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Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Alava, c. 1480; d Salamanca, Sept 3, 1537).

Spanish architect. After an initial training in Burgos, an important centre of Gothic architecture towards the end of the 15th century, he moved to Salamanca, where his patrons included Alonso de Fonseca, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela and Patriarch of Alexandria, and subsequently his son, Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela and then of Toledo. Alava worked during a period of transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance style and made a synthesis of the two that was not entirely successful. Even his late churches have a Gothic structure, with rib vaults and buttresses terminating in pinnacles. His façades are embellished with early Renaissance motifs, such as friezes, grotesques and medallion busts. In his use of the orders, he was notably uninhibited by conventional forms and proportions. In 1505 Alava built the sacristy for the chapel of Salamanca University, and he may have contributed to the university façade (...

Article

Emma Packer

(b ?London, c. 1470; d ?London, 1532).

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir Hugh Bryce (d 1496), Court Goldsmith to Henry VIII. In 1524 Amadas became the first working goldsmith to become Master of the Jewel House to Henry VIII, an office he retained until 1532, supplying spangles, wire and ribbons to the court. In the 1520s his orders included a large amount of plate for gifts to foreign ambassadors; he also supplied a number of New Year’s gifts for the court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was one of Amadas’ most important clients, and Amadas supplied him with a number of lavish objects. Other clients included ...

Article

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

Spanish family of architects. Juan de Badajoz (i) (b ?Badajoz; d León, 31 Aug 1522) probably came from the region of Extremadura. He worked in León virtually all his life, and his works are exclusively Late Gothic in style. In 1498 he was appointed master builder of León Cathedral, where his most individual work was the chapter library (1505; now St James’s Chapel), an extremely flamboyant example of the Gothic style. In 1508 he was called to Oviedo Cathedral to design the elegant tower (executed by local builders). In 1513 he replaced the semicircular presbytery of the Romanesque church of S Isidoro el Real, León, with a rectangular chapel of more ample proportions, and similar in style to his cathedral library. His son Juan de Badajoz (ii) [el Mozo] (b León, c. 1498; d León, c. 1560) assisted him at León Cathedral, and succeeded him as chief master builder in ...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

[Master of the Halepagen Altar]

(b Lübeck, c. 1460; d Hamburg, 1528).

German Late Gothic painter. His Lübeck origins are demonstrated stylistically in his contribution to the altar of the Lübeck Corpus Christi Brotherhood (1496; Lübeck, St Annen-Mus.). In 1499 he probably married a woman previously married, in succession, to Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Absalon Stumme (fl c. 1486–98): this enabled him to become established in Hamburg as a workshop proprietor. Both Stumme and his wife’s son Henrik Bornemann died that year. Dedeke’s first task was therefore to complete their work on the wings of the St Luke altar for the Jakobikirche in Hamburg. He was accepted into the painters’ guild in 1500: in 1502 he became master of the Brotherhood of St Thomas. After his second surviving altarpiece in Hamburg, for the Company of Fishers (1508; Jakobikirche), he probably remained the leading artist of Hamburg until his death.

Dedeke’s style remained basically unchanged from the Corpus Christi altar. Of this now incomplete double-winged altarpiece, with a carved shrine by ...

Article

M. C. Lacarra Ducay

(fl 1487–1510).

Spanish painter. He worked in Navarre and Aragon. His paintings, in oil on panel, show the influence of northern European Gothic acquired through his contact with Castilian and Aragonese painters, although German engravings, such as those by Martin Schongauer, were also a source of inspiration. He painted highly expressive and dramatic religious scenes, using brilliant colour and gold applied over stucco in relief as decoration for the haloes and clothing of the sacred figures.

Pedro Díaz de Oviedo executed the high altar retable of the Colegiata, Tudela, with Diego del Aguila. Completed in 1494, it depicts scenes from the Life of St Mary, the patron saint of the church. Also in Navarre is the altarpiece of St Mark in the church of the Virgen del Romero, Cascante, finished in 1510, which shows signs of artistic decline. His works in Aragon, for example the altarpieces of St James the Greater (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....

Article

Cristiano Tessari

In 

Article

Corine Schleif

(fl 1490; d Schwabach, nr Nuremberg, Jan 1509).

German sculptor and architect. He was a leading sculptor of the final phase of the Late Gothic period in Germany. His many works in stone, which range from monumental sculptures for public places to decorative ornaments for private residences, were commissioned primarily by Nuremberg patrons, between 1490 and 1509. Most of these works remain in the city although only a small number are still in situ.

Kraft’s origin, training and early experience are conjectural. It has been suggested that he was born in Nuremberg and first worked as a stonemason’s apprentice on the architectural decoration of the hall choir of St Lorenz. Several widely scattered monuments have been postulated as evidence of his work as a journeyman, including the eucharistic tabernacle in Ulm Minster (1464–71), Hans Hammer’s pulpit in Strasbourg Cathedral and the monuments for Archbishop Dieter von Isenburg and Adalbert von Sachsen (d 1484) in Mainz Cathedral....

Article

Dill; Dillmann; Thilman; Till]

(b Heiligenstadt, c. 1460; d Würzburg, July 7, 1531).

German sculptor. He was one of the most outstanding representatives of the last generation of Gothic sculptors in southern Germany, and one of the most fully documented medieval sculptors.

Tilman’s father, Tilman Riemenschneider the elder (d 1483), was a master of the mint, and lived with his family at Osterode in the Harz mountains. Tilman Riemenschneider the younger possibly trained first as a stone sculptor in Erfurt, specializing in alabaster, and then travelled as a journeyman to the south-west of Germany. Elements in his work suggest that he spent time in Strasbourg and Trier and then went to Ulm, where he was apprenticed to Michel Erhart. Riemenschneider’s name appears in the Würzburg records before 1479, when he turned down a commission for an altarpiece. He settled there in 1483 and on 28 February 1485 became a citizen and a member of the painters’ Guild of St Luke, receiving the title ‘Meister’; he married Anna Schmidt in the same year....

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

(d 1590).

Netherlandish architect, active in Sweden. He worked from 1566 until his death at Vadstena Castle, on the shore of Lake Vättern, where he added a third storey to the main building and the Gothic church that occupies the central tower. A drawing of the castle made in 1637 was probably based on a design (now lost) prepared by de Roy during the reign of King John III (reg 1568–92), which is mentioned in the castle accounts of 1587. This depicts the castle as it appeared when finally completed: a long single three-storey block with decorated gables, a high central tower and a single lower tower at either end, each crowned with a lantern in the Dutch Renaissance style. The church in the central tower is emphasized by its tall Gothic windows, which contrast with the rectangular windows in the rest of the building. The French character of the castle, epitomized by the arrangement of the originally pavilion-like central tower with flanking wings, and by the sculptured decoration by ...

Article

Cristiano Tessari

Spanish family of master masons and architects. They were active in Andalusia throughout the 16th century, their work spanning the transition from Late Gothic to the Plateresque style and beyond. Hernán Ruiz I el viejo (b Burgos; d Córdoba, 1558) drew up the original plans for inserting the cathedral into the Great Mosque at Córdoba, although his scheme was later altered, and work was completed only in 1607; he also supervised the work on the capilla mayor and transepts (see Córdoba §3, (i), (b)). In the 1550s he oversaw the work then being carried out on Málaga Cathedral by Diego de Vergara (d 1582; see Málaga).

Cristiano Tessari

(b Córdoba, c. 1500; d Seville, April 20, 1569).

The son of Hernán Ruiz I, in 1530 he was publicly admitted to the profession of aparejador (clerk of works) in Córdoba, and in 1532...

Article

Daniel Kletke

(b c. 1450; d 1527).

German goldsmith and architect. He was one of the most important goldsmiths in Augsburg during the transitional period from Late Gothic to Renaissance and worked there as an independent master after 1478, receiving commissions for both secular and ecclesiastical works. From 1486 he was employed by the convent of SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg, and he gained particular renown for the conservation of old goldsmith’s works including the abbey’s Romanesque croziers. Interestingly, some of his pieces echo Romanesque as well as 15th-century forms. Such commissions as an architectural model (1498) for the Prince-Bishop of Brixen and a silver figure of the Virgin for Mariae Himmelfahrt, Kaisheim, may account for his increasing fame. Notable is the portable altar from Eichstätt (1492; Munich, Schloss Nymphenburg) with a cycle of engravings and statuettes depicting St Willibald and other saints. The character of the engravings has been linked to the works of Hans Holbein the elder (Fritz). Seld’s extensive travels in ...

Article

[Hanns]

(b ?Regensburg, ?1448; d ?Regensburg, ?1518).

German sculptor. He was the most important Late Gothic sculptor in Salzburg, where he was granted citizenship on 18 October 1479. Despite his probable origins in Regensburg (Martin Valkenauer, his father (?), is documented in 1465 in Regensburg), he worked in a tradition of tomb sculpture found in Salzburg, Wiener Neustadt, and Vienna. The artists who influenced him most were Master E. S. and Nicolaus Gerhaert.

Valkenauer’s first tomb slab was that of Lukas Lamprechtshauser (shortly before 1480; Regensburg, St Blasius). The figures of the Virgin and saints are developed using the whole space between the background and the projecting canopy. The same is true of the figures on two epitaphs: that of Kunz Horn (c. 1502; Nuremberg, St Lorenz), where the enthroned Christ is surrounded by angels of different sizes and adored by Horn and his wife, and the Keutschach epitaph (Maria Saal, Pilgrimage Church). Similarities between the head of God the Father on both these epitaphs and the limewood reliquary bust of ...

Article

Fernando Marías

(b c. 1450; d before 1515).

Spanish architect. He appears to have been trained in the Late Gothic tradition established by Juan Guas and Enrique Egas, and he was the first to introduce Renaissance motifs into Spanish architecture. There is, however, no evidence that he trained in Italy, or that he travelled to Florence and Rome with the Embassy of Iñigo López de Mendoza, 2nd Conde de Tendilla, as has been suggested. Italian elements in Vázquez’s work could have been derived from information provided by clients, for instance in the form of drawings. Vázquez is first documented in Valladolid (1490); his patron was Pedro González de Mendoza, the Cardinal of Santa Cruz. In 1491 he became Master of Works to the Cardinal (working with Alberto de Carvajal, who was in Valladolid from 1488 to 1493). Vázquez planned the chapel altarpiece for the Cardinal’s foundation, the Colegio Mayor de Santa Cruz, Valladolid, before June 1494...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....