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Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Alava, c. 1480; d Salamanca, Sept 3, 1537).

Spanish architect. After an initial training in Burgos, an important centre of Gothic architecture towards the end of the 15th century, he moved to Salamanca, where his patrons included Alonso de Fonseca, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela and Patriarch of Alexandria, and subsequently his son, Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo, Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela and then of Toledo. Alava worked during a period of transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance style and made a synthesis of the two that was not entirely successful. Even his late churches have a Gothic structure, with rib vaults and buttresses terminating in pinnacles. His façades are embellished with early Renaissance motifs, such as friezes, grotesques and medallion busts. In his use of the orders, he was notably uninhibited by conventional forms and proportions. In 1505 Alava built the sacristy for the chapel of Salamanca University, and he may have contributed to the university façade (...


Emma Packer

(b ?London, c. 1470; d ?London, 1532).

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir Hugh Bryce (d 1496), Court Goldsmith to Henry VIII. In 1524 Amadas became the first working goldsmith to become Master of the Jewel House to Henry VIII, an office he retained until 1532, supplying spangles, wire and ribbons to the court. In the 1520s his orders included a large amount of plate for gifts to foreign ambassadors; he also supplied a number of New Year’s gifts for the court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was one of Amadas’ most important clients, and Amadas supplied him with a number of lavish objects. Other clients included ...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

Spanish family of architects. Juan de Badajoz (i) (b ?Badajoz; d León, 31 Aug 1522) probably came from the region of Extremadura. He worked in León virtually all his life, and his works are exclusively Late Gothic in style. In 1498 he was appointed master builder of León Cathedral, where his most individual work was the chapter library (1505; now St James’s Chapel), an extremely flamboyant example of the Gothic style. In 1508 he was called to Oviedo Cathedral to design the elegant tower (executed by local builders). In 1513 he replaced the semicircular presbytery of the Romanesque church of S Isidoro el Real, León, with a rectangular chapel of more ample proportions, and similar in style to his cathedral library. His son Juan de Badajoz (ii) [el Mozo] (b León, c. 1498; d León, c. 1560) assisted him at León Cathedral, and succeeded him as chief master builder in ...


K. A. Ottenheym

Castle in Breda, north Brabant, Netherlands. It is one of the first examples of monumental Renaissance architecture in the Netherlands, constructed at a time (1530s) when large buildings there were still dominated by the Late Gothic style from Brabant. A fortress had stood on the site since the 13th century. In 1515–21 Count Henry III of Nassau (1483–1538) commissioned a gallery on the curtain wall and a portal, both with ornate pediments (destr.), which was the first known piece of Renaissance architecture in the Netherlands. In 1536 Henry initiated more thoroughgoing alterations, with the intention of replacing the Gothic castle with a modern palace. The design comprised a rectangular layout around a large courtyard overlooked by an arcade. From the courtyard a stately, covered double staircase led to the double-height great hall on the first floor, which occupied the entire west wing. The ground floor below this hall was originally an open hall of columns. This design was finally completed in ...


Hans Georg Gmelin

[Master of the Halepagen Altar]

(b Lübeck, c. 1460; d Hamburg, 1528).

German Late Gothic painter. His Lübeck origins are demonstrated stylistically in his contribution to the altar of the Lübeck Corpus Christi Brotherhood (1496; Lübeck, St Annen-Mus.). In 1499 he probably married a woman previously married, in succession, to Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Absalon Stumme (fl c. 1486–98): this enabled him to become established in Hamburg as a workshop proprietor. Both Stumme and his wife’s son Henrik Bornemann died that year. Dedeke’s first task was therefore to complete their work on the wings of the St Luke altar for the Jakobikirche in Hamburg. He was accepted into the painters’ guild in 1500: in 1502 he became master of the Brotherhood of St Thomas. After his second surviving altarpiece in Hamburg, for the Company of Fishers (1508; Jakobikirche), he probably remained the leading artist of Hamburg until his death.

Dedeke’s style remained basically unchanged from the Corpus Christi altar. Of this now incomplete double-winged altarpiece, with a carved shrine by ...


M. C. Lacarra Ducay

(fl 1487–1510).

Spanish painter. He worked in Navarre and Aragon. His paintings, in oil on panel, show the influence of northern European Gothic acquired through his contact with Castilian and Aragonese painters, although German engravings, such as those by Martin Schongauer, were also a source of inspiration. He painted highly expressive and dramatic religious scenes, using brilliant colour and gold applied over stucco in relief as decoration for the haloes and clothing of the sacred figures.

Pedro Díaz de Oviedo executed the high altar retable of the Colegiata, Tudela, with Diego del Aguila. Completed in 1494, it depicts scenes from the Life of St Mary, the patron saint of the church. Also in Navarre is the altarpiece of St Mark in the church of the Virgen del Romero, Cascante, finished in 1510, which shows signs of artistic decline. His works in Aragon, for example the altarpieces of St James the Greater (...


Virginia Jansen

Town in Bavaria, Germany. A Hohenstaufen possession, it was a free imperial city by the 13th century, and in the 1370s the walls were expanded to their present extent. The parish church of St Georg, one of the most famous Late Gothic, south German hall churches, dominates the town at the main crossroads; its south side, facing the old Town Hall and cemetery, was originally the show side. Civic pride is evident in the building, symbols of the bakers’ and coopers’ guilds in the east window demonstrating the importance of the guilds, which shared power with the patrician families from the late 14th century.

The earliest known church on the site of St Georg was built in the 12th century. The existing west tower was added c. 1220–30, and in the second half of the 14th century the church was expanded to include a six-bay nave of nearly the same dimensions as the present one and a single-aisled choir terminating in a five-sided apse. The present church, slightly off the axis of its predecessor, was founded in ...


(b ?Andernach; fl 1590s; d before 1598).

German carpenter and copyist. He made a craftsman’s copybook (Cologne, Hist. Archv, Hs. Wfo. 276*) that reproduced important verbal and graphic evidence on particular design techniques of Late Gothic master masons in Germany. He included a few biographical details, such as variant spellings of his name and the fact that he was known in his home town of Andernach as Jacob Keul. On one page of architectural drawings he wrote, ‘Drawn in Vienna in the year 1593’, and on another, ‘Drawn in Breslau in Silesia in 1593’. By 1596 he had returned to Andernach and inscribed one of his drawings accordingly. The Andernach archives have revealed that he was the son of Jacob Keul, who may also have been a carpenter. In 1596 the younger Jacob Keul was paid from the accounts of the Watch and Artillery Master for working with several other carpenters at the ‘stone lodge on the Rhine’ (Koblenz, Landeshauptarchv, MS. 612. III. H. 4, fasc. 5, p. 215). In ...


Stephen Murray

Architectural term referring to the sinuous, flickering patterns found in French tracery from the 14th century to the early 16th. By extension, it has come to designate French Late Gothic architecture in general, thus corresponding to English Perpendicular and German Spätgotik (‘Late Gothic’) or Sondergotik. The term appears to have come into general usage in the 19th century in the writings of Jules Michelet and Louis Gonse, among others.

The sinuous lines of Flamboyant may have resulted automatically from the juxtaposition of geometric forms, seen, for example, in the mid-13th-century transept rose windows of Notre-Dame, Paris, and in the choir of St Urbain, Troyes, or they may be derived from Islamic architectural motifs. Flamboyant tracery patterns are formed of three basic shapes, which began to appear in the second half of the 13th century: the tightly pointed ogee arch, the tadpole-shaped mouchette, and the leaf-shaped soufflet. Unlike geometric tracery, the arcs of these motifs were struck from multiple centres, placed outside as well as inside the unit. The use of such rigorously conceived window tracery in France was delayed until the end of the 14th century (e.g. in the western nave chapels of ...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....


Howard Colvin

Term used to describe the survival of Gothic architecture in western Europe, a phenomenon that was more widespread and more prolonged than is generally recognized. Interested in the first manifestations of a new style rather than the last recurrences of an old one, architectural historians have tended to pay too little attention to the persistence of Gothic forms alongside those introduced in the Renaissance. What are often seen as isolated anachronisms prove on investigation to be so numerous and so widespread as to represent an alternative tradition that cannot be dismissed as of no significance. In any case, in northern Europe the assimilation of the Renaissance was a long-drawn-out process that was not fully accomplished until the latter part of the 17th century. Until then much new building, especially in rural areas, was basically medieval in form, though often with classical details added, such as doorways and altarpieces. Each country clung to some different feature from the past that had become too deeply embedded in its architectural consciousness (or sub-consciousness) to be easily dispensed with: in France it was the high-pitched roof sustained by an intricate mass of carpentry; in northern Germany the stepped gable; in England the battlemented parapet; in Scotland the fortified tower-house; in Spain the frenetic elaboration of decoration that, when classicized, became the ...


José María Azcárate Ristori

Former aristocratic residence in the town of Guadalajara in Castile, Spain. The Palacio del Infantado is a fine example of the Hispano-Flemish style (‘Isabelline’) style, showing a harmonious blend of Mudéjar and Flamboyant Gothic forms. It belonged to the House of Mendoza, the most influential family in Castile at the time of Queen Isabella (reg 1474–1504). The family had settled in Guadalajara in the 14th century, and it is recorded that Pedro González de Mendoza (d 1385) finished building his houses there in 1376. The old palace was renovated by the humanist Don Iñigo Lopez de Mendoza, Marques de Santillana, and was decorated with works of art imported from the Netherlands; travellers such as Baron Rosmital (1466) recorded that it was magnificently furnished. This palace was demolished by the 2nd Duque del Infantado, Don Iñigo Lopez de Mendoza, and construction of the present building was begun in ...


Cristiano Tessari



Term for a style of German architecture in which Gothic-style details are imposed on Renaissance buildings. The name derives from Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1545–1617), Bishop of Würzburg, who, in his efforts on behalf of the Counter-Reformation, developed a taste for the earlier architecture of the faith. Examples of the style include the small rose window (...


Corine Schleif

(fl 1490; d Schwabach, nr Nuremberg, Jan 1509).

German sculptor and architect. He was a leading sculptor of the final phase of the Late Gothic period in Germany. His many works in stone, which range from monumental sculptures for public places to decorative ornaments for private residences, were commissioned primarily by Nuremberg patrons, between 1490 and 1509. Most of these works remain in the city although only a small number are still in situ.

Kraft’s origin, training and early experience are conjectural. It has been suggested that he was born in Nuremberg and first worked as a stonemason’s apprentice on the architectural decoration of the hall choir of St Lorenz. Several widely scattered monuments have been postulated as evidence of his work as a journeyman, including the eucharistic tabernacle in Ulm Minster (1464–71), Hans Hammer’s pulpit in Strasbourg Cathedral and the monuments for Archbishop Dieter von Isenburg and Adalbert von Sachsen (d 1484) in Mainz Cathedral....


Jan Białostocki

[Ger. Spätgotik]

Term used to describe the last stage of development of medieval art in western and central Europe. An organic connection with the traditions of Early Gothic and High Gothic is implied, yet at the same time the specific character of the period is stressed. The chronological limits and dominant features of the style are variously defined, according to the criteria adopted by different historians.

The concept of Gothic was originally formulated as a quite general and negative description of medieval architecture. It was during the early 19th century that concepts about medieval architecture were clarified, and the divisions into Romanesque, Gothic, and Late Gothic were defined, later to be applied to painting and the other arts. The concept of Spätgotik was elaborated by German art and architectural historians, who held a leading position in art-historical studies of the late 19th century and early 20th. Late Gothic assumed an important place in German art history because of the outstanding contribution made by Germanic countries to the art and architecture of the late medieval period. Here also the term was originally used to refer to architectural history, but the tendency to establish a unified general picture of art-historical development in Europe broadened the concept of Late Gothic so that it was also applied to the figurative and decorative arts....


Francis Woodman

Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th (see Gothic, §II, 2). The term, devised by Thomas Rickman, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen’s Chapel (after 1292) in the Palace of Westminster (see London, §V, 3, (i), (a)). The essence of Perpendicular is regularity: straight lines or crystalline shapes, a thin and transparent structure exploiting stained glass on the inner surface, monochrome building materials, modular repetition, and a fineness of detail almost approaching preciousness. Regional variations are apparent after c. 1420, and contrasting styles competed for royal attention in court circles. Harvey (1978) saw Perpendicular as a quintessentially English, Plantagenet style that ended in its pure form with the advent of the Tudors in 1485. Other scholars, however, extend this to include such works as ...


Fernando Marías

[Sp. plateresco, from platero, ‘silversmith’]

Term used to describe the elaborately decorated Late Gothic and early Renaissance architecture of 16th-century Spain. Its characteristically florid decoration employs motifs derived from Gothic, Italian Renaissance and Islamic sources and tends to mask the structure it adorns. The term is also applied, more generally, to the decorative arts of the same period. The comparison between sculpture and architectural decoration and gold- or silverwork in terms of style and skill was commonplace in Spanish literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, including art criticism (from Cristóbal de Villalón in 1539 to Lope de Vega). Contemporary authors did not distinguish between architectural decoration and embroidery or filigree work; there is no reference to specific decorative motifs, only to general forms of handicraft. The term was apparently first used in an anonymous drawing (c. 1580) for the decoration of a frieze in the chapter house of Seville Cathedral. The term ...


Dill; Dillmann; Thilman; Till]

(b Heiligenstadt, c. 1460; d Würzburg, July 7, 1531).

German sculptor. He was one of the most outstanding representatives of the last generation of Gothic sculptors in southern Germany, and one of the most fully documented medieval sculptors.

Tilman’s father, Tilman Riemenschneider the elder (d 1483), was a master of the mint, and lived with his family at Osterode in the Harz mountains. Tilman Riemenschneider the younger possibly trained first as a stone sculptor in Erfurt, specializing in alabaster, and then travelled as a journeyman to the south-west of Germany. Elements in his work suggest that he spent time in Strasbourg and Trier and then went to Ulm, where he was apprenticed to Michel Erhart. Riemenschneider’s name appears in the Würzburg records before 1479, when he turned down a commission for an altarpiece. He settled there in 1483 and on 28 February 1485 became a citizen and a member of the painters’ Guild of St Luke, receiving the title ‘Meister’; he married Anna Schmidt in the same year....


Torbjörn Fulton

(d 1590).

Netherlandish architect, active in Sweden. He worked from 1566 until his death at Vadstena Castle, on the shore of Lake Vättern, where he added a third storey to the main building and the Gothic church that occupies the central tower. A drawing of the castle made in 1637 was probably based on a design (now lost) prepared by de Roy during the reign of King John III (reg 1568–92), which is mentioned in the castle accounts of 1587. This depicts the castle as it appeared when finally completed: a long single three-storey block with decorated gables, a high central tower and a single lower tower at either end, each crowned with a lantern in the Dutch Renaissance style. The church in the central tower is emphasized by its tall Gothic windows, which contrast with the rectangular windows in the rest of the building. The French character of the castle, epitomized by the arrangement of the originally pavilion-like central tower with flanking wings, and by the sculptured decoration by ...