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Marjorie Trusted

(b ?Palencia, 1488–93; d ?Palencia, after 1561).

Spanish sculptor. He is first recorded assisting Giralte de Bruselas (fl 1511–23) on the retable of the high altar of Oviedo Cathedral from 1516 to 1518 and is documented as carving one of the reliefs, the Incredulity of Thomas. In 1519 Balmaseda completed a Calvary group to surmount Felipe Vigarny’s retable in Palencia Cathedral. Late Gothic in style, the expressionistic figures are fine examples of the anti-classical tradition that continued late into the 16th century in Spanish sculpture. The angular folds of drapery and twisted locks of hair are characteristic of Balmaseda’s work. Connected to this group stylistically are a Crucifixion group completed for León Cathedral and a pair of figures of the Mater dolorosa and St John (Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano), for all of which no dates are known. In 1520 Balmaseda was in Burgos, where he was influenced by the work of Diego de Siloe, and where wooden reliefs on the doors of the Hospital del Rey have been attributed to him. Between about ...


Vincent Mayr

[Beirlin; Beuerlein; Beurlin; Päuerlin; Peierlin; Peuerlin; Peurlin]

German family of sculptors. Liedke (1987) has established that there were three Augsburg sculptors of the same name, of whom Hans Beierlein the elder (c. 1460–1508) was the most important. He probably took over the workshop of his father, Hanns Peurlin (b c. 1436; d 1482), who made the monument (1467) for Cardinal Petrus of Schaumberg in Augsburg Cathedral. Hans Beierlein the younger (d 1523–4) became a master craftsman in 1511 and made several tomb slabs in Augsburg.

Like such Late Gothic sculptors as Conrat Sifer, Veit Stoss and Adam Kraft, towards the end of the 15th century Hans Beierlein the elder showed renewed interest in the monumentality of stone, as opposed to the freedom for carving provided by wood. The durability of stone represented an association with the eternity of death, commemorated by tomb slabs. Beierlein in particular favoured the precious surface of polished red marble. His mark appears on several tomb slabs: those of ...


Fernando Marías

(b Torrijos, Toledo, 1488; d Toledo, May 11, 1570).

Spanish architect and sculptor. Recognized as an innovator by his contemporaries, he was one of the most important members of the first generation of Spanish Renaissance architects, who proved able to develop from the Gothic and plateresque styles prevalent in the first decades of the 16th century to the purest unornamented style ultimately inspired by Sebastiano Serlio. His artistic evolution was not the result of a direct knowledge of Italian art but was acquired from the treatise literature and from the suggestions of other Spanish architects who, unlike him, had travelled to Italy.

He probably trained in Torrijos with Antón Egas, to whose niece he was married; he was first documented with Egas in Salamanca in 1510. Later, as a master mason, Covarrubias attended, as did Egas, the Expertise in Salamanca (1512) to plan the new cathedral. He collaborated on the execution of tombs for Toledo Cathedral and for the church of S Andrés, Toledo (...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


Vincent Mayr

German family of artists. In the late 15th century and the 16th three generations of the family were active as cabinetmakers, sculptors, painters and masons in Konstanz. Simon Haider (d c. 1480) was the most important employer of craftsmen in Konstanz, and his workshop executed commissions for the cathedral. Haider himself prepared the central panel of the high altar (1465; destr.), for which Nicolaus Gerhaert prepared the figure sculptures. The workshop also executed the choir-stalls (stylistic evidence suggests that Gerhaert may have been the designer) and the main doorway (1470), which has 20 reliefs with scenes from the Life of Christ derived from various sources. Haider’s two sons, Hans Haider (d 1519) and Andreas Haider (i), worked with him, and the sculptors Hans Heckel and Heinrich Iselin were his sons-in-law.

Hans Haider, who became a citizen in 1474, remained in the workshop until his father’s death: he is mentioned as independent from ...



Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...


Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


Corine Schleif

(fl 1490; d Schwabach, nr Nuremberg, Jan 1509).

German sculptor and architect. He was a leading sculptor of the final phase of the Late Gothic period in Germany. His many works in stone, which range from monumental sculptures for public places to decorative ornaments for private residences, were commissioned primarily by Nuremberg patrons, between 1490 and 1509. Most of these works remain in the city although only a small number are still in situ.

Kraft’s origin, training and early experience are conjectural. It has been suggested that he was born in Nuremberg and first worked as a stonemason’s apprentice on the architectural decoration of the hall choir of St Lorenz. Several widely scattered monuments have been postulated as evidence of his work as a journeyman, including the eucharistic tabernacle in Ulm Minster (1464–71), Hans Hammer’s pulpit in Strasbourg Cathedral and the monuments for Archbishop Dieter von Isenburg and Adalbert von Sachsen (d 1484) in Mainz Cathedral....


Lon R. Shelby

(b c. 1460; d after 1516).

German architect, sculptor, and military engineer.

On 23 June 1489 the Milan City Council rejected a recommendation from Simon Brunus, German, that ‘Master Laurentius, engineer’ should come to Milan for the task of completing the tiburium (?ciborium, baldacchino) for the cathedral. It has generally been thought that this letter referred to Lorenz Lechler, for on 25 August 1489 the City Council of Esslingen (near Stuttgart) also recommended Lechler to the Milanese for the completion of their cathedral. Lechler had constructed the sacrament house and choir-screen for St Dionysius, Esslingen, and he was commended to the Milanese for his ‘ingenuity, industry, and art’.

Circumstantial evidence suggests that Lechler may have been involved with the construction of the sacrament house and choir-screen at Speyer Cathedral in the late 1490s. In 1509 he was called back to Speyer to supervise the completion of the Mount of Olives located just outside and south of the cathedral nave, which had been begun by ...


Alison Stones

Legends and myths in medieval art are often symbolic rather than narrative, appearing as isolated representations on monuments and portable objects and following the tradition of Greek vase painting where individual subjects are depicted and rely on prior knowledge of the stories for recognition and understanding. World histories celebrated great heroes of the past, starting with Creation and biblical history, then the ancient and medieval world with the exploits of the Trojan heroes, Alexander the Great, King Arthur and the campaigns of Charlemagne and his nephew Roland. Northern gods such as Thor were depicted in cult statues (c. 1000; Reykjavík, N. Mus.) or through such ornamental hammers as those from north Jutland in the Copenhagen Nationalmuseum, and Freya, head of the Valkyries, was painted riding a cat on the walls of Schleswig Cathedral.

The Fall of Troy is most celebrated in the early 13th-century copy of Heinrich von Veldecke’s ...


M. Fernanda Morón de Castro

(fl Seville, 1487; d before 1526).

Spanish sculptor and wood-carver. He was trained by Nufro Sánchez, one of the artists responsible for the choir-stalls in Seville Cathedral. Millán is documented as working on the high altar retable of Seville Cathedral in 1507–8, where two scenes depicting the Meeting of Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate and the Birth of the Virgin can be attributed to him. The only earliest known work in wood attributed to him is the statue of St Agnes on the portal of S Inés, Seville. Although he was a good wood-carver, Millán is better known for his work in polychrome terracotta. The signed archivolt prophets on the baptism portal of the west façade of Seville Cathedral show that he was influenced by Lorenzo Mercadante, who had earlier worked there. Other works by Millán in polychrome terracotta, made for the chapel of S Laureano in Seville Cathedral, are a Man of Sorrows...


Marlene Strauss-Zykan

(b c. 1450; d Vienna, July–Sept 1515).

Moravian architect and sculptor. It is assumed that he was descended from a family of masons from Brno in Moravia, traceable to the 14th century. He probably received his main training in the Vienna masons’ lodge. Afterwards he worked on the choir of the Kilianskirche (begun 1482), Heilbronn, Swabia, which was modelled on the choir of the main parish church in Steyr, Upper Austria, attributed to Hans Puchspaum. The miniature architectural motifs of the tabernacle and the choir-stall canopies (1482–7) in the Kilianskirche are free interpretations of those at Steyr. There are also notable similarities between the Kilianskirche tabernacle and Pilgram’s later pulpit in the Stephansdom, Vienna, such as the use of intersecting ogee arches; but in the earlier work foliate motifs predominate over abstract. Pilgram’s first known sculptural work also appears on the tabernacle: the caryatid figures in the superstructure are the earliest of a series of similar supporting figures attributed to him; they have been interpreted as representing itinerant mason, master and apprentice. Their distinct facial characteristics adumbrate Pilgram’s late self-portrait on the organ base in the Stephansdom....



Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...


Dill; Dillmann; Thilman; Till]

(b Heiligenstadt, c. 1460; d Würzburg, July 7, 1531).

German sculptor. He was one of the most outstanding representatives of the last generation of Gothic sculptors in southern Germany, and one of the most fully documented medieval sculptors.

Tilman’s father, Tilman Riemenschneider the elder (d 1483), was a master of the mint, and lived with his family at Osterode in the Harz mountains. Tilman Riemenschneider the younger possibly trained first as a stone sculptor in Erfurt, specializing in alabaster, and then travelled as a journeyman to the south-west of Germany. Elements in his work suggest that he spent time in Strasbourg and Trier and then went to Ulm, where he was apprenticed to Michel Erhart. Riemenschneider’s name appears in the Würzburg records before 1479, when he turned down a commission for an altarpiece. He settled there in 1483 and on 28 February 1485 became a citizen and a member of the painters’ Guild of St Luke, receiving the title ‘Meister’; he married Anna Schmidt in the same year....


Louise S. Milne

[Jean de Bruxelles]

(fl 1498–1521).

South Netherlandish painter and designer of tapestry cartoons, stained-glass windows, and sculpture. He is first documented in 1498, as a Brother of Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows, and later became court painter at Mechelen and Brussels to Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Spanish Netherlands. Jan’s widely imitated tapestry designs, filled with graceful, melancholic figures set in a mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance architecture, helped to create a uniform style in Brussels tapestries in the first quarter of the 16th century. The basis for attributing tapestries to Jan, or his workshop, is the documented series of the Story of Herkinbald (Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.), which was made for the Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament at Leuven and for the design for which Jan was paid 2.5 Rhenish guilders and some wine in 1513. His collaborators were the painter ‘Philips’ [Maître Phillipe] and the weaver ‘...


[Feyt; Veydt; Vit; Wit]

(b Horb am Neckar, c. 1445–50; d Nuremberg, c. Sept 20, 1533).

German sculptor, engraver, and painter. His work covers the period overlapping the Late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance. He is one of the best-documented and most significant German limewood sculptors of his time. Stoss developed a uniquely expressive and personal style in this material, while also achieving considerable success working in other woods and stone. It is likely that he came from an artistic family as he had at least one brother, Matthias Stoss (b Horb, 1482; d Kraków, 1540), who was a goldsmith, and six of his sons also worked as artists: Florian Stoss (c. 1480/85–c. 1543) was a goldsmith working in Görlitz; Stanislas Stoss (d Kraków, 1527–8), Veit Stoss the younger (b Nuremberg; d Kronstadt, before 1531), and Willibald Stoss (d Schweinfurt, 1573) were sculptors; Johannes Stoss earned his living as a painter and sculptor in Schässburg; while ...


Eva Zimmermann


(fl 1498; d probably in Speyer or Heilbronn, between 13 and March 27, 1509).

German sculptor. His relationship to Conrat Sifer is uncertain. In his youth he was probably involved in the decoration of the Worms Cathedral cloister (begun 1484). His hand is evident in some of the figures in the sandstone relief of the Entombment (c. 1490, now in the cathedral). Syfer’s masterpiece as a wood-carver is the high altarpiece dated 1498 in St Kilian, Heilbronn. Although documentary evidence is lacking, the style is the same as some stone carvings in Stuttgart and Speyer that are certainly by Hans Syfer. It is still conceived as a Late Gothic winged altarpiece: in the central panel the large standing figures and the statuettes and busts above them are set in niches beneath canopies made up of elaborate branch-work (only the figures and wing reliefs are original; the architectural parts are replacements of those destroyed in World War II). The slightly S-shaped structure of the figures and their crumpled drapery are also in the Late Gothic tradition, though the formal language already appears much quieter. However, the powerful rounded plasticity and self-assured expression of some of the heads is new....



(b ?Regensburg, ?1448; d ?Regensburg, ?1518).

German sculptor. He was the most important Late Gothic sculptor in Salzburg, where he was granted citizenship on 18 October 1479. Despite his probable origins in Regensburg (Martin Valkenauer, his father (?), is documented in 1465 in Regensburg), he worked in a tradition of tomb sculpture found in Salzburg, Wiener Neustadt, and Vienna. The artists who influenced him most were Master E. S. and Nicolaus Gerhaert.

Valkenauer’s first tomb slab was that of Lukas Lamprechtshauser (shortly before 1480; Regensburg, St Blasius). The figures of the Virgin and saints are developed using the whole space between the background and the projecting canopy. The same is true of the figures on two epitaphs: that of Kunz Horn (c. 1502; Nuremberg, St Lorenz), where the enthroned Christ is surrounded by angels of different sizes and adored by Horn and his wife, and the Keutschach epitaph (Maria Saal, Pilgrimage Church). Similarities between the head of God the Father on both these epitaphs and the limewood reliquary bust of ...


(b diocese of Langres, c. 1475; d Toledo, Nov 10, 1542).

Burgundian sculptor and architect, active in Spain . In July 1498 he arrived in Burgos, where he produced three panel reliefs in Briviesca stone (found in the quarries in Burgos) for the retrochoir of the cathedral, including the Road to Calvary. This project is often considered the first Renaissance work in Spain because of the obvious influence of Italian art of the Quattrocento in the grouping and rigidity of the figures. With Andrés de Nájera, a local sculptor, Vigarny was also engaged to make the choir-stalls for the cathedral and to undertake other minor architectural projects there. His reputation reached Toledo, where Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, of whom he later carved a beautiful alabaster medallion (c. 1518; Madrid, U. Complutense), secured him a position working under Enrique Egas and Pedro Gumiel on the main altarpiece of Toledo Cathedral. Under their direction, and in the company of the many other Spanish artists employed on the carving and gilding of the large larchwood altarpiece (...