubeda and Baeza and a genealogy of Argote de Molina’s family. Argote de Molina was also Veinticuatro of Seville, a commissioner of the Inquisition and first Provincial de la Santa Hermandad. In addition he was a member of the circle of humanists and writers around the Duques de Gelves in their villa, called La Merlina. His marriage to the daughter of the Marqués of Lanzarote obliged him to move to that island, and on the death of his wife he settled in Gran Canaria. His humanist interests led him to create a private museum in his home, a typical example of a 16th-century collection of art and exotic objects, a ...


Josèphe Jacquiot

[Pierre-Antoine de Rascas]

(b Aix-en-Provence, bapt 3 Feb 1562; d Aix-en-Provence, 14 April 1620). French collector and administrator. In 1602 Henry IV appointed him Maître des Cabinets de Médailles et Antiquités. His task was to reconstitute, in a hall of the château of Fontainebleau, the royal collection of medals and antiques, starting from what remained of the royal treasures after the disorders of the Wars of Religion. In order to increase the museum’s growing collection, Bagarris offered the King his own collection, consisting of 957 engraved gems, including 200 cameos. He took it back after Henry IV’s death; but in 1670 it was bought back by Louis XIV, and returned to the royal collection, enhanced by the addition of three famous intaglios: the so-called ‘Seal of Michelangelo’, attributed to Pietro Maria Serbaldi di Pescia, a Triumph of Silenus and a Cicero (all Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles). Two documents highlight the importance that Henry IV attached to restoring the Cabinets des Médailles et Antiquités. The first contains the instructions that Bagarris received in ...


Clare Robertson

(b Venice, May 20, 1470; d Rome, Jan 18, 1547).

Italian ecclesiastic, writer, collector and patron. His literary fame rests chiefly on his contributions to the development of Italian vernacular literature and to his revival of the Petrarchan style in poetry. Among his best-known works is Gli Asolani (written c. 1497; pubd 1505), which consists of Platonic dialogues on love. Born of a patrician family, he made several attempts to follow his father’s distinguished political career before deciding to devote himself to literature. In 1492 he left Venice, going first to Messina, then Padua and Ferrara. For a time he was part of the cultivated circle of the della Rovere court in Urbino, where he was described by Baldassare Castiglione in Il libro del cortegiano (1528) as the archetypal humanist. After taking minor orders in 1508, he moved to Rome in 1512 and worked there as a papal secretary, together with Jacopo Sadoleto (1477–1547). On the death of Leo X in ...


David Howarth

(b London, May 2, 1551; d Chislehurst, London, Nov 9, 1623).

English antiquary, historian and collector. The son of a painter, Camden was educated at Christ’s Hospital, St Paul’s School and Oxford. Unable to obtain a fellowship, he moved to London in 1571 and began collecting material that would later form the basis of his greatest work, the Britannia, the foundation of antiquarian studies in Britain. Camden was persuaded to systematize his researches by the cartographer Abraham Ortelius, who was visiting London in 1577. Camden wrote both of his debt to Ortelius and of his own ambitions: ‘[Ortelius] did very earnestly sollicit me to acquaint the World with Britain that ancient Island; that is, to restore Britain to its antiquities, and its Antiquities to Britain, to renew the memory of what was old, illustrate what was obscure, and settle what was doubtful.’ The Britannia appeared on 2 May 1586, dedicated to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, who was the foremost patron of scholarship at the time. It was largely topographical and historical, though with significant elements of heraldry and genealogy. It was an immediate success, running to three English editions in four years. It was both the beneficiary and the fullest expression of the scholarship and historical methods of ...


(b Casatico, nr Mantua, Dec 6, 1478; d Toledo, Feb 2, 1529).

Italian writer, humanist, diplomat and soldier. He was educated from 1490 to 1499 at the court of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, where he met Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Cristoforo Romano. He was in the service of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua, in 1499–1504, after which he was at the court of Urbino until 1516, serving first Guidobaldo I, Duke of Urbino, and afterwards his successor, Francesco-Maria I della Rovere. There he met Pietro Bembo, Ludovico da Canossa (1476–1532), Giuliano de’ Medici, Duc de Nemours, and Raphael, with whom he developed a strong friendship.

In 1508 Castiglione began Il libro del cortegiano, for which he is best remembered. It was finished in 1518 and revised and published in 1528. In these fictitious dialogues, set in the palace rooms of Elisabetta Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, the courtiers, all historical persons, discuss the proper education for the ideal aristocrat. Castiglione dated the dialogues to ...


Marco Collareta

(b Milan, Dec 3, 1480; d Faenza, March 16, 1554).

Italian writer, collector and patron. He was a distant relation of Baldassare Conte Castiglione. At the age of 25 he entered the order of the Knights of St John and from 1505 to 1508 lived in the house of the order on Rhodes. It was while he was there that Isabella d’Este asked him to acquire some antiquities for her; their correspondence illuminates the antiquarian taste of north Italian collectors. From 1508 to c. 1518 he was in Rome, and then, until his death, in Faenza. As a young man he had been in contact with illustrious literary figures such as the poet Jacopo Sannazaro (1458–1530), but in this provincial town he became withdrawn, and increasingly bigoted and intolerant. His most important literary work, the Ricordi (1546), is informally structured and covers a variety of subjects. A chapter on the ‘decoration of the house’ discusses paintings, sculptures, engravings and ...



(b Venice, 1484; d Padua, May 8, 1566).

Italian architectural theorist, patron, humanist and architect. Inheriting his uncle’s estate in Padua, he combined the activities of a landowner with interests in literature, drama and architecture and became an important figure in the city’s humanist circle, which included Giovanni Maria Falconetto, Andrea Palladio, Giangiorgio Trissino and Barbaro family §(1). He encouraged Falconetto, previously a painter, into architecture, visiting Rome with him in 1522 and commissioning him to design his first works of architecture: two garden structures at his palazzo (now Palazzo Giustiniani) in the Via del Santo, Padua, a loggia for theatrical performances (1524) and the Odeon for musical performances (1530–33), both extant. The buildings derived from ancient Roman prototypes and followed their detailing closely; they formed a ‘forum’ in the courtyard. Although Cornaro may have helped in the design, it is more probable that his humanist interests influenced Falconetto. However, when Cornaro commissioned Falconetto to design the Villa dei Vescovi (now Villa Olcese, ...


David Howarth

(b Denton, Cambs, Jan 22, 1571; d London, May 6, 1631).

English antiquarian, politician, collector and patron. He began his career in antiquarian studies as a protégé of William Camden; in c. 1586 this pair joined two other enthusiasts in order to found the Society of Antiquaries. (This society terminated c.1607 and was not revived until 1757.) In 1599–1600 Cotton and Camden made a visit to the ‘Picts Wall’ (Hadrian’s Wall), where they saw artefacts that were to have a significant influence on antiquarian scholarship. The historian and cartographer John Speed made use of Cotton’s cabinet of coins in his Historie of Great Britaine (1610). The first English translation of Camden’s Britannia (1610) by Philemon Holland contains an engraving after a drawing by Cotton of a Roman military altar at Alauna near Maryport, Cumbria (1600; London, BM). On Camden’s death in 1623 Cotton inherited his manuscripts and is thought to have supervised the erection of Camden’s monument, attributed to ...


Clifford M. Brown

(b Parma, 1506; d Rome, 1575).

Italian bishop, antiquarian and collector. He went to Rome some time before 1527, serving as a canon of St Peter’s and as vicar of S Giovanni in Laterano (where his mortuary monument remains) before being made Bishop of Gallese by Pius IV in 1562. By this date he had published five books, the first of which, De reggimenti pubblici delle città, appeared in 1544. In 1550 Ulisse Aldrovandi recommended his readers to the antiquarian collection ‘nella camera di messer Hierolimo Garimberto’ in the Palazzo Gaddi on Monte Citorio.

In 1562 Garimberto helped to evaluate the antiquities that Paolo Bufalo offered to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. He also served as archaeological adviser to Cesare Gonzaga, Lord of Guastalla, and to his cousin Guglielmo Gonzaga, 3rd Duke of Mantua. The extensive correspondence (1562–73) with the former and the letters written to the latter in 1572–3 provide a highly readable source of information on the contemporary Roman antiquities market and on Garimberto’s relations with such other antiquarians and dealers as Alessandro de’ Grandi (...


Linda S. Klinger

(b Como, April 1483; d Florence, Dec 11, 1552).

Italian historian, physician, humanist and collector. He belonged to the Zanobi, one of the oldest and most prominent families in Como, and was devoted to his cultural patrimony, especially to Como’s great historians, the elder and younger Pliny. His guardian and mentor was his elder brother, Benedetto Giovio (1471–c. 1545), a prominent civic figure, local historian and antiquarian who, among other projects, was involved with Cesare Cesariano on the translation and annotation of Vitruvius’ De architectura (Como, 1521). In compliance with his brother’s wishes, Paolo trained as a physician in Pavia and Padua (1498–1507), studying with Marc’antonio della Torre and Pietro Pomponazzi. The university environment of Lombardy and the Veneto exposed him to contact with artistic enterprises of the early 16th century and with those who promoted them. For instance, della Torre apparently collaborated with Leonardo da Vinci on an illustrated anatomical text during Giovio’s studentship....


Helen Geddes

(b Venice, c. 1484; d Venice, May 9, 1552).

Italian writer and collector. He was an important Venetian dilettante and connoisseur whose surviving writings constitute a valuable source of information on 16th-century art patronage in the Veneto. He received his education from the renowned scholar Giovanni Battista Egnazio (1473/8–1553), Canon of S Marina, whose own active interest in the arts and literature no doubt had a formative influence on him. In his youth Michiel travelled to Dalmatia and Corfu; in 1514 he visited Florence and in 1516 Bergamo, of which he wrote a Latin description, his only work published in his lifetime. In 1518 he travelled to Rome, where he stayed for two years.

Michiel’s diary, which he kept from 1511, reveals his increasing interest in art and architecture, no doubt stimulated by his experience of the papal court, where he came into contact with Baldassare Peruzzi and possibly Sebastiano del Piombo and Raphael. Michiel also explored the ancient ruins of Rome and Naples. While in Rome, he maintained contact with his Venetian friends, to whom he wrote about current affairs and major events in the city’s art life, such as Raphael’s death, the decoration of the Vatican Loggie, the display of seven of Raphael’s tapestries, and the praise received by Sebastiano del Piombo’s ...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b Lugano, May 1, 1544; d Dresden, Sept 20, 1620).

Swiss sculptor, architect, painter, writer and collector, active in Germany. He was the son of Bernardinus Zamelinus Nosseni and Lucia Verda. His move to Dresden, via Florence, was organized by the intermediary Johann Albrecht von Sprintzenstein, and in 1575 he was appointed court sculptor, architect, painter and decorative artist on an annual salary of 400 taler. He was commissioned to exploit the sources of alabaster and marble in Saxony for the Electors Augustus and Christian I (reg 1586–91). In the following years Nosseni worked in the fields of sculpture and painting (including portraiture), made furniture and other stone and wooden objects for the royal art collection and designed buildings. He also devised triumphal processions, masked celebrations, allegorical plays and tournaments. The precious and semi-precious stones that he acquired were used for epitaphs, monuments, altars, sculptures and other works. It appears that he designed or conceived all these works but actually executed only a few of them. He created his own workshop, in which he employed Italian artists and craftsmen, whom he had engaged during a trip to Italy at the end of ...


Clare Robertson

(b Rome, Dec 11, 1529; d Rome, May 18, 1600).

Italian antiquarian and collector. He was an illegitimate son of the Orsini family. He devoted himself early to the study of manuscripts under the guidance of Gentile Delfini, Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese’s Vicario at S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. In 1554 he became a canon of the same church, and on Delfini’s death in 1559 entered Farnese service, in which he remained for the rest of his career.

Orsini was secretary and librarian to Ranuccio Farnese until the latter’s death in 1565. He was then ‘inherited’ by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (see Farnese family §(3)) as librarian and as keeper of the antiques and works of art in the Palazzo Farnese. Orsini fulfilled his duties with care, acquiring many new works for the Farnese collection and advising his patron on the choice of artists for several commissions. He also composed inscriptions for the Cardinal’s frescoes and devised iconographic programmes, including that for the Sala d’Ercole in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola....


Maurice Howard

(b Norwich, Aug 6, 1504; d London, May 17, 1575).

English archbishop, scholar and antiquary. He was chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn in 1535, and in 1559 he reluctantly agreed to be made Archbishop of Canterbury; thus he was instrumental in the enforcement of the Elizabethan religious settlement. Always a moderate, Parker presided over the continued removal of images from churches but, in line with Elizabeth I’s wishes, issued his Advertisements of 1565, which sought to restore something of the significance of the visual tokens of worship in the prescription of surplices, copes and the covering of tables. The inventory of his goods made at his death records a large number of portraits of royalty, Tudor politicians and historical persons, but also a few of those permitted religious narratives that survived the Reformation, such as the Story of Esther.

Parker was a significant benefactor to his college, Corpus Christi, Cambridge (of which university he was Vice-chancellor in the 1540s). He paid for repairs to Corpus Christi’s building fabric and for construction of a gallery running south from the master’s lodge (destr. 1820s, during the building of New Court). He also gave his college many manuscripts and books; these he had gathered together in an effort to retrieve something of the great collections dispersed after the dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s. Several pieces of Corpus Christi’s present collection of plate were also given by him, including a tankard, commissioned in ...


Angela Delaforce

(b ?1540; d Paris, 1611).

Spanish collector, writer and administrator. He was the illegitimate son of the scholarly priest Gonzalo Pérez, Secretary of State to Philip II from 1556 until his death in 1566. Antonio Pérez received an intensive education at the universities of Alcalá, Leuven, Padua and Salamanca. In his Relaciones he later wrote that his love of Italian art and culture had developed during his early visits to Italy, in particular to Venice, in the 1550s, when he met Titian. Pérez’s rapid rise to power began in 1566, when he became Secretary to Philip II. A brilliant and astute politician, in February 1568 he was made Secretary of State for the affairs of Spain in southern Europe.

The inventory of his collection (Delaforce), dated 21 May 1585, lists 127 paintings from his luxurious country house, La Casilla (1573), now the convent of S Isabel, at that time on the outskirts of Madrid. The inventory vividly describes the interior decoration of La Casilla, with its fashionable furniture, Italian state beds and rich hangings, and also the display of the paintings. The collection was exceptional for a Spanish private collection of this date due to the large number of Italian paintings and the high proportion of mythological subjects. Many of the paintings were diplomatic and political gifts, such as those by ...


Andreas Stolzenburg

(b Eichstätt, Dec 5, 1470; d Nuremberg, Dec 22, 1530).

German humanist and writer. From 1478 to 1488 he was tutored and prepared for university by his father, Johann Pirckheimer (c. 1440–1501), who himself had had a humanist education. After a period of courtly and military instruction in Eichstätt (c. 1488–9), he studied jurisprudence in Italy (1489–95). During this time he pursued humanist studies and began to take an interest in art and antique architecture, as shown by a sketchbook with drawings after Roman monuments and antique inscriptions (London, BL, Cod. Egerton 1926). On his return to Germany he became a member of Nuremberg council, on which he served almost continuously from 1496 until 1523; it was at his instigation that the council founded a school of poetry in 1496. Pirckheimer and his wife lived in Nuremberg at Hauptmarkt 19, just across from the Schöner Brunnen, where they played host to the most learned men of the day, humanists, artists and historians alike. In ...


Celia Carrington Riely

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Tung Ch’i-ch’ang; zi Xuanzai; hao Sibo, Siweng, Xiangguang, Xiangguang jushi; Wenmin]

(b Shanghai, Feb 10, 1555; d Dec 1636).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector, and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from 1571 Dong resolved to study calligraphy in earnest. His initial models were rubbings of works by the Tang-period (618–907 ce) calligraphers Yan Zhenqing and Yu Shinan (558–638), but soon realizing the superior merits of the Six Dynasties (222–589 ce) calligraphers, he turned to the works of Zhong You (151–230 ce) and the great Wang Xizhi (see Wang family (i), (1)). After three years he was confident of having grasped their style, and no longer admired works by the Ming-period (...


Donata Battilotti

(d Verona, May 8, 1550).

Italian humanist, historian and patron. He was the author of the first printed book on the history and antiquities of Verona, published in 1540, with woodcuts after drawings by Giovanni Battista Caroto that are still extant (Verona, Bib. Civ.). De origine et amplitudine civitatis Veronae, written in Latin, takes the form of a conversation between members of a group of Veronese humanists including, apart from the author, Giacomo Villafranca and Giovanni Nicola Capella, and the artist Giovanni Battista Caroto. Caroto is given the task of providing technical information on the monuments that are the subject of the second book, which he himself had illustrated.

De origine was the first complete catalogue of Veronese antiquities, from the most prominent, such as the Arena, to miscellaneous remains such as displaced capitals. Also worthy of note are the Latin inscriptions, of which the author must have possessed a collection. The measurements are minute, and the monuments (except for the Arena) are completely reconstructed in the illustrations. Each is placed chronologically in relation to the salient moments of Roman history, and due recognition is given to the architects....